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COST ACCOUNTING
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COST ACCOUNTING

Table of Contents
Acknowledgment......................................................................................................................iii
Table of Contents.......................................................................................................................v
CHAPTER ONE...........................................................................................................................1
NATURE AND PURPOSE OF COST ACCOUNTING.................................................................3
CHAPTER TWO.........................................................................................................................21
COST CLASSIFICATION...........................................................................................................23
CHAPTER THREE.....................................................................................................................41
COST ESTIMATION...................................................................................................................43
CHAPTER FOUR.......................................................................................................................65
MATERIAL COSTS....................................................................................................................67
CHAPTER FIVE.......................................................................................................................101
LABOUR COSTS.....................................................................................................................103
CHAPTER SIX.........................................................................................................................129
OVERHEAD COSTS................................................................................................................131
CHAPTER SEVEN...................................................................................................................165
COST BOOK KEEPING...........................................................................................................167
CHAPTER EIGHT....................................................................................................................193
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING...........................................................................195
CHAPTER NINE.......................................................................................................................253
COSTING SYSTEMS...............................................................................................................255
CHAPTER TEN........................................................................................................................315
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL.........................................................................317
CHAPTER ELEVEN.................................................................................................................355
STANDARD COSTING............................................................................................................357
CHAPTER TWELVE................................................................................................................373
VARIANCE ANALYSIS............................................................................................................375
CHAPTER THIRTEEN.............................................................................................................411
COST MANAGEMENT............................................................................................................413
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS.....................................................................433
REFERENCES........................................................................................................................483
GLOSSARY............................................................................................................................487
INDEX.....................................................................................................................................495
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COST ACCOUNTING
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CHAPTER ONE
NATURE AND PURPOSE OF
COST ACCOUNTING
S TSUTDUYD YT ETXETX T
2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
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CHAPTER ONE
NATURE AND PURPOSE OF COST ACCOUNTING
OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• Define cost accounting
• Distinguish between cost accounting and other accounting subjects such as financial
accounting and management accounting based on various aspects
• Define the various cost accounting terminologies
• Explain the role of a cost accounting department in an organization
• Explain the design and operation of a Cost and Management Accounting system
• Explain the relationship between nature of business enterprise and cost accounting
• Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative information
• Explain the features of an effective cost center framework
INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the basic concepts of cost accounting, terminologies
and distinguish cost accounting from financial accounting. It is aimed at making it clear on what
cost accounting is all about and introduce some of the terminologies used in the chapters that
follow.
First, we will discuss the nature of cost accounting and budgeting and then introduce the key cost
accounting terminologies, which will act as the base for other discussions.
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Cost: Cost is simply a quantification or measurement of the economic sacrifice made to achieve
a given objective. It is, therefore, a measurement of the amount of resources sacrificed in attaining
a specified goal
Cost object or cost unit: This is an activity for which a separate measure of cost is desired.
Cost Accountant: He/she is a member of the accounting department responsible for collecting
product costs and preparing accurate and timely reports to evaluate and control company
operations.
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Cost Analysis: This is an activity that uses engineering, time and motion studies, timekeeper’s
records and planning schedules from production supervisors.
Cost center: This may be defined as any point at which costs are gathered in order to control
cost, fix responsibility and enable costs to be recharged on an equitable basis
EXAM CONTEXT
You must be prepared to answer questions touching on definition of cost accounting terminologies
and distinguish cost accounting from other disciplines of accounting such as management and
tax accounting. Questions normally set from this section are theoretical and thus you need to
understand the theory to be able to answer them well.
INDUSTRY CONTEXT
The applicability of this topic comes in handy when holding discussions with other managers in
a firm or during meetings. You need to understand the cost accounting terminologies and how
it relates to other disciplines for effective relay of the messages intended for managers of other
fields.
DEFINITION OF COST ACCOUNTING
In general, cost accounting is a field of accounting that measures, records and reports information
about costs. It involves the comprehensive set of principles, methods and techniques to determine
an appropriate analysis of costs to suit the various parts of organizational structure within the
enterprise.
There is, however, no watertight definition for cost accounting. Various authorities and scholars
have gone ahead to give their definitions. Some of the definitions include:
“That part of management accounting, which establishes budgets and standard costs
and actual costs of operations, processes, departments or products and the analysis
of variances, profitability or social use of funds.” (Chartered Institute of Management
Accountants - CIMA).
“That which identities, defines, measures, reports and analyzes the various elements of
direct and indirect costs associated with producing and marketing goods and services.
Cost accounting also measures performance, product quality and productivity.” (Letricia
Gayle Rayburn).
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“A systematic process of collecting, summarizing and recording data regarding the
various resources and activities in a firm so as to calculate the basis of production costs
used in financial accounting or making other relevant decisions in a firm.” (Horngren
c.T)
Cost accounting is broad and extends beyond calculating production costs for inventory
valuation, which government-reporting requirements largely dictate. However, accountants do
not allow external reporting requirements to determine how they measure and control internal
organization’s activities. In fact, the focus of cost accounting is shifting from inventory valuation
for financial reporting to costing for decision-making.
The main objective of cost accounting is communicating financial information to management for
planning, evaluating and controlling performance, and to assist management to make decisions
that are more informed. Its data are used by managers to guide their decisions.
From the definitions above, we can generally say that cost accounting is concerned
with:
§ Cost planning and cost control of activities of operations since it aims at improving
efficiency by controlling and reducing costs
§ Resource allocation decisions, for instance, production, pricing and product costing
§ Performance measurement and evaluation of managerial performance; this is done
through variance analysis, comparing actual output with the standard or budgeted
output.
§ Formulation of overall strategies and long range plans; Cost accounting will be useful
in forecasting
Cost accounting aims at providing useful information to decision makers to enable them make
better decisions. It helps them in preparing various statements such as cash budgets and
performance reports, cost data collection and application of costs to products and services.
Cost Accounting Terms
a) Cost
A cost is simply a quantification or measurement of the economic sacrifice made to
achieve a given objective. It is, therefore, a measurement of the amount of resources
sacrificed in attaining a specified goal. For a product, cost represents the monetary
measurement of resources used such as materials, labor and overheads. For a service,
cost is the monetary sacrifice made to provide the service. Accountants generally use
cost with other descriptive terms, for example, historical, product, prime, labour or
material. Each of these terms defines some characteristic of the cost measurement
process or an aspect of the object being measured.
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b) Cost object or cost unit
This is an activity for which a separate measure of costs is desired. Examples include
cost of providing a service to a client or cost of manufacturing a specific product or
undertaking a specific assignment, and cost of running an organizational segment. In
other words, a cost object/cost unit is the quantitative unit of the product or service in
relation to which costs are ascertained. It is determined by the nature of the business
enterprise.
c) Cost accountant
He/she is a member of the accounting department responsible for collecting product
costs and preparing accurate and timely reports to evaluate and control company
operations. He/she assembles, classifies and summarizes financial and economic data
on the production and pricing of goods and services. Some of the roles that he plays in
the various aspects of the organization include:
§ Material cost control: this includes tracing materials issued to departments, reporting
of the cost of material wasted (variance analysis) and provision of information about
ordering and holding costs of stocks.
§ Labour cost control: this includes time keeping and payroll operation, establishing of
standard labour cost for various products, monitoring productivity of labour and analysis
of hours worked
§ Overhead cost planning and control: understanding the cost behavior of cost items,
identifying the expenditure on overheads by various departments and establishing the
absorption rate guides.
§ Operational efficiency: this includes ensuring that maximum output is achieved at
minimum cost.
d) Cost analysis
This is an activity that uses engineering, time and motion studies, timekeeper’s
records and planning schedules from production supervisors. Cost analysis techniques
include break-even analysis, comparative cost analysis, capital expenditure analysis
and budgeting techniques. After determining what is actually happening, accountants
should identify available alternatives. Professional judgment is then needed to apply
and interpret the results of each costing technique.
e) Cost benefit approach
This is the primary criterion for choosing among alternative accounting approaches. In
a company, there is a direct relationship between the amount of time and the funds that
management is willing to spend on cost analysis and the degree of reliability desired.
If a company wants detailed records with a high degree of accuracy, managers should
provide additional time and money for compiling and maintaining cost information.
Managers should only use cost analysis and control techniques when anticipated
benefits in helping achieve management goals exceed the cost.
f) Responsibility center
This is a part of the organization in which a manager who has a budget is made
responsible for the plans and the resulting information on the performance of the plans.
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Responsibility accounting is the use of budgeting with standard costing. Responsibility
center makes it necessary for the organization to be organized with clear statements of
the responsibilities of each manager who has a budget. The process of responsibility
center enables management by exception principle to be practised. This is where a
subordinate is given a clearly defined role with the requisite authority and resources to
carry out that part of the overall plan assigned, and if activities do not proceed according
to plan, the variations are reported to a higher authority. There are various types of
responsibility centers, namely, cost center, revenue center, profit center and investment
center, among others.
g) Cost center
This refers to a production or service department in an organization where costs are
incurred for the production of goods and services. Cost centers accumulate costs directly
incurred and apportioned in order to ascertain the total cost of a department or center
for a particular period. Cost centers ascertain costs and relate to cost units for control
purposes. They help in ascertaining the total cost incurred in each center, determining
whether the cost centers are working efficiently, controlling costs effectively, allocating
costs to appropriate departments or cost units and, planning the activities of a particular
department and improving their performance.
ROLE OF COST ACCOUNTING IN MANAGEMENT
Fast forward:
Cost accounting is useful and applicable in business organizations and its environment in many
ways.
Cost accounting is utilized for a number of purposes, some of which are briefly described
in the following points:
a) Accounting for costs
This may be seen as a record keeping or score-keeping role. Information must be
gathered and analyzed in a manner which will help in planning, controlling and decision
making
b) Planning and budgeting
This involves the quantification of plans for future operations of the enterprise; such
plans may be for the long or short term, for the enterprise as a whole or for the individual
aspects of the enterprise.
c) Control of operations of the enterprise
Control may be assisted by the comparison of actual cost information with that included
in the plan. Any differences between planned and actual events can be investigated
and corrective action implemented as appropriate
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d) Decision making
Cost accounting information assists in the making of decisions about future operations
of the enterprise; such decisions making may be assisted by the information from cost
techniques and cost-volume-profit analysis.
e) Resource allocation decisions
For example product pricing in determining whether to accept or reject jobs. This is
based on cost and revenue implications of the relevant decisions
f) Performance evaluation
Cost accounting information is used to measure and evaluate actual performance so as
to make a decision of the degree of optimality or efficiency of resource utilization.
SCOPE OF COST ACCOUNTING
As part of their jobs, cost accountants interpret results, report them to management and provide
analyses that assist decision-making in the following departments:
a) Manufacturing
Cost accountants work closely with production personnel to measure and report
manufacturing costs. The efficiency of the production departments in scheduling and
transforming materials into finished units is evaluated for improvements.
b) Engineering
Cost accountants and engineers translate specifications for new products into estimated
costs; by comparing estimated costs with projected sales prices, they help management
decide whether manufacturing a product will be profitable.
c) Systems design
Cost accountants are becoming more involved in designing computer integrated
manufacturing (CIM) systems and databases corresponding to cost accounting needs.
The idea is for cost accountants, engineers and system designers to develop a flexible
production process responding swiftly to market needs
d) Treasury
The treasurer uses budgets and related accounting reports developed by cost
accountants to forecast cash and working capital requirements. Detailed cash reports
indicate where there are excess funds to invest or where cash deficits exist and need
to be financed.
e) Financial accounting
Cost accountants work closely with financial accountants who use cost information in
valuing inventory for external reporting and income determination purposes.
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f) Marketing
Marketing involves the cost accountant during the product innovation stage, the
manufacturing planning stage and the sales process. The marketing department
develops sales forecast to facilitate preparing a products manufacturing schedule.
Cost estimates, competition, supply, demand, environmental influences and the state of
technology determines the sales price that the product will be offered and will command
in the market.
g) Personnel
Personnel department administers the wage rate and pay methods used in calculating
each employees pay. This department maintains adequate labour records for legal and
cost analysis purposes.
At this point, it cannot be over-emphasized that cost accounting is simply an information
system designed to produce information to assist the management of an organization
in planning and controlling the organization’s activities. It also assists the management
to make informed decisions so as to enable the organization to operate at maximum
effectiveness and efficiency.
ROLE OF COST ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT
The cost accounting department is responsible for keeping cost accounting records. This includes
gathering, compiling and communicating a variety of information regarding an organization’s cost
activities. For the records kept to be of proper use for the managerial functions, they should
§ analyze production, administration, selling and distribution costs in such a way as to
help management reach decisions required.
§ be used to produce periodic performance statements or control reports which are
necessary to the management for control purposes.
§ the cost accounting system should be capable of analyzing
o past costs for profit measurement and stock valuation purposes
o future costs of planning and decision making
Information obtained may be non-mutually exclusive in nature. This means that information
gathered as part of the management information system may be used in two or more subsystems
for differing purposes. An example of this information is with regard to the amount and location of
work in progress: (work in progress refers to partly completed units of products where a product
passes through a number of operations and processes before being passed into finished goods
store or to the customer). Work in progress information may be used by:
a) Production planning department; in order to monitor the progress of parts of an order
through the production process and to instigate action to speed up the completion of
slow moving parts of an order.
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b) Quality control department; in comparing one batch of product with another in
highlighting the incidences of process losses and their location.
c) Cost management department; in the quantification and valuation of actual losses as
compared to the level originally allowed for in the business plan.
d) Financial accounting department; in the valuation of work in progress for balance
sheet purposes and for purposes of determining the cost of sales in the income
statement.
Tutorial note:
Business Management involves planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling an
organization’s activities so as to meet a specified objective, usually profit maximization. The
function of managing a business’ activities is entrusted to the managers of the business. For the
managers to maximize profits, they must minimize the entire business’ costs. They, therefore,
need to track all costs as they are incurred and recovered via the organization’s activities. To
get this information as it happens (LIVE), they need an effective an efficient ‘information system’
referred to as cost accounting. It will, therefore, be appreciated that if an organization’s cost
accounting information system fails, managers cannot manage it efficiently and effectively.
COST ACCOUNTING AND OTHER ACCOUNTING
SUBJECTS
Accounting can be described as a specialized information system that is used for purposes of
decision making by the management of the organization and other users such as tax authorities,
investors, creditors and the public. Accounting is broadly divided into Financial Accounting and
Management Accounting.
Cost accounting and Management accounting distinguished
CIMA defines management accounting as “provision of information required by the management
for such purposes as formulation of policies, planning and controlling the activities of the
enterprise, decision making on the alternative courses of action, disclosure to those external
to the entity (shareholders and others), disclosure to employees and safeguarding assets. Cost
accounting and management accounting have basically the same functions.
Management accounting is part of accounting that relates to the provision of financial information
to people and managers within the organization to aid in the execution of management functions:
planning, organizing, controlling, evaluation of performance and decision making such as make/
buy decisions. It involves professional skills and knowledge. In particular, it involves preparation
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and presentation of information to all levels of management in the organization. The information
generated by management accounting is, therefore, for internal uses and is not guided by any
standards or legal requirements.
Management Accounting, unlike financial accounting, is proactive i.e. it is future-oriented. In a
nutshell, cost accounting enables a business to, not only find out what various jobs or processes
have cost, but also what they should have cost. It indicates where losses are occurring before
the work is finished and therefore corrective action can be undertaken. However, there is a very
slim distinction between Cost accounting and Management accounting. In fact, cost accounting
is part of management accounting.
Cost accounting and Financial accounting distinguished
Fast forward:
Cost accounting and financial accounting have been distinguished under various subtopics.
Starting with their definition to the mode of accounting, regulation and information used.
Financial Accounting is concerned with provision of information to parties outside the
organization. This is the analysis, classification and recording of financial transactions and the
ascertainment of how such information will be reported to the various users. It involves the
development of general-purpose financial statements largely for external reporting. It requires
that costs should be matched with revenues in order to calculate the profits for the period under
consideration.
These statements are developed in accordance with standards imposed by the public (through
the professional accounting bodies such as the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Kenya
(ICPAK) and the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) as well as the requirements
of the Companies Act Chapter 486.
Cost accounting and financial accounting are distinguishable in various aspects. The major
differences between the two branches of accounting are:
a) Generally accepted accounting principles
There are a number of accounting standards that are followed in producing accounting
information. Financial statements must be prepared in accordance with the Generally
Accepted Accounting Principles applicable in the industry in which the firm operates.
The statements produced are intended for use by external users. Such users require
assurance that the information they are receiving has been prepared with some
common set of ground rules. Otherwise, there could exist an opportunity of fraud or
misinterpretation which would destroy their confidence in the financial statements.
However, in cost accounting, managers are not governed by any standards or principles.
They use a number of techniques, which include budgeting, standard costing, marginal
costing and cost-volume-profit analysis. They set their own ground rules.
b) Statutory requirement
Financial accounting is mandatory. It is governed by the Companies Act Cap 486, which
requires that a number of accounting records be kept and made available, for instance,
NATURE AND PURPOSE OF COST ACCOUNTING
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a summary of cash flows. For limited companies, audited financial statements must be
produced, which in the opinion of the auditor, portray a true and fair view.
Cost and management accounting is not mandatory. It is entirely optional. Information
prepared by the managers may or may not be produced depending on the managers’
intention. In addition, managers may or may fail to create a cost accounting
department.
c) Focus on segments of the organization
Financial accounting focuses on the organization as a whole. It is primarily concerned
with the reporting of business activities for the company as a whole.
On the contrary, cost accounting focuses less on the whole and more on the parts
or segments of the company. It lays emphasis on segments of the business while
conducting analysis; examination of job, process, product or service. Examples of
segments include departments, product lines and company divisions.
d) Emphasis on non-monetary measures
Non-monetary measures are used in the interpretation of accounting statements,
for example, expressing gross profit as a percentage of sales revenue to obtain the
markup. Thus, monetary base is predominant in financial accounting. However, in cost
accounting, there will be greater use of non-monetary measures. Managers lay more
emphasis on non-monetary measures. These include areas like materials requirement
and labour input, material losses, machine efficiency, e.t.c.
e) Futuristic cost accounting versus historical financial accounting
Cost accounting is futuristic in that it focuses on the future thus necessitating managers
to have a strong future orientation. Managers concentrate more on planning, as it is
the key to success. Without proper plans, most of the activities of the company may
be bound to fail. Nevertheless, historical information is crucial in the planning process.
Managers analyze historical information and use it in the planning process. Use of
historical information in forecasting poses a great challenge since managers cannot
simply assume that the future will be simply a reflection of the past. Changes taking
place, however, demand managers planning framework be built in large part of estimated
data that may or may not be a reflection of past experience.
In financial accounting, there is the statutory requirement for provision of historical data
from which accounting statements may be prepared. Such statements may be used in
the forecasting of future trends for use by potential investors or investment analysts.
f) Precision and accuracy of information provided
Financial accounting lays more emphasis on precision and accuracy of data to the
nearest cent except in subjective areas such as determination of depreciation and other
allowances.
On the contrary, in cost accounting, accuracy of information will tend to vary with
the circumstances. For instance, Management Reports may summarize figures to
the nearest thousand shilling whereas the material cost per unit of a product may be
expressed to four decimal places. At times, cost accounting recognizes the need for
good estimates and approximations rather than for numbers, which are accurate to
the last, penny. When information is needed, speed becomes more important than
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precision. The faster the information is obtained, the faster the problems are attended
to and resolved. Thus, the manager is often willing to trade off some accuracy for
information that is immediately available.
g) Is accounting a means to an end or an end in itself?
Financial accounting is an end in itself in so far as it fulfils the statutory requirements in
relation to accounting records and the publication of financial accounting statements. It
is also a means to an end in that it provides an overview of the business, which may be
interpreted by the various users of accounting information, which the Companies Act
seeks to protect. Cost and management accounting is a means to an end. It may be
used to assist management in future planning, control and decision-making required for
the efficient implementation of the objectives of the enterprise and the strategies, which
will best lead to achievement of these objects.
h) To what extent does the discipline draw from other disciplines?
Cost and Management accounting draw heavily from other disciplines for instance
finance, statistics, operation research and organizational behavior. This forms a strong
interdisciplinary network. Cost accounting extends beyond the boundaries of traditional
accounting. The external sources give managerial accounting a strong interdisciplinary
flavor.
i) For what use is information generated intended?
Cost accounting system provides information to be used internally in an organization.
That means much of the information that a manager needs would be confusing or
valueless to external stakeholders. The manager uses information derived from the
cost and management accounting system to direct day-to-day operations, plan the
future, solve problems and make decisions.
On the other hand, financial accounting provides information for external use. Users of
financial accounting information include stockbrokers, the government, potential and
existing investors and customers.
j) What are the pertinent qualities of the information generated from the system?
Financial accounting data are expected to be objectively determined and verifiable
since they are intended for external use.
The manager is more concerned about receiving relevant and flexible information than
completely objective and verifiable information. In cost accounting, relevance and
objectivity may be viewed as a matter of secondary importance.
In summary, the comparison and contrast can be summarized in the table below:
Cost and management accounting Financial accounting
1
Cost accounting is not governed by any
principles or concepts.
Financial Accounting is highly regulated
and is governed by the Generally
Accepted Accounting Principles.
2
Cost accounting is not mandatory, the
management may practice it or not
Financial management is a statutory
requirement. It is mandatory.
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3.
Cost accounting looks at segments of the
organization and the organization as a
whole.
Financial accounting looks at the
organization as a whole. It is less
concerned with segmental performance.
4
Cost accounting is futuristic; it places
more emphasis on the future.
Financial accounting is historical in that it
reports what has already taken place.
5.
Cost accounting places less emphasis
on precision and more emphasis on nonmonetary
data.
Financial accounting places more
emphasis on monetary data and precision
6.
Cost accounting draws heavily from other
disciplines such as economics, finance,
statistics and operation research.
Financial accounting draws little if any
from other disciplines. It is governed by
the statutes and the Generally Accepted
Accounting Principles
7.
Cost and management accounting
provides data for internal use by
management.
Financial accounting provides data for
external uses.
8
Cost accounting emphasizes the
relevance and flexibility of data.
Financial accounting emphasizes more
on objectivity and verifiability of data.
SELECTION OF AN IDEAL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM
A system is a set of interdependent parts, which together form a unitary whole that performs
certain functions. A number of sub systems make up the whole. In this context of an organization,
a management information system may be seen as the overall system with a number of subsystems
including the cost and management accounting system that provide the information to
management for purposes of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the organization’s
activities so as to achieve corporate goals, including profit maximization.
A number of features and factors must be taken into account when designing a cost and
management accounting system. These are:
a) Preliminary investigations must be made before a system is installed. This helps to
disclose weaknesses and inefficiencies.
b) For accuracy of cost records, a system of material cost, labour cost and production
overheads cost is essential
c) Nature of the business enterprise must be put into consideration when designing the
cost accounting system. The system developed should be practical and must suit the
business
d) The system should be cost effective in that the benefits derived from the system must
be greater than the cost of running it.
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The following factors must be taken into account before finalizing the cost accounting
system design
a) The system must be designed in such a way as to meet the managerial information needs.
There should be no duplication in reporting. Only relevant management information
should be provided. Information is relevant if it has an impact on the decision made by
the management.
b) The factory layout and production sequence. This is important for the identification of
the sequence of production i.e. the starting and the ending points.
c) Control exercised over production; the cost data must focus on specific areas of control
so that the responsibility of any variances between the actual and the standard costs
can be identified with an individual manager or department.
d) Nature of raw materials used affect the system adopted. This is because it affects the
recording and issuance of raw materials and the method of pricing
e) The deployment of workers, who may work as a team or as individuals. This affects
the method of remuneration and the analysis of time worked. For instance, where
employees work as a team, there may be group bonus awards, which do not exist in
situations where employees work individually.
f) Key personnel and office staff; their cooperation is vital for the success of the system.
In addition, the system needs to be simple and easy to understand to enhance
acceptability
g) Relative size of cost element; it is only reasonable to analyze cost elements with a
significant value. Cost elements of insignificant value may be left out of the analysis
depending on the composition of the cost items
h) Need for uniformity; a business needs to observe the industrial norms and thus follow
the industrial practices as regards the accounting. If the business, for instance, belongs
to a trade association, it will need to follow the association’s recommendation on cost
accounting principles and in order to facilitate comparison of its data with that of other
businesses in the industry.
i) The cost benefit analysis should be carried out and it is only reasonable to run a system
whose benefits are more than the costs incurred in terms of money, time spent in
designing, installing, testing, running and maintaining the cost accounting system.
j) The system should be capable of adapting to changing conditions. It should be logical
and simple. Flexibility is vital to any accounting system bearing in mind that the
organization exists in an open system. It is only a subsystem of a larger system.
k) Periodical upgrade of the system is crucial to avoid the danger of going obsolete as the
world is rapidly changing.
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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NATURE OF THE
BUSINESS ENTERPRISE AND COST ACCOUNTING
Fast forward:
Cost accounting method used depends on the nature of the business besides other factors.
The relationship between cost accounting and the nature of the business stems from the fact
that the accumulation of costs into cost centers is fully dependent on the nature of the business
enterprise. What is a cost center in one business enterprise may not be a cost center in another
business enterprise.
The business enterprise may be such that:
(a) Individual orders are received from customers for work which is undertaken according
to the specific requests of the customer (specific order costing).
(b) Output is the result of a series of continuous operations or processes (process
costing)
(c) A service is provided to the customer (operation/service costing).
The costing and management accounting system is designed and operated such that costs
can be identified and accumulated for each unit of output. The costs are then accumulated for
the various cost centers and further analysis done to produce useful information for planning,
controlling, decision-making and performance evaluation.
A Cost Center Framework/Approach in Cost Accounting
Cost accounting is based on the concept or framework of cost centers, i.e. all the costs incurred
during the production process have to be identified and accumulated around certain points of the
production process, referred to as cost centers.
A cost center may be defined as ‘any point at which costs are gathered in order to control
cost, fix responsibility and enable costs to be recharged on an equitable basis. Each cost will
be the responsibility of one management member and will have costs charged to it and also
costs recharged from it if such costs are incurred for purposes of offering a service to other cost
centers.
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Summary of features of an effective cost center framework
In establishing cost centers, an organization should consider the following points:
(a) Clear definition of the cost center boundaries: This should ensure that there is no
overlapping of the boundaries defined in two or more centers and that no gaps exist
where some aspect of the business, which incurs cost, is not contained in a cost
center.
(b) A clear link with the manager responsible so as to hold someone responsible for the
costs incurred in a cost centre.
(c) Costs should be analyzed into clearly defined categories in order to ensure that planned
and actual expenditure may be analyzed in the same way.
(d) The cost centers should enable the effective and efficient planning, directing and control
of the organization’s activities, thereby enabling it achieve its objectives.
CHAPTER SUMMARY
There is no watertight definition of cost accounting. CIMA defines cost accounting as that part
of management accounting which establishes budgets and standard costs and actual costs of
operations, processes, departments or products and the analysis of variances, profitability or
social use of funds”
Cost accounting is broad and extends beyond calculating production costs for inventory valuation,
which government-reporting requirements largely dictate.
Cost accounting is applicable in types of activities, manufacturing and non-manufacturing, in
which monetary value is involved. It enhances efficient operations in various sectors.
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. State two definitions of cost accounting.
2. Highlight the various distinctions between cost accounting and financial accounting
3. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative information.
4. Highlight the areas in which cost accounting may be useful in an organization
5. Define a cost center
NATURE AND PURPOSE OF COST ACCOUNTING
1 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
ANSWERS TO THE CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Some of the definitions include.
“That part of management accounting which establishes budgets and standard costs
and actual costs of operations, processes, departments or products and the analysis
of variances, profitability or social use of funds” (Chartered Institute of Management
Accountants - CIMA)”
“That which identities, defines, measures, reports and analyses the various elements of
direct and indirect costs associated with producing and marketing goods and services.
Cost accounting also measures performance, product quality and productivity” (Letricia
Gayle Rayburn)”
“A systematic process of collecting, summarizing and recording data regarding the
various resources and activities in a firm so as to calculate the basis of production costs
used in financial accounting or making other relevant decisions in a firm (Horngren
c.T)
2. Differences between cost accounting and financial accounting can be summarized
under the following:
• Restriction by GAAP
• Statutory requirement
• Focus on segments of the organization
• Emphasis on non-monetary measure
• Futuristic versus historical accounting
• Precision and accuracy of information provided
• Intended use
• Pertinent qualities of information generated from the system
3. Quantitative is that which may be measured in monetary terms or other physical units e.g.
material may be expressed as Shs.1000 or 250 kilos. It is easily objectively expressed.
Qualitative information is that information that cannot be objectively expressed
4. Areas where cost accounting may be useful in an organization include product pricing,
sensitivity analysis, analysis of performance, and production planning and decisionmaking.
5. A cost center is any point at which costs are gathered in order to control cost, fix
responsibility and enable costs to be recharged on an equitable basis.
PAST PAPER ANALYSIS
12/02 Q6; 12/01 Q7(a); 12/00 Q6; 05/99 Q7(a); 12/97 Q7; 12/95 Q6; 06/93 Q7(d), 11/92 Q6;
19
S T U D Y T E X T
EXAM QUESTIONS
Question one
Explain the areas in which cost accounting may be useful in an organization (10 marks)
Question two
Identify the types of responsibility centers used in responsibility accounting and discuss how the
performance of each responsibility centre type might be measured. (20 marks)
Question three
Discuss controllable and non-controllable factors (10 marks)
CASE STUDY
Coordination between operational and strategic planning is very essential in any organization, but
lack of it may result in unrealistic plans, inconsistent goals, poor communication and inadequate
performance measurement.
In the context of strategic planning goal of sustaining competitive advantage at minimum cost
through speedy delivery of quality products to clients, key features or characteristics, which a
company Y should incorporate in each of strategic planning and operational planning include:
1. Unrealistic operational plan will force staff to try hard with few resources. Mistakes and
failure are almost inevitable. This means poor quality products; costs include lost sales,
arranging for returns, and time wasted dealing with complaints and rectification work.
Over-ambitions plan may also mean that more stocks are produced than an organization
could realistically expect to sell (meaning the costs of written-offs, opportunity costs of
wasted production resources and unnecessary stock holding cost are incurred).
2. Inconsistent strategic planning and operational planning goals may mean that additional
cost is incurred. For example, an operational plan may require additional inspection
point in a production process so as to ensure that quality products are delivered to
customers. The resulting extra costs will be at odds with the strategic planning goal of
minimum costs.
3. Poor communication between the senior management who set strategic goals and lower
level operational management could mean that operational managers are unaware
of the strategic planning goal of sustaining competitive advantage at minimum cost
NATURE AND PURPOSE OF COST ACCOUNTING
2 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
through speedy delivery of quality products to customers. Some operational managers
may, therefore, choose to focus on quality of products while others attempt to produce
as many product as possible as quickly as they can; still others will simply keep their
heads down and do as little as possible. This will lead to lack of co-ordination; there
will be bottlenecks in some operational areas, needing expensive extra resources in the
short term, and wasteful idle time in other areas.
4. Inadequate performance measurement will mean that the organization has little idea
of which area is performing well and that which needs attention. If quality of products
and speed of delivery are the main source of competitive advantage, a business needs
to know how good it is in the two. For example, if an organization measures only
conventional accounting results it will know how much stock it has and how much it has
spent on ‘carried out’. It will not know the opportunity cost of cancelled sales though not
having stock available when needed or not being able to deliver it on time.
Otherwise, repairs and maintenance costs of machinery would vary with the level of
activity. But machines would still need a certain level of maintenance even if they were
not being used,(the company might, on the other hand, be considering selling the
machinery, accounts of which may not have been taken).
Finally, the costs of buying in may also be highly subjective. Accounts may not have been
taken of costs such as increases or decreases in time spent delivering the components
(from abroad perhaps) or complaints or costs resulting from badly made component.
It is, therefore, obvious that the behavior of costs associated with a decision must be
fully understood and their relevance to that decision ascertained before the decision is
finally made.
21
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER ONE
COST CLASSIFICATION
S T U D Y T E X T
TWO
S T U D Y T E X T
2 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
23
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER TWO
COST CLASSIFICATION
OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• Define cost classification and understand the basis of cost classification, especially the
cost objectives
• Classify a specific cost as either manufacturing or non-manufacturing and whether
direct or indirect.
• Understand the behavioral classification of costs and be able to classify various costs
according to their behavior, either variable or fixed, and draw cost graphs for the various
costs
• Understand the controllable and non-controllable costs and their relevance in cost
decision making.
• Classify costs according to their functions.
• Explain the difference between product and period costs.
INTRODUCTION
This chapter is aimed at introducing the most important concepts applicable in all the other chapters.
We look at the various cost classifications based on the various basis of classification.
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Prime cost: this is a summation of all direct costs incurred in production. It comprises direct
material and direct labour costs and direct expenses.
Variable cost: a cost that changes in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity.
Fixed cost: a cost that does not change with the level of output - also called autonomous cost
Direct costs: are costs that can be traced specifically and identified to the end product of the
production process without any extra cost or inconvenience
2 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Indirect costs: are costs that will not be directly attributable to a specific product. They are
regarded as overheads.
Marginal cost: it represents the additional cost of producing an extra unit of output.
EXAM CONTEXT
This topic is normally examined because it is the basis on which flexible budgets, among
other statements, are prepared. It provides the ground on which to understand various costing
techniques. The examiner may not set questions directly from this topic but from topics that
borrow significantly from cost classification topic.
INDUSTRY CONTEXT
Cost classification is important as management accountants apply it when preparing budgets
and carrying out sensitivity analysis. The above are just but a few applications.
Fast forward:
Costs are classified for various purposes or reasons. There is an objective for each classification.
A cost can fall into more than one classification based on the objective.
Cost classification may be defined as ‘the arrangement of cost items in a logical sequence having
regard to their nature and purpose to be fulfilled’. Costs are classified according to the cost
objectives. Cost objective is the activity for which a separate measure of cost is desired. They
include, cost stock valuation, cost for decision-making and cost for control purposes. The table
below shows a summary of cost classifications given cost objectives:
Cost objective Possible classification
1. Stock valuation • Manufacturing and non-manufacturing costs
• Period and product costs
• Direct and indirect costs
2. Decision making • Cost behavior: Variable, fixed, semi variable,
• Relevance: opportunity, sunk cost, historical cost,
standard costs
3. Control purposes • Controllable and non-controllable
• Avoidable and non avoidable
25
S T U D Y T E X T
MANUFACTURING AND NON-MANUFACTURING COSTS:
Manufacturing costs
These are the costs incurred to produce a product. Remember that a product refers to both
goods and services. The elements of manufacturing costs are: direct material costs, direct labour
costs; and overhead costs. The elements make up the total cost of a product, as shown below:
Note; direct expenses are expenses incurred for a particular job, project or service e.g. royalties,
franchise, hire of special equipment, materials, labour, e.t.c. they are traceable to that specific
job.
These costs are discussed further in the following sections.
(a) Material costs:
Material refers to all the physical inputs into the production process. They do not only refer
to purely unprocessed materials or natural resources but refers to any material input in the
manufacturing process. Finished goods for one company can be raw materials for another for
instance, packed wheat flour is a finished good for the milling industry but a raw material to the
banking industry.
Raw materials can be classified as direct or indirect
Direct materials are those materials that can be easily traced to a product without any extra cost
or inconvenience. Examples include leather and sole for a shoe making industry.
Direct expenses are expenses incurred for a particular job, project or service e.g.
• Royalties
• Franchise
• Hire of special equipment
Indirect materials are materials that become an integral part of the finished product but may be
traceable into the product only at great cost or inconvenience. Examples include glue and thread
for a shoe making industry.
COST CLASSIFICATION
2 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
An analysis of the various materials input into a production process is as follows
• Raw material
• Components and subassemblies
• Consumable materials
• Maintenance materials
(b) Labour
Labour is the physical and mental human input in a production process. Labour costs can be
divided into direct labour costs and indirect labour costs.
Direct labour cost refers to wages paid to workers who are directly involved in the production of
each item produced. Such labour cost can be physically traced to the creation of product without
undue cost. The cost can be readily identified with specific product or unit. For instance, wages
paid to factory supervisors, forklift truck drivers, factory store room clerks, etc.
Indirect labor costs refer to the wages paid to workers whose efforts cannot be readily identified
with specific product units or batches e.g. laborers paid to maintain all the premises utilized for
production of goods and services.
(c) Overhead costs
They are also called indirect production costs. They include all costs of manufacturing except
direct materials and direct labour. They are incurred for the benefit of all products thus the amount
of overhead allocated can only be an estimate. They include indirect materials, indirect labour and
other indirect expenses that cannot be traced directly to a product. They are at times referred to
as factory burden, factory overheads or manufacturing expense.
Functional classification
Non-manufacturing costs are costs incurred by all activities that support the production of goods
and services. They are administration costs, selling costs and distribution costs. These are
explained as follows:
(a) Production costs: these are costs incurred in the manufacturing process. They include
material costs, labour costs and overhead costs as discussed above.
(b) Administrations cost: Is the sum of costs associated with the overall management of
the enterprise, which cannot be readily identified with one of the major functional areas
e.g. salary of the factory manager would be seen as a production cost but the salary of
the personnel officer will be viewed as administrative cost since the personnel function
does work for all other functions of the enterprise.
27
S T U D Y T E X T
(c) Selling Cost: this is the sum of costs associated with the securing of orders from
customers. Included in this area will be items such as the salaries paid to the salesmen
and expenditure on advertising.
(d) Distribution costs: these are costs associated with warehousing the products and their
delivery to customers. They are incurred in getting the finished product to customers for
instance, depreciation of the distribution van.
(e) Finance costs: These are costs incurred to secure funds to finance the organization’s
activities. These include interests on loans and overdrafts, dividends to shareholders,
interests on debentures etc.
(f) Research and development costs: These are costs that are incurred to invent new
products or to modify the existing ones, as well as costs incurred to acquire more
information on such products.
Classification according to behavior
Definition
Cost behavior means how costs will respond or react to changes in the activity level. i.e. as we
increase output or sales, are the costs rising, dropping or remaining the same. Cost Behavior can
be used to produce various classifications of costs such as:
Variable costs
These are costs that increase or decrease, in total, in direct proportion to changes in the total
level of activity or number of units produced i.e. that portion of the cost of an activity that change
with the level of output. Examples of variable costs include wages paid to casual employees paid
on an hourly basis and fuel cost based on mileage.
COST CLASSIFICATION
Variable Cost per Unit
costs
Activity level
=
!
!
With variable costs, the cost level is zero when production is zero. The cost increases in
proportion to the increase in the activity level because variable cost per unit of activity
level is constant, thus the variable cost function is represented by a straight line from the
Cost
s
Activity Level
Variable costs
Δ Costs
Δ Activity Level
Variable Cost per Unit
costs
Activity level
=
!
!
variable costs, the cost level is zero when production is zero. The cost increases in
proportion to the increase in the activity level because variable cost per unit of activity
constant, thus the variable cost function is represented by a straight line from the
The gradient of the function indicates the variable cost per unit.
cost to be variable, there should be an activity base which drives it. This activity
measure of effort that operates as a casual factor in the incurrence of variable
Thus to control these costs, cost accountants should be well acquainted with the
cost drivers (activity bases) within the organization.
Cost
s
Activity Level
Variable costs
Costs
Δ Activity Level
Variable Cost per Unit
costs
Activity level
=
!
!
With variable costs, the cost level is zero when production is zero. The cost increases in
proportion to the increase in the activity level because variable cost per unit of activity
level is constant, thus the variable cost function is represented by a straight line from the
origin. The gradient of the function indicates the variable cost per unit.
For a cost to be variable, there should be an activity base which drives it. This activity
base is a measure of effort that operates as a casual factor in the incurrence of variable
costs. Thus to control these costs, cost accountants should be well acquainted with the
various cost drivers (activity bases) within the organization.
Semi variable costs
These are costs with both a fixed and variable cost component. The fixed component is
Cost
s
Activity Level
Variable costs
Δ Costs
Δ Activity Level
2 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
With variable costs, the cost level is zero when production is zero. The cost increases in proportion
to the increase in the activity level because variable cost per unit of activity level is constant, thus
the variable cost function is represented by a straight line from the origin. The gradient of the
function indicates the variable cost per unit.
For a cost to be variable, there should be an activity base which drives it. This activity base is
a measure of effort that operates as a casual factor in the incurrence of variable costs. Thus to
control these costs, cost accountants should be well acquainted with the various cost drivers
(activity bases) within the organization.
Semi variable costs
These are costs with both a fixed and variable cost component. The fixed component is that
portion which is constant irrespective of the level of activity. They are variable within certain activity
levels but are fixed within other activity levels, as shown below: examples include salesmen
salaries (salary plus commission, telephone charges, water bills, etc.
Variable Cost per Unit
costs
Activity level
=
!
!
With variable costs, the cost level is zero when production is zero. The cost increases in
proportion to the increase in the activity level because variable cost per unit of activity
level is constant, thus the variable cost function is represented by a straight line from the
origin. The gradient of the function indicates the variable cost per unit.
For a cost to be variable, there should be an activity base which drives it. This activity
base is a measure of effort that operates as a casual factor in the incurrence of variable
costs. Thus to control these costs, cost accountants should be well acquainted with the
various cost drivers (activity bases) within the organization.
Semi variable costs
These are costs with both a fixed and variable cost component. The fixed component is
that portion which is constant irrespective of the level of activity. They are variable within
certain activity levels but are fixed within other activity levels, as shown below: examples
include salesmen salaries (salary plus commission, telephone charges, water bills, etc.
Variable
cost
Fixed Cost
Costs
Activity Level
Total
To illustrate variable cost
Activity Level
Δ Costs
Δ Activity Level
Fixed Costs
These are costs that do not change with the level of output. They are also called
autonomous costs, as they remain the same irrespective of the activity level as shown
below.
To illustrate total fixed costs
Activity level
Costs
Unit
variable
cost
0
To illustrate unit variable cost
29
S T U D Y T E X T
Fixed Costs
These are costs that do not change with the level of output. They are also called autonomous
costs, as they remain the same irrespective of the activity level as shown below.
The classification of cost into fixed and variable costs would only hold within a relevant range
beyond which all costs are variable. The relevant range is the activity limits within which the cost
behavior can be predicted.
Semi Fixed Costs or stepped costs
These are costs which are constant within a certain production band but eventually increase at
some critical point by a constant amount to another fixed level once the output band changes.
This is a clear illustration of how fixed costs behave in the long run. For instance, managers’
salaries are increased from time to time. Each time there is an increase, the costs increase by
the amount added at that critical point.
COST CLASSIFICATION
Fixed Costs
These are costs that do not change with the level of output. They are also called
autonomous costs, as they remain the same irrespective of the activity level as shown
below.
Fixed cost
Activity Level
Unit
Cost
To illustrate unit fixed cost
To illustrate total fixed costs
Fixed cost
Activity
Level
Costs
0
Activity level
Unit
variable
cost
0
3 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Curvilinear
Curvilinear cost functions exist where costs do not vary in direct proportion to the level of activity
thus giving a non linear function.
(i) Convex cost function
Convex direct costs are said to occur where each and extra unit of output causes a
less than proportionate increase in cost. This is especially the case where economies
of scale are in operation. For instance, the more you buy, the more quantity discounts
you secure. Though there is an increase in total material cost, the unit material cost
continues to decrease for each and every additional material unit purchased. The cost
function will appear as follows:
(ii) Concave cost function
Concave cost functions exist where an increase in activity level causes a more than
proportionate increase in costs. For instance, where the rate of variability increases
between two points e.g. wages paid under a bonus scheme. The cost function will be
as shown on the opposite page;
Semi Fixed Costs or stepped costs
These are costs which are constant within a certain production band but eventually
increase at some critical point by a constant amount to another fixed level once the
output band changes. This is a clear illustration of how fixed costs behave in the long
run. For instance, managers’ salaries are increased from time to time. Each time there is
an increase, the costs increase by the amount added at that critical point.
Curvilinear
Curvilinear cost functions exist where costs do not vary in direct proportion to the level of
activity thus giving a non linear function.
(i) Convex cost function
Convex direct costs are said to occur where each and extra unit of output causes a less
than proportionate increase in cost. This is especially the case where economies of
scale are in operation. For instance, the more you buy, the more quantity discounts you
secure. Though there is an increase in total material cost, the unit material cost
continues to decrease for each and every additional material unit purchased. The cost
function will appear as follows:
Fixed
Component
Variable
component
Output
Activity level
Costs
0
To illustrate semi variable costs
(ii) Concave cost function
Concave cost functions exist where an increase in activity level causes a more than
proportionate increase in costs. For instance, where the rate of variability increases
between two points e.g. wages paid under a bonus scheme. The cost function will be as
shown below;
Cos
t
To illustrate concave cost function
Cost
Activity
level
To illustrate convex cost function
0
31
S T U D Y T E X T
Assuming that bonus is awarded at an increasing rate on the following basis
Output Bonus per unit
0 to 100 500
101 to 200 1000
201 to 300 1500
Note that the labour cost is increasing at a more than proportionate increase in output. When the
relationship is plotted on a graph, a concave cost function will be derived.
DIRECT COSTS AND INDIRECT COSTS
Direct costs are costs that can be traced specifically and identified to the end product of the
production process without any extra cost or inconvenience. Direct costs consist of costs that can
be directly attributed to a specific output, product or level of activity. Direct costs include direct
raw materials and direct labour also called prime costs in aggregate.
PRIME COST = Direct Material Cost + Direct Labour Cost + Direct expenses
Indirect costs are costs that will not be directly attributable to a specific product. They are
regarded as overheads. Identification of overheads to specific products is done through cost
allocation and apportionment. They include supervisors’ salaries, rent, electricity, depreciation of
building etc.
In order to trace a cost, it must first be possible, i.e. practical, to measure the service or supply
and then determine the related cost. Note that it is not the nature of the cost but its traceability
that determines whether the cost is direct or indirect.
COST CLASSIFICATION
(ii) Concave cost function
Concave cost functions exist where an increase in activity level causes a more than
proportionate increase in costs. For instance, where the rate of variability increases
between two points e.g. wages paid under a bonus scheme. The cost function will be as
shown below;
Assuming that bonus is awarded at an increasing rate on the following basis
Output Bonus per unit
0 to 100 500
101 to 200 1000
201 to 300 1500
Note that the labour cost is increasing at a more than proportionate increase in output.
When the relationship is plotted on a graph, a concave cost function will be derived.
Direct costs and indirect costs
Direct costs are costs that can be traced specifically and identified to the end
product of the production process without any extra cost or inconvenience. Direct
costs consist of costs that can be directly attributed to a specific output, product
Cos
t
Activity
level
To illustrate concave cost function
0
(ii) Concave cost function
Concave cost functions exist where an increase in activity level causes a more than
proportionate increase in costs. For instance, where the rate of variability increases
between two points e.g. wages paid under a bonus scheme. The cost function will be as
shown below;
Assuming that bonus is awarded at an increasing rate on the following basis
Output Bonus per unit
0 to 100 500
101 to 200 1000
201 to 300 1500
Note that the labour cost is increasing at a more than proportionate increase in output.
When the relationship is plotted on a graph, a concave cost function will be derived.
Direct costs and indirect costs
Direct costs are costs that can be traced specifically and identified to the end
product of the production process without any extra cost or inconvenience. Direct
costs consist of costs that can be directly attributed to a specific output, product
Cos
t
Activity
level
To illustrate concave cost function
0
Cost
Activity
level
To illustrate convex cost function
0
3 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Classification according to controllability
Controllable cost: Refers to the cost, which can be influenced by the actions of a person in
whom authority for such control is vested. Cost is said to be controllable at a particular level of
management if that level has the power to authorize its incurrence. In other words, controllable
costs are costs that are reasonably subject to regulations by the manager with whose responsibility
those costs are being identified. For instance, a decision to hire more personnel to an organization
at affordable rates can be controlled.
Non controllable cost: is a cost which cannot be influenced by a person in whom authority
for such control is vested. They are costs, which cannot be adjusted without affecting the longterm
objective of the firm. For example if the trade union demands an increase in wages, the
increment is a non controllable cost. Similarly, the depreciation of a building is a non-controllable
cost to a manager as he does not have authority over depreciation.
In decision making, only controllable costs are relevant because they can be changed by the
decision maker. There is little or nothing that the decision maker can do about the non-controllable
costs thus they are irrelevant in decision making.
Classification according to normality
Normal costs: these are costs that are expected to be incurred given a specific level of production.
They may also be referred to as standard costs.
Abnormal costs: abnormal costs are costs above the normal costs given a specific level of
activity. For instance, abnormal costs may be incurred in production where the prices of materials
have significantly and adversely varied from the standard.
Classification according to time
Historical costs: these are costs that were incurred at a given time in the past. They are irrelevant
for decision making. An example is acquisition cost of an asset.
Predetermined costs: these are estimated costs that have been estimated for purposes of
decision making. An example of such costs include overheads which are absorbed on a given
predetermined overhead absorption rate. They are not always accurate.
Classification based on identification with inventory
Under this classification, costs are classified according to the function they perform in an
organization. Costs can functionally be classified as:
33
S T U D Y T E X T
(a) Product costs: are all the costs incurred in production of units during a time period
e.g. raw material costs, direct labour costs and production overheads. Such costs
are capitalized and expensed (charged to the profit and loss account) only when the
manufacturer sells inventory. These costs may be carried from one period to the other.
(b) Period costs: these are costs mainly incurred in the ordinary running of the business
enterprise. They include costs like electricity bill paid, salaries and allowances and rent
payments. They are referred to as period costs since they are expensed in the period
they are incurred.
Classification for decision making
(a) Sunk costs: these are costs, which have already been incurred. They cannot be
changed by any decision made after incurrence. Such costs are irrelevant for decision
making. For example, cost of a delivery van already acquired by the organization shall
be irrelevant as it cannot be changed by any course of action taken by management.
(b) Marginal cost: is the additional cost of producing an extra unit of output.
(c) Opportunity cost: is defined as the cost of the next best foregone alternative or the
potential benefit that is lost by taking one course of action and giving up the other. For
instance, by deciding to take on a leave and forego wages, the opportunity cost of the
decision shall be the foregone wages.
(d) Differential cost/incremental cost: these are costs that differ among alternatives.
They are costs relevant for decision making. They may be either variable or fixed. For
instance, if taking up a different business apartment amounts to an extra Shs.2,000 rent
expense, the differential (incremental) cost of the decision shall be the Sh.2,000.
(e) Imputed cost
Is an expense not incurred directly, but actually borne. For example, a person who
owns a home debt-free has an imputed rent expense equal to the amount of interest
that could be earned on the proceeds from the sale of the home if the home were
sold.
(f) Replacement cost
The amount it would cost to replace an asset at current prices. If the cost of replacing
an asset in its current physical condition is lower than the cost of replacing the asset so
as to obtain the level of services enjoyed when the asset was bought, then the asset is
in poor condition and the firm would probably not want to replace it
(g) Standard cost
A management tool used to estimate the overall cost of production, assuming normal
operations.
(h) Budgeted cost
This is the cost estimated to be incurred and used for budgeting purposes. It is a cost
included in the budget representing cost expected. Most of the times, budgeted cost
will be derived from standard cost.
COST CLASSIFICATION
3 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Costs can be broadly categorized into two: Manufacturing costs and Non manufacturing costs
Manufacturing costs comprise direct materials, direct labour and manufacturing overheads.
The total of manufacturing overheads and direct labour gives conversion cost.
The total of direct materials and direct labour gives Prime cost.
Non manufacturing costs comprise selling and administrative and selling expenses.
This chapter primarily focuses on classification of costs. The following table will help analyze the
various objectives of classification and categories, which fall under them.
Cost objective Possible classification
1. Stock valuation • Manufacturing and non-manufacturing costs
• Period and product costs
• Direct and indirect costs
2. Decision making • Cost behavior: Variable, fixed, semi variable,
• Relevance: opportunity, sunk cost, historical cost,
standard costs
3. Control purposes • Controllable and non-controllable
• Avoidable and non avoidable
i) Manufacturing cost; cost incurred to produce a product. It comprises of material cost,
labour cost and overhead cost
ii) Non-Manufacturing costs are costs incurred by all activities that support the production
of goods and services. They are administration costs, selling costs and distribution
costs.
iii) Period costs are costs mainly incurred in the ordinary running of the business enterprise.
They include examples like electricity bill paid, salaries and allowances and rent
payments. They are referred to as period costs since they are expensed in the period
they are incurred.
35
S T U D Y T E X T
iv) Product costs are all the costs incurred in production of units during a time period
e.g. raw material costs, direct labour costs and production overheads. Such costs
are capitalized and expensed (charged to the profit and loss account) only when the
manufacturer sells inventory.
v) Variable costs change proportionate to the change in the level of activity which fixed
costs remain constant over the relevant range.
vi) Controllable cost refers to the cost which can be influenced by the actions of a person in
whom authority for such control is vested while uncontrollable cost refers to cost which
cannot be influenced by a person in whom authority for such control is vested. They are
costs which cannot be adjusted without affecting the long-term objective of the firm
vii) Avoidable costs refer to costs that will not be incurred if an activity is suspended; also
called escapable cost while unavoidable costs refer to costs that are incurred regardless
of the decision to make or buy a certain part or keep or drop a certain product line; these
costs cannot be recovered or saved
viii) Sunk costs and historical costs are irrelevant for decision making.
CHAPTER QUIZ
a) Identify and give examples of each of the three basic cost elements involved in the
manufacture of a product.
b) Product costs are sometimes called inventorable costs. Why?
c) It is possible for costs such as salaries and depreciation to end up as assets on the
balance sheet. Explain
d) Classify the following costs as either fixed or variable
i. Depreciation on a straight line basis
ii. Wages paid to casual workers – on piece rate basis
iii. Salary paid to stores manager
e) Are fixed costs always fixed?
COST CLASSIFICATION
3 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
ANSWERS TO CHAPTER QUIZ
a) Basic cost elements:
a. materials such as leather and sole used to make a shoe
b. Labour such as the cobblers
b) Product costs are inventorable costs because they are costs incurred to manufacture
inventory units. Inventory is normally valued based on the production cost.
c) It is possible, when such costs are treated as product costs and then there exists
inventory at the end of the period (ending inventory) then such costs will indirectly
appear in the balance sheet
d) Classification of costs
a. Fixed cost
b. Variable cost
c. Fixed cost
e) Fixed costs are only fixed in the short run and within the relevant range. Beyond the
relevant range, they may assume a different behavior.
PAST PAPER ANALYSIS
05/06 Q6(d); 05/06 Q7(a); 12/05 Q2; 11/04 Q7; 06/04 Q7(c,d,e); 12/03 Q6; 05/01 Q6; 05/01
Q7(b); 11/99 Q6(a); 06/97 Q6; 06/92 Q6(b); 06/92 Q7
EXAM QUESTIONS
QUESTION ONE
Identify and give examples of each of the three basic cost elements involved in the manufacture
of a product. (10 marks)
QUESTION TWO
Explain the difference between the following terms
i. Product cost and period cost
ii. Sunk cost and relevant cost
iii. Fixed and variable cost
iv. Avoidable and unavoidable costs
37
S T U D Y T E X T
v. Controllable and uncontrollable costs
vi. Direct and indirect costs
vii. prime cost and Conversion cost (3 marks each)
QUESTION THREE
Discuss the behavioral classification of costs, explaining all the terms used therein (20 marks)
CASE STUDY
Decision-making situations under short-term conditions require consideration of:
i. The cost classifications which the management accountant should use or ignore, and
ii. Factors which may affect the behavior of costs and hence the accuracy of the cost
analysis and the relevance of the decision making.
A company X may decide to make quantities of a component used in a manufacture of a product
or buy the component from an outside supplier or out source.
Only relevant cash flows are used for decision making. These are future, incremental cash flows,
which arise as a consequence of choosing a particular course of action
Future Costs
Any cost that was incurred in the past and cannot now be recovered in a cost and is, therefore,
not relevant to decision making. Only costs that will be incurred in the future if a particular course
of action is taken are relevant.
Incremental Costs
Incremental costs are the additional costs incurred as a result of a decision and are, therefore,
relevant. Any costs will be incurred in the future regardless of whether or not the decision is
taken (committed costs) are not relevant.
Cash Flow
It is assumed that a decision is taken to maximize ‘satisfaction’ of the person or organization in
question. Although the time value of money affects the worth of cash flow from a project over a
longer period, all short-run decisions are assumed to improve, ‘satisfaction’ if they increase net
cash inflow. Depreciation is not, therefore, a relevant cost and it is only information pertaining to
a cash flow, which is relevant to decision making.
COST CLASSIFICATION
3 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
In general, variable costs are relevant costs because they are only incurred if a decision to do
something is taken, whereas fixed costs are irrelevant to decision because they will be incurred
regardless of the course of action taken. There is, however, a school of thought that argues that
fixed costs are not always irrelevant. They have put forward the idea of the attributed cost which
is made up of the following:
(a) Short run visible costs
(b) Divisible fixed costs. A fixed cost is divisible if significant shifts in the level of activity
will require increases in the total amount of that cost.
(c) Indivisible traceable costs. This is an indivisible fixed costs that can be traced directly
to a product or function.
Finally, opportunity costs (the benefit forgone by choosing one option instead of the next best
alternative) are relevant. Historic costs are not. One area in which the concept of relevant costs
is needed is the make or buy situation.
A make or buy problem involves a decision by an organization about whether it should make
a product with its own internal resources, or whether it should buy the product from an outside
supplier. If an organization has the choice of whether to manufacture a component internally or
buy in from outside and it has no source resources that put a restriction on what it can do itself,
the principal relevant costs are the differential costs between the two options.
Costs behavior and decision-making
Although it is easy to generalize and to state that, for example, variable costs are relevant to a
decision and fixed costs are not a proper understanding of the behavior of costs is vital to ensure
that the cost analysis is accurate. Consider the simple example in part (a) of the answer.
Strategic planning is the process of setting or changing the long-term objectives or strategic
target of an organization. These would include such matters as the selection of products and
markets, the required level of company profitability, the purchases and disposal of subsidiary
companies or a major fixed asset and so on. A notable characteristic of strategic planning is as
follows:
a. It will generally be formulated in writing, and only after much discussion by committee
(the board).
b. It will be (or should be) circulated to all interested parties within the organization and
perhaps even to the press.
c. It will trigger the production not of direct action but of a series of lesser plan for sales,
production, marketing, and so on.
Operational planning works out what specific tasks need to be carried out in order to achieve the
39
S T U D Y T E X T
strategic plan. For example, a strategy may be to increase sales by 5% per annum for at least
five years, and an operational plan to achieve this would be sales representatives’ weekly sales
target. (Note: we use the word ‘strategic’ and ‘operational’ in the sense implied in the well-known
work of Robert Anthony).
Notable characteristic of operational planning are the speed of response to changing conditions
and the use and understanding of non-financial information such as data about customer orders
or raw material input
COST CLASSIFICATION
4 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
41
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER ONE
COST ESTIMATION
S T U D Y T E X T
THREE
S T U D Y T E X T
4 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
43
S T U D Y T E X T
Chapter three
COST ESTIMATION
OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• Define cost estimation and understand the relationship between cost classification and
estimation and why cost estimation is important.
• Explain the various methods of cost estimation, their advantages and disadvantages
and conclude on which method is the best under what circumstances
• Predict costs using the high low method and visual fit method.
• Understand regression analysis and be able to predict costs through linear regression
• Determine the degree of association between the dependent and independent variables
by computing coefficient of determination
INTRODUCTION
Cost estimation is a measurement of past costs for the purpose of predicting future costs for
decision-making purposes. This chapter will primarily aim at using past data to predict future
costs. Various methods of cost estimation, their advantages and limitations will be discussed.
The methods of cost estimation include, High Low Activity method, account analysis, engineering
analysis, visual fit (scatter graph) method, simple linear regression analysis and learning curve
theory.
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Cost driver is any activity that causes a cost to be incurred e.g. labor hours, level of output,
etc.
Correlation is the degree of association between variables
Coefficient of determination measures how much of the variation in the dependent variable is
explained by the variation in the independent variable.
4 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Regression line is a line fitted to an array of plotted points; may also be referred to as line of
best fit
EXAM CONTEXT
Exam questions from this chapter are likely to be a mixture of calculations and discussions. You
may be required to discuss the advantages and limitations of a particular cost estimation method
or compare two or more cost estimation methods.
For calculations, the examiner will normally focus on practical questions applicable in the industry.
You, therefore, need to understand the theory comprehensively and practise to solve questions
set on the various cost estimation methods.
INDUSTRY CONTEXT
Cost estimation may be used to predict the relationship between a specific cost and a factor
affecting the cost. The strength of the relationship, correlation, will be significant in deciding the
cost determining factor. Practically in the industry, costs are normally driven by more than one
factor. Therefore, the single factor cost estimation models discussed here will act as a base of
comprehending the multifactor models.
INTRODUCTION
Cost estimation may be defined as a study which attempts to predict the relationship between
costs and the activity level or cost driver1 that causes those costs based on an analysis of historical
costs. In other words, cost estimation occurs when an individual attempts to measure historical
costs in order to predict future costs.
To achieve the measurement, it is necessary to separate cost into their fixed and variable cost
elements. Semi variable costs can be separated into their fixed and variable components using
scatter diagram approach, high-low method or regression analysis.
In this topic, we shall deal with linear cost relationships and equations. A linear equation is an
expression of the relationship between variables, the independent and the dependent variables.
The cost estimating function for linear relationships is
Y = a + bX
Analyzed as Total cost = Fixed cost + Variable cost
45
S T U D Y T E X T
Where
Y represents the dependent variable or the total cost
a represents fixed cost component of the total cost (Constant amount)
bx represents the variable costs component of the total cost
b represents the unit variable cost (this is the gradient of the equation)
x represents independent variable or the output level
This is the usual straight line equation you have been encountering in elementary mathematics.
PURPOSE OF ESTIMATION
It assists in estimating the future expenditure (cost prediction) as the expenditure will depend on
the cost of the respective activities
It assists in determining the net benefits anticipated in a specific activity based on the
relationship between projected costs and projected revenue (profit prediction).
Cost estimation is useful in the execution of managerial functions: business planning, cost
control, performance evaluation and decision making.
METHODS OF COST ESTIMATION
Fast forward:
Cost estimation can be done using different methods based on the available data, the analyst’s
expertise and the level of desired accuracy.
We will consider following cost estimation methods commonly utilized, namely:
(a) High Low Activity method
(b) Account Analysis
(c) Engineering Analysis
(d) Visual Fit (Scatter graph) method
(e) Simple linear regression analysis
(f) Learning curve theory
COST ESTIMATION
4 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
High-Low method
Here, cost estimation is based on the relationship between past cost and past level of activity.
Variable cost is based on the relationship between costs at the highest level of activity and the
lowest level of activity. The difference in cost between high and low activity level is taken to be the
total variable cost from which the unit variable cost can be computed by dividing it by the change
in output level. This is indicated below:
Total Variable Cost = Cost at high activity level - Cost at low activity level
Therefore,
Unit variable cost = Variable Costs = Cost at high level activity - Cost at low level activity
Output units Units at high level activity - Units at low level activity
The variable cost per unit so calculated forms the ‘b’ of the straight line equation mentioned
earlier. By substituting’ b’ into the equation, we can obtain ‘a’, the fixed cost.
>>> Illustration I
Based on performance, you have been provided with the following information regarding ABC
Ltd for the year ended 31 December 2004:
Labour hours
(Activity level)
Service costs (Shs)
300 150,000
400 155,000
350 153,000
600 192,000
310 145,000
800 200,000
Required
Develop a total cost function based on the above data using the high-low method.
Solution
Labour hours Service costs (Shs)
Highest activity level 800 200,000
Lowest activity level 300 150,000
47
S T U D Y T E X T
Unit variable cost = Variable Costs = Cost at high level activity - Cost at low level activity
Output units Units at high level activity - Units at low level activity
Variable cost per Unit = Shs.200,000 - Shs.150,000
800hrs - 300 hrs
= Shs.50,000
500hrs
= Shs.100 per hr
Therefore, b = 100
To get the fixed cost a, substitute ‘b’ into the straight line equation as follows:
When labour hours (X) = 800, service cost (total cost, Y) = shs.200,000
Therefore, from the Straight Line equation, Y = a + bX
200,000 = a + (100) 800
200,000 = a + 80,000
a = 200,000 - 80,000
a = 120,000
Therefore, fixed costs = Shs.120,000
NB: Even if we used the 2nd set of labour hours and service costs, were would still get he same
answer i.e.
When labour hours (X) = 300, service cost (total cost, Y) = Shs.150,000.
Therefore,
50,000 = a + 100(300)
a = 150,000 - 30,000
= Shs.120,000
Therefore, the cost equation is:
Y = 120,000 + 100X
COST ESTIMATION
4 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
This equation can be used to estimate or predict the total costs: For example, when the activity
level is, say, at 1000 labour hours, then the total cost would be:
y = 120,000 + 1000(100)
= 120,000 + 100,000
= Shs.220,000
>>> Illustration II
Evans, the Managing Director of Mambo Company, has asked for information about the cost
behavior of manufacturing overhead costs. Specifically, he wants to know how much overhead
cost is fixed and how much is variable. The following data are the only records available.
Month Machine-hours Overhead Costs
February 1,700 Shs.20,500
March 2,800 Shs.22,250
April 1,000 Shs.19,950
May 2,500 Shs.21,500
June 3,500 Shs.23,950
Required:
Using the high-low method, determine the overhead cost equation. Use machine-hours as your
cost driver
Solution:
Note that in most cases, you are required to identify the cost driver. For instance, in our case, the
cost driver is the machine hours and not overhead cost. Overhead cost cannot be a cost driver.
It is a cost by itself.
Unit variable cost = Variable Costs = Cost at high level activity - Cost at low level activity
Output units Units at high level activity - Units at low level activity
Variable cost per unit = Shs.23,950 - Shs.19,950
3,500hrs - 1000hrs
= Shs.4000
2,500hrs
= Shs.1.6 per hr
Therefore, b = 1.6
49
S T U D Y T E X T
To get the fixed cost a, substitute ‘b’ into the straight line equation as follows:
When machine hours (Y) = Shs.1,000, Overhead cost (total cost, Y) = shs.19,950
Therefore from the Straight Line equation, Y = a + bX
19,950 = a + (1.6)1000
19,950 = a + 1,600
a = 19,950 - 1,600
a = 18,350
Therefore fixed costs = shs.18,350
Therefore, the cost equation is Y = 18,350 + 1.6X
High low method of cost estimation is easy to use and is liked by many as it is handy when a
quick rough estimate is required. However, it does not consider all observations and thus outlier
cases may distort the model. It is only suitable with a single predictor and, in addition, It assumes
that the relationship between the X and Y variables is linear and exists. The probable error of
estimation can not be measured.
Account analysis (inspection of accounts)
Using account analysis, the accountant examines and classifies each ledger account as variable,
fixed or mixed. Mixed accounts are broken down into their variable and fixed components. They
base these classifications on experience, inspection of cost behavior for several past periods or
intuitive feelings of the manager.
>>> Illustration
Management has estimated Shs.1,090 variable costs, Shs.1,430 fixed costs to make 100 units
using 500 machine hours. Since machine hours drives variable costs in our example, the variable
cost stated as 2.18(1090/500)
Then we get the total cost equation as
Y = 1,430 + 2.18X
Where, Y = total cost
x = number of machine hours
COST ESTIMATION
5 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
For 550 machine hours
Total cost, Y = 1,430 + 2.18(550)
= 1,430 + 1,199
= Shs.2,629
This analysis should determine whether any factors apart from output machine hours are
influencing total cost.
Advantages and disadvantages of accounts analysis (inspection)
method
The accounts analysis method is easy to use and useful when a quick cost forecast is required.
However, it assumes that what occurred in the past will be reflected in the future. This calls for
further analysis.
The model’s reliability and validity cannot be determined as we cannot measure the size of
probable error in forecasts made i.e. it lacks statistical vigor. The method is highly subjective as
different managers will classify some costs differently.
Engineering method
This method is based on a detailed study of each operation where careful specification is made
for materials, labour and equipment necessary to produce a product. It involves identifying the
level of input required of an activity in form of raw material and labour while total cost is based on
the cost of each input. This approach is applicable where no past data exists.
Disadvantage: The main setback of the approach is that it requires a complex analysis of all
the constituents of an activity and the requirements of an activity in terms of costs detailed into
materials, labour, overheads and time.
Visual fit (scatter graph method)
Cost estimation is based on past data regarding the dependent variable and the cost driver. The
past data on cost levels and the output levels is plotted on a graph (called a scatter graph) and a
line of best fit is drawn as shown in the diagram. A line of best fit is a line drawn so as to cover the
most points possible on a scatter graph. It can also be defined as ‘a straight line used as a best
approximation of a summary of all the points in a scatter-plot’. Its intersection with the vertical
axis indicates the fixed cost while the gradient indicates the variable cost per unit.
This method takes into account all observations and is easy to apply. However, it cannot be used
with two or more independent variables and is subjective to some extent as different lines of best
fit may be drawn by different analysts.
51
S T U D Y T E X T
(See the diagram in the illustration below)
>>> Illustration IV
Assume a firm has total costs of 8m, 4m and 1m respectively when the output units are 400,000,
200,000 and 0 respectively. Estimate its cost equation using the visual fit method.
On the basis of the existing data, fixed cost is Shs 1m and the variable cost per unit is 20. On
the basis of the developed model, estimates can be made regarding future cost. When the
activity level is 600,000 units, total cost will be estimated as:
COST ESTIMATION
Illustration IV
Assume a firm has total costs of 8m, 4m and 1m respectively when the output units are
400,000,
200,000 and 0 respectively. Estimate its cost equation using the visual fit method.
Note
fixed cost = X
Gradient =
Change in Y
Change in X
=
Y Y
X X
= Variable cost per Unit
Variable cost per Unit =
Change in cost
Change in activity level
Total cost equation, Y = 1 X
0
3 2
3 2
=
!
!
"
# $
% $
=
!
!
=
& +
1
8 4
400 000 200 000
20
20
m
m m
m
, ,
On the basis of the existing data, fixed cost is Shs 1m and the variable cost per unit is
20. On the basis of the developed model, estimates can be made regarding future cost.
When the activity level is 600,000 units, total cost will be estimated as:
TC = 1m+ 20 (600,000) = 1m + 12m = 13 m
Regression analysis
Fast forward:
Regression analysis is more reliable than other methods of cost estimation since it uses
all the data available and establishes the relationship and the degree of relationship
between the variables.
Regression analysis has a mathematical base of all regression lines that could be drawn
to represent the data. The least square regression line of Y on X is that line for which the
X3
400,000
Independent variable
(Output level)
X2
200,000
Direct
Variable
cost
(total cost)
Illustration IV
Assume a firm has total costs of 8m, 4m and 1m respectively when the output units are
400,000,
200,000 and 0 respectively. Estimate its cost equation using the visual fit method.
Note
fixed cost = X
Gradient =
Change in Y
Change in X
=
Y Y
X X
= Variable cost per Unit
Variable cost per Unit =
Change in cost
Change in activity level
Total cost equation, Y = 1 X
0
3 2
3 2
=
!
!
"
# $
% $
=
!
!
=
& +
1
8 4
400 000 200 000
20
20
m
m m
m
, ,
On the basis of the existing data, fixed cost is Shs 1m and the variable cost per unit is
20. On the basis of the developed model, estimates can be made regarding future cost.
When the activity level is 600,000 units, total cost will be estimated as:
TC = 1m+ 20 (600,000) = 1m + 12m = 13 m
Regression analysis
Fast forward:
Regression analysis is more reliable than other methods of cost estimation since it uses
all the data available and establishes the relationship and the degree of relationship
between the variables.
Regression analysis has a mathematical base of all regression lines that could be drawn
to represent the data. The least square regression line of Y on X is that line for which the
X3
400,000
Independent variable
(Output level)
X2
200,000
Direct
Variable
cost
(total cost)
5 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
REGRESSION ANALYSIS
Fast forward:
Regression analysis is more reliable than other methods of cost estimation since it uses all
the data available and establishes the relationship and the degree of relationship between the
variables.
Regression analysis has a mathematical base of all regression lines that could be drawn to
represent the data. The least square regression line of Y on X is that line for which the sum of
squares of vertical deviations of all the points from the line is least. It involves estimating the
cost function using past data or the dependent and the independent variables. The dependent
variable will constitute the relevant cost, which may be service, variable cost, overhead cost, etc..
The independent variable will be the cost drivers where the cost drivers will be labour hours, units
of labour or raw materials, units of output, etc..
In regression analysis, a regression model of the form Y = a + bX for a simple regression is
obtained. This formal model measures the average amount of deviation of the dependent variable
that is associated with unit changes in the amount of the independent variable. For a multiple
regression, a regression model of the form Y = a + b1X1 + b2 X2 + ........ + bnXn is obtained
Where a is fixed cost,
X1, X2, Xn are cost drivers X1, X2, X3 up to Xn _
bl, b2 bn are changes in cost with the change in value of cost driver i.e. variable cost per unit of
change in X1, X2, X3
Y is the dependant variable (total cost)
Note that a simple regression produces a cost function of the form Y = a + bX so that we only
have only one variable cost per unit (b) and only one independent variable (cost driver) x.
However, a multiple regression produces a cost function of the form Y = a + b1X1 + b2 X2 + ........ +
bnXn so that we have several variable costs per unit (bl, b2 bn) and several independent variables
(X1, X2, X3)
The general formulas used to compute a and b are as listed below. The equations are solved
simultaneously to obtain the values.
sum of squares of vertical deviations of all the points from the line is least. It involves
estimating the cost function using past data or the dependent and the independent
variables. The dependent variable will constitute the relevant cost, which may be
service, variable cost, overhead cost, etc.. The independent variable will be the cost
drivers where the cost drivers will be labour hours, units of labour or raw materials, units
of output, etc..
In regression analysis, a regression model of the form Y = a + bXfor a simple
regression is obtained. This formal model measures the average amount of deviation of
the dependent variable that is associated with unit changes in the amount of the
independent variable. For a multiple regression, a regression model of the form
Y a b X b X b X
1 1 2 2 n n = + + +L+ is obtained
Where a is fixed cost,
X1, X2, Xn are cost drivers X1, X2, X3 up to Xn _
bl, b2 bn are changes in cost with the change in value of cost driver i.e. variable
cost per unit of change in X1, X2, X3
Y is the dependant variable (total cost)
Note that a simple regression produces a cost function of the form Y = a + bXso that we
only have only one variable cost per unit (b) and only one independent variable (cost
driver) x.
However, a multiple regression produces a cost function of the form
Y a b X b X b X
1 1 2 2 n n = + + +L+ so that we have several variable costs per unit (bl, b2 bn)
and several independent variables (X1, X2, X3)
The general formulas used to compute a and b are as listed below. The equations are
solved simultaneously to obtain the values.
(i) Y = na + b X
(ii) YX = a X + b X 2
! !
! ! !
Alternatively, we can use the general formulas obtained through calculus.
( )
n X
n
! !
! !
! ! !
"
=
X
XY - X Y
b
2 2
53
S T U D Y T E X T
Alternatively, we can use the general formulas obtained through calculus.
tA table, such as the one below, will help you summarize the data and easily obtain the figures
for the computation of a and b values.
Assumptions of the regression analysis
(a) There exists a cause and effect relationship between the variables. That is, a change in
the independent variable causes a change in the dependent variable.
(b) There is good evidence of correlation. In this case, linearity of costs exists. Correlation
is the degree of relationship between variables which seek to determine how well linear
or other equations, explain or describe, the relationship between variables
(c) The historical data used covers a large level of activity level
(d) Only one independent variable or activity base affects costs. This is in the case of
simple regression analysis where only one independent variable exists.
>>> Illustration
The following data relates to MAKB Company limited for the half year period just ended.
Month Output (Units) Total Cost (Shs)
January 40 5,100
February 45 5,450
March 50 6,050
April 40 5,400
May 60 6,850
June 55 6,250
Required:
Determine the business fixed and variable costs for its manufacturing overheads and thus write
down the cost equation in the form of Y=a + bX.
COST ESTIMATION
general formulas used to compute a and b are as listed below. The equations are
simultaneously to obtain the values.
(i) Y = na + b X
(ii) YX = a X + b X 2
! !
! ! !
Alternatively, we can use the general formulas obtained through calculus.
( )
n
X
b
n
n X
n
! !
! !
! ! !
= "
"
=
Y
a
X
XY - X Y
b
2 2
such as the one below, will help you summarize the data and easily obtain the
for the computation of a and b values.
Independent
viable (X)
Dependent
variable
(Y)
X2 XY
1 x1 y1 x1
2 x1 y1
2 x2 y2 x2
2 x2 y2
A table, such as the one below, will help you summarize the data and easily obtain the
figures for the computation of a and b values.
Independent
viable (X)
Dependent
variable (Y)
X2 XY
1 x1 y1 x1
2 x1 y1
2 x2 y2 x2
2 x2 y2
. . . . .
. . . . .
n xn yn Xn
2 xn yn
n ΣX ΣY ΣX2 ΣXY
Assumptions of the regression analysis
(a) There exists a cause and effect relationship between the variables. That is, a
change in the independent variable causes a change in the dependent variable.
(b) There is good evidence of correlation. In this case, linearity of costs exists.
Correlation is the degree of relationship between variables which seek to
determine how well linear or other equations, explain or describe, the relationship
between variables
(c) The historical data used covers a large level of activity level
(d) Only one independent variable or activity base affects costs. This is in the case
of simple regression analysis where only one independent variable exists.
Illustration
The following data relates to MAKB Company limited for the half year period just ended.
Month Output
(Units)
Total Cost
(Shs)
January 40 5,100
February 45 5,450
March 50 6,050
April 40 5,400
May 60 6,850
June 55 6,250
Required:
Determine the business fixed and variable costs for its manufacturing overheads and
thus write down the cost equation in the form of Y=a + bX.
Month Output
(Units)
Total Cost
(Shs)
X2 XY
January 40 5,100 1600 204,000
February 45 5,450 2025 245,250
March 50 6,050 2500 302,500
5 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Month Output (Units) Total Cost (Shs) X2 XY
January 40 5,100 1600 204,000
February 45 5,450 2025 245,250
March 50 6,050 2500 302,500
April 40 5,400 1600 216,000
May 60 6,850 3600 411,000
June 55 6,250 3025 343,750
Total 290 35,100 14,350 1,722,500
June 55 6,250 3025 343,750
Total 290 35,100 14,350 1,722,500
Approach I
(i) Y = na + b X
(ii) YX = a X + b X 2
! !
! ! !
(i) 35,100 = 6a +
(ii) 1,362,500 = 290a +14,350b
290b
Multiply equation (i) by 290 and (ii) by 6 to get equations (iii) and (iv) respectively
(iii) 10,179,000 = 1740a +84100b
(iv) 8,175,000 = 1740a +86100b
Subtract equation (iv) from equation (iii) to obtain equation (v)
(v) 156,000 = 2,000b
b =
156,000
2,000
! = Sh.78
To obtain a, substitute b in equation (i)
(v) 35,100 = 6a + 290(78)
- 6a = 22620 - 35100
- 6a = -12,480
a =
-12,480
-6
= Sh.2,080
Approach II (substituting the figures obtained from the table in the formula)
( )
b =
XY X Y
X X
a =
Y
n
b
X
n
2
n
n
! ! !
! !
! !
"
"
"
2
b =
156,000
2,000
= Sh.78
a =
6 6
= Sh. 2,080
6 1 722 500 290 35100
6 14 350 290
35100
78
290
5 850 3770
2
( , , ) ( )( , )
( , ) ( )
, ( )
,
!
!
=
! = !
The cost equation shall, therefore, be:
Y = 2,080 +78X
55
S T U D Y T E X T
CORRELATION AND COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION
Correlation is the degree of association between variables. It is measured using Pearson’s
coefficient of correlation or Product Moment coefficient. This coefficient is defined as;
COST ESTIMATION
Correlation and coefficient of correlation
Correlation is the degree of association between variables. It is measured using
Pearson’s coefficient of correlation or Product Moment coefficient. This coefficient is
defined as;
{! (! )}{! (! )}
! ! !
" "
= 2 2
n X n Y Y
n XY - X Y
r
2 2 X
Where -1 ≤ r ≤1
Perfect correlation occurs when all the values of the variables satisfy the equation
exactly. However, in real life situation, perfect correlation rarely exists. This is because
the independent variable is affected by multiple dependent variables. The graphs below
show the possible degrees of correlation.
If r is ±1 it implies perfect positive and perfect negative correlation respectively.
If r = 0 then there is no correlation
A high correlation above ± 0.9 only shows a strong association between the two
variables. It may be an indicator that there is a causal relationship: a change in one
variable causes change in the other. However, two variables may have a high calculated
r value yet they have no causal relationship. In such a situation, spurious or nonsense
correlation is said to exist.
Positive perfect correlation Negative perfect correlation High positive correlation
No correlation Moderate negative correlation
r = nΣ XY - Σ X Σ Y
{nΣ X2 - ( Σ X)2 }{ nΣY2 - (ΣY)2}
5 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Note: Coefficient of correlation is the square root of the coefficient of determination.
Coefficient of determination
Coefficient of determination measures how much of the variation in the dependent variable is
explained by the variation in the independent variable. Variation not accounted for by the variation
in the independent variable will result from the random variations and other specific factors not
identified in considering the two variables.
Coefficient of variation is the ratio of the explained variation to total variation. It is derived
as
Alternatively, it can be derived by squaring the coefficient of correlation.
Coefficient of determination = (Coefficient of correlation)2
= r
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Cost estimation may be defined as a study which attempts to predict the relationship between
costs and the activity level or cost driver that causes those costs based on an analysis of historical
costs.
there are various methods of cost estimation. They include
(a) High Low Activity method
(b) Account Analysis
(c) Engineering Analysis
(d) Visual Fit (Scatter graph) method
(e) Simple linear regression analysis
(f) Learning curve theory
Note: Coefficient of correlation is the square root of the coefficient of determination.
Coefficient of determination
Coefficient of determination measures how much of the variation in the dependent
variable is explained by the variation in the independent variable. Variation not
accounted for by the variation in the independent variable will result from the random
variations and other specific factors not identified in considering the two variables.
Coefficient of variation is the ratio of the explained variation to total variation. It is derived
as
( )
( )2
2
2
Y - Y
Y - Y ˆ
Total variation
Explained variation
r
!
! = ± =
Alternatively, it can be derived by squaring the coefficient of correlation.
Coefficient of determination = (Coefficient of correlation)2
= r
57
S T U D Y T E X T
Unit variable cost under high low method is calculated as
Unit variable cost = Variable Costs = Cost at high level activity - Cost at low level activity
Output units Units at high level activity - Units at low level activity
Regression analysis has a mathematical base of all regression lines that could be drawn to
represent the data. The least square regression line of Y on X is that line for which the sum of
squares of vertical deviations of all the points from the line is least
Coefficient of correlation (r) is calculated as;
Coefficient of variation (coefficient of determination) is calculated as
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. What is cost estimation?
2. State the cost estimating function discussed in this chapter
3. Highlight the assumptions of regression analysis.
4. Draw the graphs for the following levels of correlation; perfectly positive correlation;
perfectly negative correlation and highly positive correlation.
5. Draw a scatter graph.
COST ESTIMATION
Correlation and coefficient of correlation
Correlation is the degree of association between variables. It is measured using
Pearson’s coefficient of correlation or Product Moment coefficient. This coefficient is
defined as;
{! (! )}{! (! )}
! ! !
" "
= 2 2
n X n Y Y
n XY - X Y
r
2 2 X
Where -1 ≤ r ≤1
Perfect correlation occurs when all the values of the variables satisfy the equation
exactly. However, in real life situation, perfect correlation rarely exists. This is because
the independent variable is affected by multiple dependent variables. The graphs below
show the possible degrees of correlation.
If r is ±1 it implies perfect positive and perfect negative correlation respectively.
If r = 0 then there is no correlation
A high correlation above ± 0.9 only shows a strong association between the two
variables. It may be an indicator that there is a causal relationship: a change in one
variable causes change in the other. However, two variables may have a high calculated
r value yet they have no causal relationship. In such a situation, spurious or nonsense
correlation is said to exist.
Positive perfect correlation Negative perfect correlation High positive correlation
No correlation Moderate negative correlation
r = nΣ XY - Σ X Σ Y
{nΣ X2 - ( Σ X)2 }{ nΣY2 - (ΣY)2}
Note: Coefficient of correlation is the square root of the coefficient of determination.
Coefficient of determination
Coefficient of determination measures how much of the variation in the dependent
variable is explained by the variation in the independent variable. Variation not
accounted for by the variation in the independent variable will result from the random
variations and other specific factors not identified in considering the two variables.
Coefficient of variation is the ratio of the explained variation to total variation. It is derived
as
( )
( )2
2
2
Y - Y
Y - Y ˆ
Total variation
Explained variation
r
!
! = ± =
Alternatively, it can be derived by squaring the coefficient of correlation.
Coefficient of determination = (Coefficient of correlation)2
= r
5 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
ANSWERS TO CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Cost estimation is a study which attempts to predict the relationship between costs and
the activity level or cost driver that causes those costs
2. y = a + bx
3. Assumptions of regression analysis
(a) There exists a cause and effect relationship between the variables, that is, a change in
the independent variable causes a change in the dependent variable.
(b) There is good evidence of correlation. In this case, linearity of costs exists.
(c) The historical data used covers a large level of activity level
(d) Only one independent variable or activity base affects costs. This is in the case of
simple regression analysis where only one independent variable exists
4. Graphs for various correlations
5. Scatter graph
Correlation and coefficient of correlation
Correlation is the degree of association between variables. It is measured using
Pearson’s coefficient of correlation or Product Moment coefficient. This coefficient is
defined as;
{! (! )}{! (! )}
! ! !
" "
= 2 2
n X n Y Y
n XY - X Y
r
2 2 X
Where -1 ≤ r ≤1
Perfect correlation occurs when all the values of the variables satisfy the equation
exactly. However, in real life situation, perfect correlation rarely exists. This is because
the independent variable is affected by multiple dependent variables. The graphs below
show the possible degrees of correlation.
If r is ±1 it implies perfect positive and perfect negative correlation respectively.
If r = 0 then there is no correlation
A high correlation above ± 0.9 only shows a strong association between the two
variables. It may be an indicator that there is a causal relationship: a change in one
variable causes change in the other. However, two variables may have a high calculated
r value yet they have no causal relationship. In such a situation, spurious or nonsense
correlation is said to exist.
Positive perfect correlation Negative perfect correlation High positive correlation
No correlation Moderate negative correlation
Answers to chapter quiz
1. Cost estimation is a study which attempts to predict the relationship between costs
and the activity level or cost driver that causes those costs
2. y = a + bx
3. Assumptions of regression analysis
(a) There exists a cause and effect relationship between the variables, that is, a
change in the independent variable causes a change in the dependent variable.
(b) There is good evidence of correlation. In this case, linearity of costs exists.
(c) The historical data used covers a large level of activity level
(d) Only one independent variable or activity base affects costs. This is in the case
of simple regression analysis where only one independent variable exists
4. Graphs for various correlations
5. Scatter graph
Past examination paper analysis
Questions form this chapter have been tested in the following exam sittings
06/07 Q7; 12/06 Q7; 05/05 Q7; 12/06 Q4; 05/06 Q7(b); 05/05 Q5; 06/04 Q2; 12/03
Q3(b); 12/02 Q5; 06/93 Q5; 11/92 Q5;
Independent variable
Dependent
variable
Scatter graph
59
S T U D Y T E X T
PAST PAPER ANALYSIS
Questions form this chapter have been tested in the following exam sittings
06/07 Q7; 12/06 Q7; 05/05 Q7; 12/06 Q4; 05/06 Q7(b); 05/05 Q5; 06/04 Q2; 12/03 Q3(b); 12/02
Q5; 06/93 Q5; 11/92 Q5;
EXAM QUESTIONS
Question one
A company has just purchased a new machine, costing Sh150,000, for a contract. It has an
installation cost of Sh25,000 and is expected to have a scrap value of Sh10,000 in five years’
time. The machine will be depreciated on a straight line basis over five years.
What is the relevant cost of the machine for the contract? (10 marks)
A Sh140,000
B Sh150,000
C Sh165,000
D Sh175,000
Question two
Briefly discuss any two methods of cost estimation clearly highlighting their advantages and
disadvantages. (20 marks)
Question three
Jamleck Ltd has been asked to quote a price for a one-off contract. The company’s management
accountant has asked for your advice on the relevant costs for the contract. The following
information is available:
Materials
The contract requires 3,000 kg of material K, which is a material used regularly by the company
in other production. The company has 2,000 kg of material K currently in stock which had been
purchased last month for a total cost of Sh19,600. Since then the price per kilogram for material
K has increased by 5%. The contract also requires 200 kg of material L. There are 250 kg of
material L in stock which are not required for normal production. This material originally cost a
total of Sh3,125. If not used on this contract, the stock of material L would be sold for Sh11 per
kg.
COST ESTIMATION
6 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Labour
The contract requires 800 hours of skilled labour. Skilled labour is paid Sh9·50 per hour. There is
a shortage of skilled labour and all the available skilled labour is fully employed in the company
in the manufacture of product P.
Required:
Explain how you would decide which overhead costs would be relevant in the financial appraisal
of the contract. (20 marks)
Question four
Jamline Ltd, which manufactures and sells a single product, is currently producing and selling
102,000 units per month, which represents 85% of its full capacity. Total monthly costs are £619,000
but at full capacity these would be £700,000. Total fixed costs would remain unchanged at all
activity levels up to full capacity. The normal selling price of the product results in a contribution
to sales ratio of 40%.
A new customer has offered to take a monthly delivery of 15,000 units at a price per unit 20%
below the normal selling price. If this new business is accepted, existing sales are expected to
fall by one unit for every six units sold to this new customer.
Required:
(a) For the current production and sales level, calculate:
(i) the variable cost per unit;
(ii) the total monthly fixed costs;
(iii) the selling price per unit;
(iv) the contribution per unit. (6 marks)
(b) Calculate the net increase or decrease in monthly profit which would result from
acceptance of the new business. (4 marks)
(c) In the context of decision making, explain the term ‘opportunity cost’ and illustrate your
answer by reference to Jamline Ltd. (2 marks)
Question five
Define stock out cost
Jackie Plc had been suffering losses due to increasing stock out costs. Advise the management
appropriately.
61
S T U D Y T E X T
CASE STUDY
High-tex Engineering Company Limited wishes to set flexible budgets for each of its operating
departments. A separate maintenance department performs all routine and major repair works
on the company’s equipment and facilities. The company has determined that the maintenance
department performs all routine and major repair works on the company’s equipment and
facilities. The company has determined that maintenance cost is primarily a function of machine
hours worked in the various production departments.
The maintenance cost incurred and the actual machine hours worked during the months of
January, February, March and April 2003 were as follows:
Month Machine hrs in Maintenance
production department department’s cost
January 800 350
February 1,200 350
March 400 150
April 1,600 550
The cost estimating equation using high low and regression methods are as follows
Month Machine Maintenance
Hours (X) cost (Y) XY X2 Y2
1 800 350 280,000 640, 000 122,500
2 1,200 350 420,000 1,440,000 122,500
3 400 150 60,000 160,000 22,500
4 1,600 550 880,000 2,560,000 302,500
Sum 4,000 1,400 1,640,000 4,800,000 570,000
High Low method
X Y
Highest point 1,600 550
Lowest point 400 150
Difference 1,200 400
b = 400 = 0.33
1200
Y = a + bx
COST ESTIMATION
6 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Substitute Highest point
550 = a + 0.33 (1,600)
a = 17
The cost function is Y = 17 + 0.33X.
OVERVIEW OF COST ACCUMULATION
Introduction
The topic ‘Cost accumulation’ focuses on constituents of manufacturing cost. That is material
cost, labour cost and overhead costs. The three above are vital in determining the cost and
hence the price of a product or service of a company.
The objective of most firms is profit maximization. This can only be achieved by either maximizing
revenue or minimizing costs as profit is a function of both revenue and expenditure. Profit
maximization through revenue maximization can only be achieved by firms whose output can
be varied. In addition, firms maximizing revenue must ensure that at that level, the incremental
revenue per unit (marginal revenue) is equal to the incremental cost per unit (Marginal cost) in
order to maximize profit. On the other hand, firms with predefined activity levels, for instance
firms working on contracts can only maximize profits through cost minimization since contract
amounts (revenue) are fixed; and if they vary, they do so by a very small proportion.
Various questions may be raised regarding material costs valuation, labour cost determination
and determination of appropriate overhead rate for absorption of manufacturing overheads
among others. By the end of this topic, one shall be able to understand the above.
Regression analysis
(ii)
0.3x 50 Y ˆ The function is
) 50
4
4,000
0.3(
4
1,400
n
a Y
0.3
4(4,800,000) (4,000)2
4(1,640,000) 4,000(1,400)
n x ( x)2
n x y - x y
b
2
= +
= " ! = ! =
=
!
!
=
!
=
# #
# # #
n
x
b $
63
S T U D Y T E X T
Determination of costs in manufacturing industry
In a manufacturing firm, the main elements of cost are material costs, labor costs and overheads.
These are used in the determination of production cost. Other costs incurred in a manufacturing
firm, though not unique from services and retail firms are administration, selling and distribution
costs.
To determine the cost of a product manufactured, the cost accountant accumulates the direct
materials, indirect materials and overheads associated with the production of the product. This
gives the total production cost. Additionally, selling and distribution costs are identified and
accounted for as non manufacturing costs.
The manufacturer adds a markup on the total manufacturing and non manufacturing costs in
order to determine the price at which the product will be sold.
Determination of cost in retail industry
In retail industry, besides the administration and selling costs, the main element of cost is the
purchase price of the item procured. The retailer basically adds a markup on the purchase price
of the product bought from the wholesaler which covers the administration, selling and distribution
costs or adds the estimated cost of selling, distribution and administration to the purchase price
and then adds a mark up. The latter is not common though.
Determination of cost in service industry
It is difficult to determine the cost of offering a service since services cannot be quantified. Neither
can the value or benefit enjoyed by the customer be measured. Thus, the service providers come
up with different ways of valuing their services. They set a price that prevails over a specific
range. For instance, the fares charged by matatu operators vary with distance. But there is a
minimum that a customer can pay. The prices also vary with the demand. There are off peak
prices and peak prices with the later being higher than the earlier.
Some operators may adopt a method that charges the customer per unit of consumption. For
instance, some bus operators charge the customers per mileage covered by the bus, therefore,
allowing them to pay proportionately.
Service costing can be so arbitrary sometimes. There is no one specific way that can be adopted
in valuing services but costs can be allocated based on the level of service such as dividing the
travel and fuel costs of a bus by the mileage.
COST ESTIMATION
6 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
65
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER ONE
MATERIAL COSTS
S T U D Y T E X T
FOUR
S T U D Y T E X T
6 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
67
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER FOUR
MATERIAL COSTS
OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• Understand why firms keep inventory and explain the various inventory decisions.
• Describe the material cost control procedure and the various persons involved in
material cost control.
• Understand the stock level and its control; the minimum and maximum stock
determination; reorder level and reorder quantity determination.
• Identify costs associated with materials and how they arise.
• Compute the order quantity that minimizes a company’s costs (economic order quantity
or economic batch quantity).
• Determine the total costs associated with inventories for a specific duration; say a year
or month.
• Calculate the optimal amount of stock to order each time given various prices, where
the supplier offer discounts with an increase in quantity purchased.
• Understand the stock control system and which system is more appropriate in what
circumstances: whether continuous perpetual, periodic or just in time.
• Value inventory based on the different methods of inventory valuation: First in First Out,
Last in First Out and Weighted average method, among others.
INTRODUCTION
Materials refer to the tangible inputs into the process of producing useful output. Materials are only
found in manufacturing firms. Material costs form a large percentage of the cost of production.
There is, therefore, need to exercise maximum care so that this cost is minimized and at the
same time to avoid shortages and excessive stocks.
Materials could be broadly classified into direct materials or indirect materials (overheads) to the
production process. For instance, to produce a pair of leather shoes, then shoe laces and a pair
6 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
of soles are the direct materials whose total value constitute total direct material cost. The cost
of all indirect materials such as glue and thread constitute total indirect material costs. Note that
indirect material cost is treated as overheads.
Material costs comprise of the purchase cost, material holding cost, material ordering costs and
shortage costs.
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Materials: materials are physical substances used as inputs to production or manufacturing;
they can also be defined as any substance used in construction such as building bricks, cement
and concrete.
Purchase cost: This is the price charged by the supplier on an item of inventory.
Maximum stock level: This is the upper limit above which stock should not be allowed to
exceed.
Re-order level: It is a point that lies between minimum and maximum stock levels at which
purchase orders must be placed to ensure that goods ordered are received before the minimum
stock level is reached.
EXAM CONTEXT
The ability to understand how to accumulate cost and the behavior of those costs is key in
passing exams set from this topic. You need to understand how the various costs interrelate and
use the same knowledge to arrive at correct values.
INDUSTRY CONTEXT
Cost accumulation is the basis of price determination. Without knowledge of costs incurred in
coming up with a complete product, ineffective pricing decision may be arrived at, which may
portray a different objective other than profit maximization.
69
S T U D Y T E X T
WHY FIRMS KEEP INVENTORY
Fast forward:
Firms don’t just keep inventory. They do so with reasons with the main reasons being to make
gains, minimize on costs and smoothen operations.
Firms hold inventories despite incurring holding costs, which vary with the size of inventory.
There are three general kinds of stocks kept by firms due to various reasons:
(i) Buffer inventories
Firms keep these inventories to protect themselves against the uncertainties of demand and
supply. To meet these uncertainties, firms normally hold inventories in excess of average or
expected demand. They may also keep excess stocks to meet requirements during the time for
which lead-time goes beyond normal.
(ii) Anticipation inventory
Firms keep some items of stock in anticipation that future demand for the item will happen.
The whole idea underlying anticipation inventory is to smoothen the production process. This
is attained by producing for a longer duration for continuous basis rather than operating with
excessive overtime in one period leaving the system to be idle or close down for reason of
inadequate or no demand.
(iii) Appreciation inventory
Firms hold inventory in anticipation of an increase in price. Some items of inventory such as
wines and spirits and jewellery appreciate in value the longer they are kept in the warehouse.
However, quantitative models do no take into account the appreciation inventory.
Inventory decisions
Inventory management is important since in most organizations (the merchandising and
manufacturing firms), inventory represents the largest single investment. The major types of
inventory are raw materials, work in progress and finished goods
MATERIAL COSTS
7 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Various decisions regarding the inventory are made by the manager in charge of inventory control
and management. These decisions include:
§ The optimal quantity to order in order to minimize the inventory total costs.
§ When to make each order.
§ What commodities to stock.
§ The amount of safety stock to be kept in anticipation of variation in demand and supply
among others.
The overall objective of inventory control is to maintain stock levels that minimize the total costs.
These costs include the holding costs, acquisition or purchase costs, stock out costs and ordering
costs.
MATERIAL COST CONTROL PROCEDURE
Fast forward:
Material control procedure helps prevent material losses and minimize on unnecessary material
costs.
Materials form a significant cost of output units and, therefore, should be controlled. Material
control is more than simply recording the accounting transactions relating to material cost. Control
should be implemented to ensure that material is available:
a) In appropriate quantities
b) In appropriate quality
c) In appropriate location
d) At an appropriate time
e) At the most economic cost.
An effective material cost control system has the following features among others:
(i) Adequate perpetual inventory records: there needs to be maintained records for
each item of inventory held in store. Some form of stock record card will be required for
each stock item recording, in addition to a specific materials the debt and quantity of
receipts, issues and consequent balancing figure.
71
S T U D Y T E X T
(ii) Checking of perpetual inventory records: perpetual inventory records should be
subjected to some form of check. This may be a form of continuous or periodic stock
taking.
(iii) Maintenance of target stock levels: appropriate stock level and stock management
practices should be exercised. The stock level management involves knowing the
minimum stock level, maximum stock level and the reorder quantity level.
(iv) Authorization of orders: orders passed to purchasing officer for replenishment of
stock items should be signed by designated staff in the store. Issues from the store
should be made only on receipt of signed material requisition forms.
(v) Responsibility and authority relationships: responsibility and authority of material
stores should be clearly delegated to specific individual(s). If more than one individual
is required to operate the store, then personnel should be given the responsibility of
clearing the designated tasks.
(vi) Reporting: Quantity or value of items held in store should be reported regularly to the
organization’s management.
(vii) Control: the store personnel should on a regular basis compare targets with actual
stock levels and take appropriate action indicated by that comparison to investigate
the deviation e.g. why a particular stock has fallen below minimum and immediately
informing those responsible to take appropriate action. Controls can be exercised in
many areas or points in the business cycle, not only the stores. These include:
a) When the choice is made as to the type and quality of material to be used.
b) When the purchase order is being placed with the chosen supplier.
c) On receipt of the material from supplier, check the appropriateness of quality and
quantity of materials received.
d) Where the material is held in store before use: It must be safe from theft and
damage.
e) Where the material is issued from the store: It must be issued to the correct
department.
f) Where the material is being used for intended purposes e.g. the material must be
utilized to produce the desired output.
The material control system must attempt to ensure that the company does not incur costs in
excess of an agreed efficient level of expenditure. Lack of adequate control routines will result
in the incidence of costs in excess of an acceptable level, reduced profitability of production and
increased operational costs.
MATERIAL COSTS
7 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
STOCK LEVEL AND ITS CONTROL
Management must make decisions about the control of stock levels with a view to minimizing the
cost of the company while achieving more efficiency in the availability of material to fulfill planned
usage requirements. Consideration should be given to the following control levels:
a) Minimum stock level
b) Maximum stock level
c) Re-order level
d) Re order-quantity (Note the re-order quantity is not necessary the Economic Order
Quantity (EOQ)
Minimum stock level
This is the level below which stocks should not be allowed fall. It is essentially a base (buffer)
stock level. If stock falls below this point, there is a danger of stock-out and firms will incur
shortage costs. This may also be referred to as safety stock. It can be expressed as:
Minimum Stock Level = Reorder level - (Normal consumption x normal reorder period)
Stock out may be caused by various factors such as delay on the part of the supplier, an increase
in material usage due to a change in the pattern of production and increase in scrap levels in the
production process and delays in placing orders due to scarcity of suppliers.
Note: reorder period or lead time is the period of time in days, weeks or months that elapse
before an order made is received and ready for use.
Maximum stock level
This is the upper limit above which stock should not be allowed to exceed. Each material to be
kept in store must have a maximum level and stock should not be allowed to go beyond this level.
If stock level goes beyond this point, then the firm will be overstocking hence incur high holding
costs. It is computed as follows.
Maximum Stock level = Reorder level + Reorder Quantity - (Minimum Consumption x
Minimum reorder period)
73
S T U D Y T E X T
In setting the maximum stock level, the cost accountant must take into account various other
factors that may act as a constraint. This may include the nature of the materials being stocked,
rate of consumption of materials, lead time or re-order period, availability of adequate storage
space and the cost of storing versus the benefits derived from advantageous purchasing.
Re-order level
It is a point that lies between minimum and maximum stock levels at which purchase orders must
be placed to ensure that goods ordered are received before the minimum stock level is reached.
It is the level of stocks if and when approached; orders for stock replenishment must be made to
cater for the unused stocks. This level is normally higher than the minimum stock level to cover
for emergencies such as abnormal usage or unexpected delay in the delivery of new supplies. It
can be expressed as follows:
Reorder Level - Maximum Consumption X Maximum Re-order Period
Re-Order quantity
This is the quantity of stock ordered once the re-order point is reached. The quantity is such as to
minimize stock costs taking into consideration the cost of holding stocks and making an order.
The EOQ is an example of a re-order quantity. However, reorder quantity must not be the EOQ.
Given the maximum stock level, the reorder level, minimum usage and the minimum reorder
level, it may be computed as follows:
Re-order quantity = Maximum Stock - Re-order level + (Minimum Usage X Minimum
Re-order Period)
>>> Illustration
The following information was extracted from the books of Danex Holdings regarding its stocks:
Reorder quantity 1,800
Reorder period 4 weeks
Maximum consumption 450 units/week
Normal consumption 300 units/week
Minimum consumption 150 Units/week
Maximum reorder period 5 weeks
Minimum reorder period 3 weeks
Required
Determine the following stock levels for Danex Holdings:
i. Re-order level ii. Maximum stock level iii. Minimum stock level
MATERIAL COSTS
7 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Costs associated with materials
Purchase cost
This is the price charged by the supplier on an item of inventory. Purchase price will remain
irrelevant, where prices are fixed and no discounts are offered or no advantageous purchasing
exists. However, if there exists discounts associated with quantity purchased, they remain
relevant for decision making.
Purchase cost = Acquisition price per unit x Number of units
Holding or carrying cost
These are costs incurred because firms own or maintain inventories. They are associated with
high stock levels and include opportunity cost of funds tied up in stock, incremental in insurance
costs, incremental warehousing and storage costs, incremental material handling costs and cost
of obsolescence and theft of stock. The relevant holding cost should include those items which
vary with the level of stock. Costs unaffected by changes in the inventory levels are irrelevant
in decision making and thus not included in carrying costs, for instance, rent, depreciation of
equipment and salaries for storekeepers. Costs such as insurance costs should be included only
when premiums are charged on the fluctuating value of stocks. Therefore, fixed annual insurance
cost is irrelevant and thus should not be included in the ordering cost.
Carrying costs = Holding cost per unit per annum x Average stock
iii. Minimum stock level
Solution
(i) Reorder level
Units
450 units/week x 5 weeks
Re - order level maximum consumption x maximum re - order period
= 2,250
=
=
(ii) Maximum stock level
Maximum stock level = Reorder level + reorder Quantity - (Minimum Consumption x minimum reorder period)
= 3,600 Units
= (2,250 + 1800 - 450) Units
Maximum stock level = 2,250 Units + 1,800 Units - (150 units/week x 3 Weeks)
iii) Minimum stock level
Minimum stock level = Reorder level - (Normal consumption x normal reorder period)
= 1,050 Units
= 2,250 Units - 1200 Units
Minimum stock level = 2,250 Units - (300 Units/week x 4 weeks)
Costs associated with materials
Purchase cost
This is the price charged by the supplier on an item of inventory. Purchase price will
remain irrelevant, where prices are fixed and no discounts are offered or no
advantageous purchasing exists. However, if there exists discounts associated with
quantity purchased, they remain relevant for decision making.
Purchase cost = Acquisition price per unit x Number of units
Holding or carrying cost
These are costs incurred because firms own or maintain inventories. They are
associated with high stock levels and include opportunity cost of funds tied up in stock,
incremental in insurance costs, incremental warehousing and storage costs, incremental
material handling costs and cost of obsolescence and theft of stock. The relevant
holding cost should include those items which vary with the level of stock. Costs
unaffected by changes in the inventory levels are irrelevant in decision making and thus
not included in carrying costs, for instance, rent, depreciation of equipment and salaries
for storekeepers. Costs such as insurance costs should be included only when
premiums are charged on the fluctuating value of stocks. Therefore, fixed annual
insurance cost is irrelevant and thus should not be included in the ordering cost.
Carrying costs = Holding cost per unit per annum x Average stock
Ordering and procurement costs
This is the cost of getting an item into the firm’s inventory. It usually consists of clerical
costs of preparing a purchase order, receiving deliveries and paying invoices. Ordering
costs that are common to all stock decisions are irrelevant, and only incremental
75
S T U D Y T E X T
Ordering and procurement costs
This is the cost of getting an item into the firm’s inventory. It usually consists of clerical costs of
preparing a purchase order, receiving deliveries and paying invoices. Ordering costs that are
common to all stock decisions are irrelevant, and only incremental ordering costs are used. Note
that ordering costs are incurred each time an order is made and are associated with low stock
levels.
Stock out costs; they are costs incurred as a result of an item not being in stock. They include
loss of future sales due to disappointed customers, loss of goodwill, lost contribution or profit
from lost sales, extra costs of speeding up orders, etc.
Ordering costs = number of orders made per year x cost per order
Where number of orders per year = Annual Demand
Number of Units Ordered each time
THE ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY (EOQ) MODEL
Fast forward;
The EOQ model minimizes the total of holding and ordering costs thus minimizing the total stock
costs.
The EOQ Model is a simple model that helps the manager to determine the optimum quantity of
stock to order so as to keep total costs at a minimum. The main costs of inventory are: Holding
or carrying costs, Ordering or set up costs, Shortage costs
This model is based on various assumptions:
(i) It assumes that the annual demand is certain, constant and continuous over time.
(ii) Holding costs are known and constant
(iii) Ordering costs are known and constant
(iv) The same quantity is ordered every time an order is made since demand as assumed
is not to fluctuate significantly.
MATERIAL COSTS
7 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(v) The supply lead time is known and constant
(vi) Price and cost per unit is constant
(vii) No stock outs are permitted and delivery is instantaneous
(viii) Customers’ orders cannot be held while fresh orders are awaited.
EOQ as determined by the model
EOQ constitutes the quantity purchased of either stocks or raw materials that is considered most
optimum. This is the quantity that minimizes both holding costs and ordering costs. The EOQ
will change if either the cost of placing an order or the cost of carrying inventory in stock (holding
cost) changes. (Since total cost constitutes ordering cost and holding cost which the EOQ model
targets to minimize.)
As the quantity of purchase increases, there is a reduction in ordering costs, but an increase in
holding costs as illustrated in the graph below:
EOQ graph 1
The aggregate stock cost is lowest at the EOQ; at this point, the total cost is at minimum. Note
that the total cost in this case comprises the holding and ordering costs only.
EOQ graph 1
The aggregate stock cost is lowest at the EOQ; at this point, the total cost is at minimum.
Note that the total cost in this case comprises the holding and ordering costs only.
The various costs are determined as follows:
Total Ordering Cost = Cost per Order x No. of Orders in a Period
Total Cost = Total Ordering cost + Total Holding Cost
0
Quantity of inventory
Total cost
Holding cost
Total cost,
Ordering cost,
Holding cost
Ordering cost
EOQ
GRAPHICAL ILLUSTRATION OF THE EOQ
77
S T U D Y T E X T
The various costs are determined as follows:
Where D is the annual demand
C0
is the cost of making one order
Ch is the holding cost per unit per annum
To derive this formula, you need to understand the relationship between the various elements.
The number of orders in a period is equal to the total annual demand (D) divided by the quantity
purchased per order (Q).
The average stock is equivalent to half the quantity procured (beginning inventory) since the
ending inventory is zero (we assume that the firm exhausts the entire stock before reordering
and that there is no safety stock) as illustrated in the graph below.
To illustrate stock level variation with time
MATERIAL COSTS
EOQ graph 1
The aggregate stock cost is lowest at the EOQ; at this point, the total cost is at minimum.
Note that the total cost in this case comprises the holding and ordering costs only.
The various costs are determined as follows:
2
beginning Inventory Ending Inventory
Where, Average stock Quantity
Total Holding Cost Average stock Quantity x Holding cost Per Unit
Quantity per Order
Annual Demand
Where, No. of orders in a period =
Total Ordering Cost = Cost per Order x No. of Orders in a Period
Total Cost = Total Ordering cost + Total Holding Cost
+
=
=
The cost of the goods procured is not taken into account while determining the EOQ
where the price quoted is fixed and no discounts are offered.
Mathematically, the EOQ can be determined by the following formula
h
0
C
2DC
EOQ =
0
Quantity of inventory
EOQ
Where D is the annual demand
C0 is the cost of making one order
Ch is the holding cost per unit per annum
To derive this formula, you need to understand the relationship between the various
elements.
Q x Holding cost Per Unit(C )
2
1
Total Holding Cost = Average stock Quantity
Q)
Total Ordering Cost = Cost per Order (C ) x No. of Orders in a Period ( D
2QC ).
C ) + Total Holding Cost ( 1
Q
D
Total Cost = Total Ordering cost(
h
0
0 h
The number of orders in a period is equal to the total annual demand (D) divided by the
quantity purchased per order (Q).
The average stock is equivalent to half the quantity procured (beginning inventory) since
the ending inventory is zero (we assume that the firm exhausts the entire stock before
reordering and that there is no safety stock) as illustrated in the graph below.
To illustrate stock level variation with time
Period I Period II Period III
Time (Periods)
Stock
Level
(Units) Q
½ Q
Where D is the annual demand
C0 is the cost of making one order
Ch is the holding cost per unit per annum
To derive this formula, you need to understand the relationship between the various
elements.
Q x Holding cost Per Unit(C )
2
1
Total Holding = Average stock Quantity
Q)
Total Ordering Cost = Cost per Order (C ) x No. of Orders in a Period ( D
2QC ).
C ) + Total Holding Cost ( 1
Q
D
Total Cost = Total Ordering cost(
h
0
0 h
The number of orders in a period is equal to the total annual demand (D) divided by the
quantity purchased per order (Q).
The average stock is equivalent to half the quantity procured (beginning inventory) since
the ending inventory is zero (we assume that the firm exhausts the entire stock before
reordering and that there is no safety stock) as illustrated in the graph below.
EOQ graph 2
To illustrate stock level variation with time
Period I Period II Period III
Time (Periods)
Stock
Level
(Units) Q
½ Q
EOQ graph 2
7 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Stock purchased is sold at a constant rate until it is exhausted. An instantaneous replenishment
is done to bring the stock back to the initial amount. There is certainty in the behavior of
consumption.
At the optimum stock level, the holding and the ordering costs are equal. Take a look at the EOQ
Graph 1 on page 76; optimum stock level, EOQ, is at the point where:
Total Holding Cost = Total Ordering cost
h 0 QC
QC = D 2
1
Make Q the subject of the formula.
Multiply both sides of the equation by Q to get
h 0
2 2Q C = DC
1
Multiply both sides of the equation by 2 to get
h 0
2 Q C = 2DC
Divide both sides of the equation by Ch to get
h
2 0
C
2DC
Q =
Obtain Q by taking the square root of both sides of the equation
h
C
2DC
Q =
h C
2DC
therefore EOQ =
Illustration
ABC Ltd has an aggregate demand of 1.2 million units. Each time they place an order,
there is an ordering cost of Shs.1,000, holding cost is Shs.100 per unit. Determine:
i. EOQ
ii. No. of order to be made based on EOQ
iii. Total cost of stocks based on the EOQ
Solution
Data Provided; D=1.2 million units, C0 =Shs.1,000, Ch =Shs.100
(i)
h C
2DC
EOQ =
= 4,899 Units
10
48989
=
100
2,400,000,000
=
100
2 x 1,200,000 x 1,000
EOQ =
(ii)
Orders
.
, ,
=
(Approx) 245
= 244 94
489
1 200 000
Quantity Per order
Annual demand
Number of oders =
(iii)
79
S T U D Y T E X T
= 489,900
x 1,000)
4,899
1,200,000
2 x 4,899 x 100 ) + (
=( 1
C )
Q
D
2QC ) + (
Total cost = ( 1 h 0
Illustration
Aries’ Jewelers Inc. purchases 15,000 one-quarter-carat diamonds each year for various
mountings. The following information relating to the diamonds is available.
Purchase cost per diamond Shs.200
Cost to carry one diamond in inventory for one year 5
Cost of placing one order to the company’s supplier 40
The maximum order that the insurance company will permit is 750 diamonds. The
minimum order that the supplier will permit is 150 diamonds, with all orders required to
be in multiples of 150 diamonds. The company has been purchasing in the maximum
allowable volume of 750 diamonds per order.
Required:
i. Determine the volume the company should be placing its orders.
. Units (Approx. 980 Units)
960,000
2 x 60,000 x 40
C
DC
EOQ
h
0
979 79
5
2
=
= =
=
The orders must be in multiples of 150 units. Therefore, total number to be ordered
should be either 900 units or 1050 units. By computing the total cost of holding and
ordering the diamonds, we obtain the following summaries.
Ordering 900 Units Ordering 1050 Units
= 2,917
= 2,250+667
x 40)
900
15,000
2 x 900 x 5) + (
Total cost = ( 1
= 3,196
= 2,625+571
x 40)
1050
15,000
2 x 1050 x 5) + (
Total cost = ( 1
Therefore, the cost accountant should recommend the purchase of 900 units as it is
more economical.
Illustration
A company uses 50,000 widgets per annum, which are acquired at Shs100 each. The
ordering and handling costs are Shs150 per order and carrying costs are 15% of the
cost of inventory per annum.
Required:
Calculate the economic order quantity.
(iii)
>>> Illustration
Aries’ Jewelers Inc. purchases 15,000 one-quarter-carat diamonds each year for various
mountings. The following information relating to the diamonds is available.
Purchase cost per diamond Shs.200
Cost to carry one diamond in inventory for one year 5
Cost of placing one order to the company’s supplier 40
The maximum order that the insurance company will permit is 750 diamonds. The minimum
order that the supplier will permit is 150 diamonds, with all orders required to be in multiples of
150 diamonds. The company has been purchasing in the maximum allowable volume of 750
diamonds per order.
Required:
i. Determine the volume the company should be placing its orders.
The orders must be in multiples of 150 units. Therefore, total number to be ordered should be
either 900 units or 1050 units. By computing the total cost of holding and ordering the diamonds,
we obtain the following summaries.
Therefore, the cost accountant should recommend the purchase of 900 units as it is more
economical.
MATERIAL COSTS
= 489,900
x 1,000)
4,899
1,200,000
2 x 4,899 x 100 ) + (
=( 1
C )
Q
D
2QC ) + (
Total cost = ( 1 h 0
Illustration
Aries’ Jewelers Inc. purchases 15,000 one-quarter-carat diamonds each year for various
mountings. The following information relating to the diamonds is available.
Purchase cost per diamond Shs.200
Cost to carry one diamond in inventory for one year 5
Cost of placing one order to the company’s supplier 40
The maximum order that the insurance company will permit is 750 diamonds. The
minimum order that the supplier will permit is 150 diamonds, with all orders required to
be in multiples of 150 diamonds. The company has been purchasing in the maximum
allowable volume of 750 diamonds per order.
Required:
i. Determine the volume the company should be placing its orders.
. Units (Approx. 980 Units)
960,000
2 x 60,000 x 40
C
DC
EOQ
h
0
979 79
5
2
=
= =
=
The of 150 units. Therefore, total number to be ordered
should be either 900 units or 1050 units. By computing the total cost of holding and
ordering the diamonds, we obtain the following summaries.
Ordering 900 Units Ordering 1050 Units
= 2,917
= 2,250+667
x 40)
900
15,000
2 x 900 x 5) + (
Total cost = ( 1
= 3,196
= 2,625+571
x 40)
1050
15,000
2 x 1050 x 5) + (
Total cost = ( 1
Therefore, the cost accountant should recommend the purchase of 900 units as it is
more economical.
Illustration
A company uses 50,000 widgets per annum, which are acquired at Shs100 each. The
ordering and handling costs are Shs150 per order and carrying costs are 15% of the
cost of inventory per annum.
Required:
Calculate the economic order quantity.
= 489,900
x 1,000)
4,899
1,200,000
2 x 4,899 x 100 ) + (
=( 1
C )
Q
D
2QC ) + (
Total cost = ( 1 h 0
Illustration
Aries’ Jewelers Inc. purchases 15,000 one-quarter-carat diamonds each year for various
mountings. The following information relating to the diamonds is available.
Purchase cost per diamond Shs.200
Cost to carry one diamond in inventory for one year 5
Cost of placing one order to the company’s supplier 40
The maximum order that the insurance company will permit is 750 diamonds. The
minimum order that the supplier will permit is 150 diamonds, with all orders required to
be in multiples of 150 diamonds. The company has been purchasing in the maximum
allowable volume of 750 diamonds per order.
Required:
i. Determine the volume the company should be placing its orders.
. Units (Approx. 980 Units)
960,000
2 x 60,000 x 40
C
DC
EOQ
h
0
979 79
5
2
=
= =
=
The orders must be in multiples of 150 units. Therefore, total number to be ordered
should be either 900 units or 1050 units. By computing the total cost of holding and
ordering the diamonds, we obtain the following summaries.
Ordering 900 Units Ordering 1050 Units
= 2,917
= 2,250+667
x 40)
900
15,000
2 x 900 x 5) + (
Total cost = ( 1
= 3,196
= 2,625+571
x 40)
1050
15,000
2 x 1050 x 5) + (
Total cost = ( 1
Therefore, the cost accountant should recommend the purchase of 900 units as it is
more economical.
Illustration
A company uses 50,000 widgets per annum, which are acquired at Shs100 each. The
ordering and handling costs are Shs150 per order and carrying costs are 15% of the
cost of inventory per annum.
8 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
>>> Illustration
A company uses 50,000 widgets per annum, which are acquired at Shs100 each. The ordering
and handling costs are Shs150 per order and carrying costs are 15% of the cost of inventory per
annum.
Required:
Calculate the economic order quantity.
ECONOMIC BATCH QUANTITY (EBQ)
Fast forward
Economic batch quantity is similar to Economic order quantity except that it is only applicable in
a manufacturing entity where production and consumption occur simultaneously with production
rate being higher than the consumption one.
This applies to manufacturing industries. Most companies producing a number of different
products organize their production on a batch basis rather than on a continuous one. Stock
replenishment is gradual rather than instantaneous as for EOQ. There are no ordering costs but
set up costs such as incremental labour, incremental overheads, machine down time and other
costs for setting up facilities for production e.g. heating time isrequired.
The challenge here lies in determining the optimum amount to produce per batch. The EOQ
formula can be modified in order to determine the optimum length of a production run and more
so determine the optimum number of units that should be manufactured in each production run.
This involves balancing set up costs and stock holding costs.
The EBQ formula for a manufacturing firm is a modification of the EOQ model formula for a
merchandizing firm. Set up costs substitute ordering costs in the EBQ formula.
Solution
Annual demand, D = 50,000, Cost of ordering Co = Shs150
Holding costs per unit per year, Ch = Shs (15% x 100) = Shs15
1,000,000 , units
15
2 x 50,000 x 150 15,000,000
C
DC
Q
h
1 000
15
2
= = = = =
Economic batch quantity (EBQ)
Fast forward
Economic batch quantity is similar to Economic order quantity except that it is only
applicable in a manufacturing entity where production and consumption occur
simultaneously with production rate being higher than the consumption one.
This applies to manufacturing industries. Most companies producing a number of
different products organize their production on a batch basis rather than on a continuous
one. Stock replenishment is gradual rather than instantaneous as for EOQ. There are no
ordering costs but set up costs such as incremental labour, incremental overheads,
machine down time and other costs for setting up facilities for production e.g. heating
time isrequired.
The challenge here lies in determining the optimum amount to produce per batch. The
EOQ formula can be modified in order to determine the optimum length of a production
run and more so determine the optimum number of units that should be manufactured in
each production run. This involves balancing set up costs and stock holding costs.
The EBQ formula for a manufacturing firm is a modification of the EOQ model formula
for a merchandizing firm. Set up costs substitute ordering costs in the EBQ formula..
The formula can be expressed as follows:
!"
# $%
& '
=
p
C d
2 D S
Q
h
1
Where, D = Annual demand for the product
S = Set up costs per batch (costs incurred in making preparation for production
run)
Ch = Cost of holding a unit per year
Q= Economic batch quantity
d = Consumption rate, for instance daily demand
p = Production rate i.e. quantity produced per unit of time say, a day, month or
year. It is the quantity which would be produced in one time period by
81
S T U D Y T E X T
ordering costs but set up costs machine down time and other costs time isrequired.
The challenge here lies in determining EOQ formula can be modified in run and more so determine the optimum each production run. This involves The EBQ formula for a manufacturing for a merchandizing firm. Set up costs The formula can be expressed as Where, D = Annual demand S = Set up costs per batch run)
Ch = Cost of holding a unit Q= Economic batch quantity
d = Consumption rate, for p = Production rate i.e. quantity year. It is the quantity continuous production. ( ) p
1! d = An adjustment factor consumption of the product time isrequired.
The challenge here lies in determining the optimum amount to produce per batch. The
EOQ formula can be modified in order to determine the optimum length of a production
run and more so determine the optimum number of units that should be manufactured in
each production run. This involves balancing set up costs and stock holding costs.
The EBQ formula for a manufacturing firm is a modification of the EOQ model formula
for a merchandizing firm. Set up costs substitute ordering costs in the EBQ formula..
The formula can be expressed as follows:
!"
# $%
& '
=
p
C d
2 D S
Q
h
1
Where, D = Annual demand for the product
S = Set up costs per batch (costs incurred in making preparation for production
run)
Ch = Cost of holding a unit per year
Q= Economic batch quantity
d = Consumption rate, for instance daily demand
p = Production rate i.e. quantity produced per unit of time say, a day, month or
year. It is the quantity which would be produced in one time period by
continuous production. In our case
( ) p
1! d = An adjustment factor to the Holding cost since during production,
consumption of the product is still on. This only applies where there is gradual
The formula can be expressed as follows:
Where,
D = Annual demand for the product
S = Set up costs per batch (costs incurred in making preparation for production run)
Ch = Cost of holding a unit per year
Q = Economic batch quantity
d = Consumption rate, for instance daily demand
p = Production rate i.e. quantity produced per unit of time say, a day, month or year. It
is the quantity which would be produced in one time period by continuous production.
In our case = An adjustment factor to the Holding cost since during production,
consumption of the product is still on. This only applies where there is gradual
replenishment. Where the replenishment is instantaneous, the factor is not
included.
The EBQ formula can be derived on the same principles as the EOQ formula. It aims at minimizing
the total costs. The total costs are minimized at the point where set up cost equals the holding
cost.
MATERIAL COSTS
The challenge here lies in determining the optimum amount to produce per batch. The
EOQ formula can be modified in order to determine the optimum length of a production
run and more so determine the optimum number of units that should be manufactured in
each production run. This involves balancing set up costs and stock holding costs.
The EBQ formula for a manufacturing firm is a modification of the EOQ model formula
for a merchandizing firm. Set up costs substitute ordering costs in the EBQ formula..
The formula can be expressed as follows:
!"
# $%
& '
=
p
C d
2 D S
Q
h
1
Where, D = Annual demand for the product
S = Set up costs per batch (costs incurred in making preparation for production
run)
Ch = Cost of holding a unit per year
Q= Economic batch quantity
d = Consumption rate, for instance daily demand
p = Production rate i.e. quantity produced per unit of time say, a day, month or
year. It is the quantity which would be produced in one time period by
continuous production. In our case
( ) p
1! d = An adjustment factor to the Holding cost since during production,
consumption of the product is still on. This only applies where there is gradual
replenishment. Where the replenishment is instantaneous, the factor ( ) p
1! d is
not included.
The EBQ formula can be derived on the same principles as the EOQ formula. It aims at
minimizing the total costs. The total costs are minimized at the point where set up cost
equals the holding cost.
It takes time for the entire Q to be produced. During this time ( x D) P
d units have been
used. Hence the units available at the highest point (maximum stock level) will be equal
to (Q D) P
! Q Therefore, the holding cost per unit shall be based on the average
inventory
( )
2
Q D P
! d
=
( )
2
1
P
Q ! d
A graphical representation of the gradual replenishment is as illustrated below;
Stock
Level
(Units)
Production
+ usage I
Usage I Usage II
Time (Period)
Production
+ usage II
Q
½ Q
Maximum
stock level
To illustrate EBQ stock level variation with time
8 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
>>> Illustration
Assume the constant annual sales demand for a product is 4500 unit; set up costs amounting to
Shs450. The holding cost is Shs20 per unit per year. Assume 250 working days throughout the
course of the year. The company produces 200 units per day during the production period.
Required:
Calculate the Economic Batch Quantity (EBQ)
>>> Illustration
a firm manufactures a product AC169 for sale in the market. The firm has a capacity of producing
250,000 units per annum. The annual demand for the product is 50,000 units, annual carrying
costs per unit per annum is Shs15. Labour and other cost incurred every time in setting the
machine for production equals Shs1,500.
Required: Calculate the Economic batch quantity.
The change from Ch to ( ) p
d
h C 1! reflect the fact that average stock will be ( ) P
Q 1! d 2
instead of 2
Q . The reduction is caused by the fact that some units will be taken out of
stock for use even as stock is being replenished by fresh production. If the production is
very fast, so p is very high in relation to d, periods of production will be very short so this
will have little effect on d
p . d
p will be small and ( ) p
1! d will be nearly 1.
Illustration
Assume the constant annual sales demand for a product is 4500 unit; set up costs
amounting to Shs450. The holding cost is Shs20 per unit per year. Assume 250 working
days throughout the course of the year. The company produces 200 units per day during
the production period.
+ usage I
Usage I Usage II
Time (Period)
+ usage II
To illustrate EBQ stock level variation with time
Required: Calculate the Economic Batch Quantity (EBQ)
Solution
Given: D=4500, Ch=Shs20, S=Shs450, p=200 units
d= 250
4500
of days = Number
Annualdemand =18 units per day
!"
# $%
& '
=
p
C d
2 D S
Q
h
1
( )
471.72 472 units
222,527.47
.
, ,
2
2 x 4500 x 450
Q
18
= !
=
=
"
=
18 2
4 050 000
0 1 200
ILLUSTRATION
A firm manufactures a product AC169 for sale in the market. The firm has a capacity of
producing 250,000 units per annum. The annual demand for the product is 50,000 units,
annual carrying costs per unit per annum is Shs15. Labour and other cost incurred every
time in setting the machine for production equals Shs1,500.
Required: Calculate the Economic batch quantity.
Solution
Given: Annual demand, D =50,000 units; Set up costs, S= Shs150;
Holding costs, Ch = Shs15; Production rate, P = 250,000 per annum
!"
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=
p
C d
2 D S
Q
h
1
( )
15,000,000
2 x 50,000 x 150
Q
=
=
83
S T U D Y T E X T
Solution
Given: Annual demand, D =50,000 units; Set up costs, S= Shs150;
Holding costs, Ch = Shs15; Production rate, P = 250,000 per annum
EOQ SITUATION WHERE DISCOUNTS ARE OFFERED
Fast forward:
Discounts offered by suppliers may change the optimal stock level that minimizes costs under a
no discount situation.
Ordinarily, manufactured offer discounts on bulk purchases. Quantity discounts are realized when
a firm buys in larger quantities than the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ).
To evaluate whether to take the discount or not, two methods may be used. These are:
a. One price level/cost comparison approach
b. Multiple price break model
a. One price level/cost comparison approach
In such situations, one should calculate the total costs for both EOQ situations and quantity
discount situation and compare the two total costs. The components of the total cost are the
purchase cost, holding costs and ordering costs.
Reject the discount offer if the total cost related to the quantity discount is more than the total
cost related to the EOQ situation. But if the total cost related to discount situation is less than
accepted.
MATERIAL COSTS
ILLUSTRATION
A firm manufactures a product AC169 for sale in the market. The firm has a capacity of
producing 250,000 units per annum. The annual demand for the product is 50,000 units,
annual carrying costs per unit per annum is Shs15. Labour and other cost incurred every
time in setting the machine for production equals Shs1,500.
Required: Calculate the Economic batch quantity.
Solution
Given: Annual demand, D =50,000 units; Set up costs, S= Shs150;
Holding costs, Ch = Shs15; Production rate, P = 250,000 per annum
!"
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=
p
C d
2 D S
Q
h
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1,118 units
1,250,000
12
15,000,000
15 1
2 x 50,000 x 150
Q
250,000
50,000
=
=
=
!
=
EOQ Situation where discounts are offered
Fast forward:
Discounts offered by suppliers may change the optimal stock level that minimizes costs
under a no discount situation.
8 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
b. Multiple Price Break Model
In here, there are several prices quoted for different batches. At each price, there is a discount
offer. To determine the optimal EOQ for the firm, determine the EOQ at each price. If the EOQ
calculated given the data of a specific class does not fall within that class, disregard the class and
proceed to the next class with the higher price.
>>> Illustration
Tim’s Solutions limited wishes to achieve excellent stock management so as to achieve a
marvelous profit this year. Its management estimates the demand for its product to be 1000 units
per annum with a purchase price of Shs10 per unit, a holding cost of Shs0.75 per unit (7.5 % of
purchase costs) and ordering costs of Shs 15 per order. The supplier of the stock has presented
Tim’s Solutions with the following range of prices of stocks.
Order size (Units) Quantity Discounts Price per Units (Shs)
0-99 0 10.00
100-199 1 9.90
200-399 2 9.98
400-599 4 9.60
600-799 5 9.50
800-899 5 9.50
900-999 5.5 9.45
Due to its storage capacity, the Company can only purchase an amount of up to 600 units.
Currently, the company is purchasing at optimum stock quantity to enable it achieve its objectives.
The management is considering whether to shift from the current stock purchase policy to
purchase the maximum stock.
Required:
a. Calculate the current EOQ in units
b. Determine the total cost of stock that arises due to the EOQ purchased (include the
discount opportunity cost)
c. Advise the company whether it should change its policy.
Solution
(a) Current EOQ
Data given: Cost of holding 0.75 per unit (7.5% of purchase cost )
Cost of ordering Shs15 per order
Purchase cost Shs10 per unit
Annual demand
85
S T U D Y T E X T
(c) Disregard the classes above, the 600-799 units, since we are told that the firm’s storage
capacity is only 600 units. When calculating the other EOQ values, use the lower figure
in the range (lower boundary)
The minimum total costs are incurred at the 600-799 bracket. Therefore, the company should
take advantage of the discounts and procure 600 units each time it wants to buy. The company
will save Shs411.25 each year by adopting the new policy.
MATERIAL COSTS
c. Advise the company whether it should change its policy.
Solution
(a) Current EOQ
Data given: Cost of holding 0.75 per unit (7.5% of purchase cost )
Cost of ordering Shs15 per order
Purchase cost Shs10 per unit
Annual demand
200 units
40,000
0.75
2 x 1,000 x 15
C
2DC
EOQ
h
0
=
= =
=
(b) Total costs of stocks that arise due to the EOQ purchased (before the
discounts are offered)
Total cost = Purchase cost + Holding Cost + Ordering cost
10,150
10,000 75 75
x 15)
200
1,000
x 200 x 0.75 ) (
2
(10 x 1000) ( 1
C )
Q
D
QC ) (
2
Total cost PD ( 1 h 0
=
= + +
= + +
= + +
(c) Disregard the classes above, the 600-799 units, since we are told that the
firm’s storage capacity is only 600 units. When calculating the other EOQ
values, use the lower figure in the range (lower boundary)
Range EOQ
Order
quantity
Total
Holding
Cost
Total
ordering
Cost
Total
purchase
cost
Total
cost
600-799
7.5% x 9.50
2 x 1000 x 15
= 600
213.75 25.00 9500 9,738.75
400-599
7.5% x 9.60
2 x 1000 x 15
= 400
144.00 37.50 9600 9,781.50
200-399
7.5% x 9.80
2 x 1000 x 15
= 202
73.50 75.00 9800 9,948.50
Current
7.5% x 10.00
2 x 1000 x 15
= 200
75.00 75.00 10000 10,150.00
the discount opportunity cost)
c. Advise the company whether it should change its policy.
Solution
(a) Current EOQ
Data given: Cost of holding 0.75 per unit (7.5% of purchase cost )
Cost of ordering Shs15 per order
Purchase cost Shs10 per unit
Annual demand
200 units
40,000
0.75
2 x 1,000 x 15
C
2DC
EOQ
h
0
=
= =
=
(b) Total costs of stocks that arise due to the EOQ purchased (before the
discounts are offered)
Total cost = Purchase cost + Holding Cost + Ordering cost
10,150
10,000 75 75
x 15)
200
1,000
x 200 x 0.75 ) (
2
(10 x 1000) ( 1
C )
Q
D
QC ) (
2
Total cost PD ( 1 h 0
=
= + +
= + +
= + +
(c) Disregard the classes above, the 600-799 units, since we are told that the
firm’s storage capacity is only 600 units. When calculating the other EOQ
values, use the lower figure in the range (lower boundary)
Range EOQ
Order
quantity
Total
Holding
Cost
Total
ordering
Cost
Total
purchase
cost
Total
cost
600-799
7.5% x 9.50
2 x 1000 x 15
= 600
213.75 25.00 9500 9,738.75
400-599
7.5% x 9.60
2 x 1000 x 15
= 400
144.00 37.50 9600 9,781.50
200-399
7.5% x 9.80
2 x 1000 x 15
= 202
73.50 75.00 9800 9,948.50
Current
7.5% x 10.00
2 x 1000 x 15
= 200
75.00 75.00 10000 10,150.00
8 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
STOCK CONTROL SYSTEMS
Fast forward:
Different organizations will adopt different stock control systems based on the type, value,
ordering and issue of stocks.
ABC System or Pareto analysis
It is also called the 82/20 rule, control by importance/exception. It concentrates on high value
items. In here, items are categorized into three classes as follows:
Class A: These are high cost, fast moving and high usage items. They are few
accounting for only 20 percent of the total number of items yet account for 80 percent
of the total inventory budget. These items are worth to be under highest control.
Class B: These are medium moving goods. They account for 15 percent of the total
number of the budget. They are moderately controlled.
Class C: These are slow moving low value items. They are very many accounting for
65 percent of the total number of items and only 5 percent of the total inventory budget.
These items might be under simple physical control
Periodic order system
The firm receives a new order of the amount specified by the order quantity at equal intervals of
time. The order quantity is based on the likely demand (factors that affect demand of the firms
product) and the current stock levels. The firm determines the maximum and minimum inventory,
the safety stock and the reorder level. For instance, a firm may be supplied with fixed amount
of stock every Monday of the week for the entire period under consideration. This is mostly the
case where consumption is uniform throughout the period.
The stock levels are reviewed at fixed intervals and a replenishment order is issued where
necessary. The reviewed is deemed beneficial as obsolete stock can be identified and eliminated
at the earliest possible instance. Spreading of purchasing department load may yield economies
in placing orders. Furthermore, because orders will be sequential, there may be production
economies due to more efficient production planning and lower set up costs.
However, periodic order system requires larger stocks as reorder quantity must take into account
the period between the reviews and lead times too. More so, the reorder levels are not always
the EOQ. Where there arises a change in consumption habits and demand goes up significantly,
stock out costs may result. In other words, to come up with an appropriate period of review, the
demands must be reasonably consistent.
87
S T U D Y T E X T
Continuous Review System
The firm places orders at regular intervals but the order quantity varies according to how much
a firm requires to bring the level to some predetermined size or value. (To replenish the stock
already consumed). This is common with most enterprises. This system exists where consumption
fluctuates throughout the period.
Material Handling
The objective is to ensure that goods are delivered to the right places at the right time and in
the right manner to avoid delays, congestion and unnecessary handling. A big percentage of
production cost is taken up by material handling activities. A good material handling system
should minimize these costs.
The manager needs to determine the type of equipment to be used to handle the material. The
type of equipment that is most frequently used includes: Cranes, Lifts, Trucks and Conveyors
Various factors influence the type of materials to be used in handling the materials. They include
the type of materials being moved, volume of materials, rate or frequency of movement, route of
movement speed required, method of storage employed and safety or hazards involved.
Storage of Material; stores location and layout
Stores should be strategically located to minimize production costs. They should be located
closest to the factory as possible and where possible. In some instances, materials in the same
store may be needed at different locations, either in the same factory building or at different
plants. This calls for a more strategic planning on the location of the store where a new one
has to be constructed or looking for an alternative to minimize the costs e.g. contracting an
external third party. This may be through renting a warehouse or hiring transporters. Instances
such as hiring of transporters would only be economical where special storage equipment which
necessitates an enormous initial capital outlay are used, for instance freezers.
The layout of stores should ensure:
- Ease of access for movement of material in and out of stores
- The issue of perishable materials on a first in first out (FIFO)basis
- The segregation of toxic and dangerous materials in a separate location
- Security of materials by restriction of access to authorized personnel only
MATERIAL COSTS
8 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Valuation of Material inventory (Issues and closing stocks)
It aims at attaching a monetary value of material inventory in the stores or issued for production.
This is useful in costing the output and pricing production, as well as decision making.
Methods most commonly used in valuing inventory include:
i. First In First Out (FIFO)
ii. Last In Last Out (LIFO)
iii. Weighted Average method (WAM)
a) First in First Out (FIFO)
Advantages of the FIFO method
i. It is a logical pricing method which probably represents what is happening in practice:
oldest items are usually issued first out.
ii. Unrealized profits or losses do not arise at the end of period. Materials are issued at the
same price as that at which they were acquired hence no profit or loss arises out of the
transaction.
iii. It is easy to understand. It is also easy to calculate if prices of materials don’t fluctuate
iv. Closing stocks values reflect the latest costs thus tend to reflect the current market
values.
v. It is acceptable to many tax authorities and is also consistent with accounting practices
for instance the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International
Accounting Standards (IAS).
Disadvantages
i. It can be cumbersome to operate because of the need to identify each batch of materials
separately
ii. Product costs, based on the oldest material prices, lag behind current conditions
especially in inflationary markets.
iii. Managers may find it difficult to compare costs and make decisions where they are
charged with varying prices for the same materials.
89
S T U D Y T E X T
b) Last in first Out (LIFO)
It assumes that materials are issued out of stock in the reverse order to which they are delivered
i.e. they are valued at the price of units received first. Stock valuation is, therefore, based on the
prices ruling on the acquisition of the last stocks.
Advantages of the LIFO method
Product costs tend to be based on current market prices thus the method is realistic. Managers
are continually aware of the recent costs when making decisions because the cost being charged
to the department or products will be the current costs
Disadvantages
The LIFO method involves tedious calculations if the prices of materials fluctuate from time to
time.
Comparison of one job with another may be unfair and difficult. Variation in prices may make the
decision-making process difficult and unfair. This is because LIFO method is often the opposite
of what is happening in reality (stocks are valued at the oldest prices) and thus becomes difficult
to explain to managers.
c) Weighted Average Method (WAM)
Under this method, the issue price is recalculated after each receipt of stocks taking into account
both quantities and money value of the stocks received (perpetual weighted average). In this
case stock used or unused is based on the average price per unit where the average price per
unit is calculated as follows:
Average Price Per Unit = Total value of stocks
No. of units of stocks
= (Money value of old stocks + Money Value of New Stocks)
(Quantity of old stocks + Quantity of New Stocks)
At times, the inventory valuation may be done only once; at the end of the period. In such a
situation, the WAM formula will still be used but we shall regard that as periodic WAM valuation.
MATERIAL COSTS
9 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Advantages of the WAM method
Fluctuations in prices are smoothened out making it easier to use the data for decision making.
This method is easier to administer than the LIFO and FIFO methods of stock valuation.
Disadvantages of the WAM method
The resulting issue price is rarely the actual price that was paid and it can run into several
decimal places. Prices tend to lag a little behind the current market value where there is gradual
inflation
>>> Illustration
Assume the following purchases were made in ABC Ltd
Date of purchase Units purchased Price/unit
Date of purchase Units Purchased Price per Unit
1st January 500 100
2nd January 600 200
3rd January 800 400
Units used on 4th January are 900.
Required:
Determine the cost of units used by using and the value of the closing stocks by using FIFO,
LIFO and Weighted Average Methods.
Solution
FIFO Method
Purchased Issued Balance
Date Units Price Amount Units Price Amount Units Price Amount
1st Jan 500 100 50,000 500 100 50,000
2ndJan 600 200 120,000 1,100 170,000
3rd Jan 800 400 320,000 1,900 490,000
4th Jan 900 *** 130,000 1,000 360,000
§ The 900 units issued comprised the first batch of 500 units @ Shs. 100 and 400 units
from the second batch purchased on 2nd Jan @ Shs.200. *** Price for the materials
used is different.
91
S T U D Y T E X T
§ Closing stock was valued at Shs.360,000 comprising 800 units @ Shs.400 and 200
units @ Shs.200.
LIFO Method
Purchased Issued (Deducted) Balance
Date Units Price Amount Units Price Amount Units Price Amount
1st Jan 500 100 50,000 500 100 50,000
2ndJan 600 200 120,000 1,100 170,000
3rd Jan 800 400 320,000 1,900 490,000
4th Jan 900 *** 360,000 1,000 130,000
§ The 900 units issued comprised of the first batch 800 units @ Shs. 400 Purchased on
3rd Jan and 200 units from the second batch purchased on 2nd Jan @ Shs.200. *** Price
for the materials used is different.
§ Closing stock was valued at Shs.130,000 comprising 500 units @ Shs.100 and 400
units @ Shs.200.
WAM
Purchased Issued(Deducted) Balance
Date Units Price Amount Units Price Amount Units Price Amount
1stJan 500 100 50,000 500 100 50,000
2ndJan 600 200 120,000 1,100 154.545 170,000
3rdJan 800 400 320,000 1,900 257.895 490,000
4thJan 1,900 *** 490,000 900 257.895 232,105 1,000 257.895 257,895
The 900 units are issued at a weighted average Price which is arrived at using the formula
Average Price Per Unit = Total value of stocks
No. of units of stocks
The issue price after every purchase is arrived at as:
= (Money value of old stocks + Money Value of New Stocks)
(Quantity of old stocks + Quantity of New Stocks)
For instance, the weighted average price after the 2nd Purchase shall be
= (50,000 + 120,000) = 170,000
(500 + 600) = 1,100
= 154.545
This is the case for perpetual weighted average method.
MATERIAL COSTS
9 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
d) Standard cost methods of inventory valuation
Under this method, all issues are valued at a predetermined standard price which may not be
the same as the actual price paid for the materials delivered. The standard price is based on
management’s estimate of the expected costs. Where the standard price and the actual price are
different, a material price variance occurs.
Advantages of standard costing
All issues are made at the same price hence makes it easy to compare. It is easy and less
tedious since it does not involve recalculation of prices at different stages. In addition, it acts as
a standard, which can be used for management control reporting.
Disadvantages of standard costing
Determination of standards can be difficult and time consuming. It involves a lot of analysis.
Issues may not be at current market value. In addition, where the price paid is different from
the standard price, a variance will arise which calls for further analysis in order to determine the
cause of the variance. Problems of inflation are difficult to manage especially where inflation
rates change very often.
e) Replacement costing
Here, material issues and closing stock are valued at a cost at which identical materials can
be bought. Replacement cost is the cost at which an identical asset could be purchased or
manufactured.
Advantages of replacement costing
This method ensures that materials are issued at prices which are up to date. This enables
managers to take recent trends into account while making decisions. This method is recommended
in accounting for inflation. It is also easy to operate once the replacement cost has been
determined.
Disadvantages of replacement costing
The replacement cost may not necessarily be the price at which the inventory was acquired. This
will translate to a price variance. More so, it is difficult to determine the replacement cost
93
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Materials refer to the tangible inputs into the process of producing useful output.
There are three general kinds of stocks kept by firms due to various reasons:
• Buffer inventories
• Anticipation inventory
• Appreciation inventory
Elements of material cost are
• Purchase cost
• Ordering cost
• Holding cost
• Shortage cost
An effective material cost control system has the following features among others:
• Adequate perpetual inventory records
• Checking of perpetual inventory records
• Maintenance of target stock levels
• Authorization of orders.
• Responsibility and authority relationships
• Reporting
• Control.
Stock level and its control
MATERIAL COSTS
Chapter Summary
Materials refer to the tangible inputs into the process of producing useful output.
There are three general kinds of stocks kept by firms due to various reasons:
• Buffer inventories
• Anticipation inventory
• Appreciation inventory
Elements of material cost are
• Purchase cost
• Ordering cost
• Holding cost
• Shortage cost
An effective material cost control system has the following features among others:
• Adequate perpetual inventory records
• Checking of perpetual inventory records
• Maintenance of target stock levels
• Authorization of orders.
• Responsibility and authority relationships
• Reporting
• Control.
Stock level and its control
Minimum stock level
Minimum stock level = Reorder level - (Normal consumption x normal reorder period)
Maximum stock level
Maximum stock level = Reorder level + reorder Quantity - (Minimum Consumption x minimum reorder period)
Re-order level
9 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
• Responsibility and authority relationships
• Reporting
• Control.
Stock level and its control
Minimum stock level
Minimum stock level = Reorder level - (Normal consumption x normal reorder period)
Maximum stock level
Maximum stock level = Reorder level + reorder Quantity - (Minimum Consumption x minimum reorder period)
Re-order level
Re - order level = maximum consumption X maximum re - order period
Re order quantity
Re - order quantity = maximum stock - re - order level + (Minimun Usage x Minimum reorder period)
Economic order quantity =
h
0
C
2DC
EOQ =
Economic batch quantity =
!"
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& '
=
p
C d
2 D S
Q
h
1
Chapter quiz
1. List four stock control systems
2. List the advantages of FIFO method
95
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. List four stock control systems
2. List the advantages of FIFO method
3. Write down the EOQ formula
MATERIAL COSTS
9 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
ANSWERS TO CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Stock control systems
• ABC System
• Periodic order system
• Continuous review system
• Just in time inventory system
2. Advantages of FIFO method
• It is a logical pricing method which probably represents what is happening in practice:
oldest items are usually issued first out.
• Unrealized profits or losses do not arise at the end of period. Materials are issued at the
same price as that at which they were acquired hence no profit or loss arises out of the
transaction.
• It is easy to understand. It is also easy to calculate if prices of materials don't fluctuate
• Closing stocks values reflect the latest costs thus tend to reflect the current market
values.
• It is acceptable to many tax authorities and is also consistent with accounting practices
for instance the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International
Accounting Standards (IAS)
3.
PAST PAPER ANALYSIS
Question sin this chapter have been tested in the following exam sittings.
12/06/ Q1(a); 06/04 Q4; 06/03 Q5; 06/03 Q6; 05/02 Q7; 12/01 Q2; 12/00 Q1; 06/00 Q2; 05/00
Q4: 06/98 Q5; 12/96 Q1; 06/97 Q5; 12/94 Q6; 06/94 Q2; 06/93 Q4;
Chapter Summary
Materials refer to the tangible inputs into the process of producing useful output.
There are three general kinds of stocks kept by firms due to various reasons:
• Buffer inventories
• Anticipation inventory
• Appreciation inventory
Elements of material cost are
• Purchase cost
• Ordering cost
• Holding cost
• Shortage cost
An effective material cost control system has the following features among others:
• Adequate perpetual inventory records
• Checking of perpetual inventory records
• Maintenance of target stock levels
• Authorization of orders.
• Responsibility and authority relationships
• Reporting
• Control.
Stock level and its control
Minimum stock level
Minimum stock level = Reorder level - (Normal consumption x normal reorder period)
Maximum stock level
Maximum stock level = Reorder level + reorder Quantity - (Minimum Consumption x minimum reorder period)
Re-order level
Re - order level = maximum consumption X maximum re - order period
Re order quantity
Re - order quantity = maximum stock - re - order level + (Minimun Usage x Minimum reorder period)
Economic order quantity =
h
0
C
2DC
EOQ =
Economic batch quantity =
!"
# $%
& '
=
p
C d
2 D S
Q
h
1
Chapter quiz
1. List four stock control systems
2. List the advantages of FIFO method
97
S T U D Y T E X T
EXAM QUESTIONS
Question One
Highlight the essential requirements of an effective material control system (10 mark)
Question Two
Mwaura uses the EOQ formula to establish its optimal reorder quantity for its single new material.
The following data relates to the stock costs
P = Shs 15 per item
Ch
= Shs50 per order
Co
= Shs5 per order
Storage costs = 10% of P + Shs0.20 per unit p.a.
D = 4,000 units
Required
Calculate the economic order quantity (10 marks)
Question Three
H limited wishes to minimize its stock costs. At the moment, its reorder quantity is 1000 units.
Order costs are £10 per order and annual holding costs are £1.2. H estimates the annual demand
to be 15,000 units.
Required:
Calculate the EOQ to the nearest 1000 units (10 marks)
Question Four
Jitahidi Company is located in Kariobangi Light industries area in Nairobi. The company
manufactures a product ‘Comex’, which is used in the building industry. The main are materials
used in the manufacture of ‘Comex’is material B42000.
The following information relates to the material B42000
Annual requirements: 144,000
Ordering costs: Shs12,500 per order
Annual holding costs: 20% of the purchase price
Purchase price per unit: Shs500
Safety stock requirement: None
MATERIAL COSTS
9 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Required:
(i) The economic order quantity (7 marks)
(ii) The number of orders needed per year (7 marks)
(iii) Total costs of ordering and holding material B42000 per year (6 marks)
Question Five
a) Explain the advantages of centralized system of maintaining stores. (5 marks)
b) Explain the assumptions behind the determination of Economic Order Quantity
(EOQ). (5 marks)
c) The following information is given for material Y-20.
Consumption:
Annual 360,000 units
Maximum 1,200 units/day
Minimum 800 units/day
Normal 900 units/day
Re-order period 12 – 24 days
Re-order quantity 32,000 units
Required: Work out
i) Re-order level. (4 marks)
ii) Minimum stock level. (3 marks)
iii) Maximum stock level (3 marks)
(cpa 07/00)
CASE STUDY
Nyali Ltd. is a distributor of an industrial chemical in the South Coast. The chemical is supplied
in drums, which have to be stored at a controlled temperature. The company’s objective is to
maximize profits, however the management team disagrees on the stock control policy and holds
the following different views:
The Managing Director’s view:
The company’s managing director (MD) wishes to improve the stock holding policy by applying
the economic order quantity (EOQ) model. Each drum of the chemical costs Shs. 5,000 from
a supplier and is sold for Shs. 6,000. The annual demand is estimated to be 10,000 drums,
which the MD assumes to be evenly distributed over the 300 working days in a year. The cost
of delivery is estimated at Shs. 2,500 per order and the annual variable holding cost per drum at
Shs. 4,500 plus 10% of the purchase price.
99
S T U D Y T E X T
Using these data, the MD calculated the EOQ and proposes that it should be used as the basis
for future purchasing decisions of the industrial chemical.
The Purchasing Manager’s view:
Provided in the employment contract of the company’s purchasing manager (PM) is a clause
stating that he will receive a bonus (rounded at the nearest Shs. 100) calculate as follows:
b = [1,000,000 – (OC + HC)] x 0.1
where: b is the annual bonus.
OC
is the annual ordering cost.
HC
is the annual holding cost.
Using the same assumption as the MD, the PM points out that in making his calculation, the
MD has not only ignored the bonus but also the fact that suppliers offer quantity discounts on
purchase orders, where if the order size is 200 drums or above, the price per drum for an entire
consignment is only Shs. 4,990 compared to Shs. 5,000 when the order is between 100 and 199
drums and Shs. 5,010 when an order is between 50 and 99 drums.
The Finance Director’s view:
The company’s finance director (FD) accepts the need to consider quantity discounts and pay
a bonus, but he also holds the view that the MD’s approach is too simplistic. He points out that
there is a three days lead time for an order and that demand has not been entirely even over the
past year. Moreover, if the company has no drums of the chemical in stock, it will lose specific
orders as potential customers will source the chemical from competitors. He gives the frequency
of lead time demand over the last year as follows:
Demand during lead time Frequency
(No. of drums)
106 4
104 10
102 16
100 40
98 14
96 14
94 2
Under the circumstances, the MD decided that he would seek further advice on the course of
action to be taken by the company.
MATERIAL COSTS
1 0 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The EOQ as originally determined by the company’s managing director
EOQ = =
The optimum order quantity, taking into consideration the MD’s assumptions and after allowing
for the purchasing manager’s bonus and supplier quantity discount was calculated as follows;
To ascertain whether it is worth increasing the purchase quantity to 200 units, we must compare
the total costs at each of these quantities.
Total costs with a reorder quantity of 100 units Shs.
Annual holding costs = ½ QCh = ½ (100) x 5000 = 250,000
Annual ordering costs = x 2500
100
10000
O = C
Q
D
250,000
500,000
Purchase manager’s bonus = 10% x (1,000,000 – 500,000) 50,000
Annual purchase costs = 10,000 x 5,000 = 50,000,000
Total annual costs 50,550,000
Total costs with a reorder quantity of 200 units Shs.
Annual holding costs = 200 x 4,999 (4500 + 499) = 499,900
2
Annual ordering costs = 10,000 x 2,500 = 125,000
200
624,900
Purchase manager’s bonus = 10% x (1,000,000 – 624,900) 37,500
Annual purchase costs = 10,000 x 4,990 = 49,900,000
Total annual costs 50,562,400
The optimal order quantity is still 100 units
2
beginning Inventory Ending Inventory
Where, Average stock Quantity
+
=
goods procured is not taken into account while determining the EOQ
quoted is fixed and no discounts are offered.
the EOQ can be determined by the following formula
h
0
C
2DC
EOQ =
2 X 10,000 X 2,500 = 100 units
4,500 + 10% (5000)
10,000 x 2,500 =
100

101
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER ONE
LABOUR COSTS
S T U D Y T E X T
FIVE
S T U D Y T E X T
1 0 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
103
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER FIVE
LABOUR COSTS
OBJECTIVES
After studying chapter five, you should be able to
• Define labour costs and classify labour costs on the various available basis; whether
manufacturing, non-manufacturing, product or period
• Identify and define the elements of labour costs and the methods by which labour costs
can be paid out
• Explain the importance of time keeping and time analysis in determination of labour
costs
• Calculate overtime premium and distinguish overtime premium from shift premium
• Calculate the bonus payments and total labour costs.
• Explain why labour turnover exists and point out costs associated with high labour
turnover.
• Explain the importance of group bonus schemes and co-ownership schemes as
incentives to employees
• Identify the departments involved in accumulation of labour costs.
INTRODUCTION
In here, we look at elements of labour costs and learn to accumulate labour cost.
This chapter also looks at labour cost control and group remuneration and incentive schemes
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Labour turnover is the number of employees leaving or being recruited in a period of time.
Basic wages is the amount contracted for
1 0 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Idle time is non-predictive time paid for
Allowances are payments in addition to an employee’s wage or salary, and are paid as
compensation for a particular feature of work, inconvenience or discomfort incurred as part of
your position
Overtime premium is compensation paid to employees in addition to normal wages for hours
worked in excess of normal working hours
Shift premium is the payment of labour over and above the standard rate when they work on
shifts especially during the nights
EXAM CONTEXT
This chapter is usually examined together with others. However, this does not mean that the
examiner cannot set an entire question from this chapter. You therefore need to understand the
various concepts and terminologies used in order to give correct solutions.
INDUSTRY CONTEXT
This chapter is crucial and is applicable in the real life situation in determination of labour costs
in the various industries. In manufacturing industries, it is applied in determining how much of
the labour cost is to be charged in the various departments such as manufacturing and service
departments. In merchandising firms, it is applicable in determining how much of labour cost is
incurred (as operating cost) in terms of salaries, wages and commissions.
LABOUR COSTS
Fast forward;
The main cost of labour is the basic wages or salary. It may be fixed or variable; pegged to
performance. Other costs such as bonus and commissions may not always be incurred.
Labour costs refer to all the costs incurred in compensating the human resources employed to
provide a useful service in the production process. Just like material costs, labour costs form a
large percentage of the total cost of production. There is, therefore, need to exercise maximum
care so that this cost is minimized. Correct determination of labour costs is important for various
purposes including correct determination of gross and net pay for each individual employee,
for financial accounting and managerial accounting purposes. Managerial accounting purposes
include stock valuation decision making and labour cost control.
105
S T U D Y T E X T
Labour costs can either be direct or indirect. They include;
§ Basic salary or wages: this is the amount contracted for. A wage is the amount of
money paid for some specified quantity of labour. When expressed with respect to
time (usually per hour), it is typically called the wage rate, and is specified in pre-tax
amounts. It is often the main monetary item upon which the worker and the employer
focus when negotiating an employment contract.
§ Overtime premium: compensation paid to employees in addition to normal wages
for hours worked in excess of normal working hours. Normal hours refer to the time
pre-specified in the employment contract to be the official working hours. In most
organizations in Kenya, the normal working hours is between 8.00 am and 5.00 pm.
§ Bonus payment: this is a payment in addition to the amount contracted for, in most
cases based on the level of performance or profitability.
§ Allowances: allowances are payments in addition to an employee’s wage or salary, and
are paid as compensation for a particular feature of work, inconvenience or discomfort
incurred as part of your position. For instance, sitting allowance, traveling allowance
and hardship allowance.
§ Idle time: this is the non productive time paid for. For instance, workers are still paid
though no production is continuing due to power failure or machine breakdown
§ Labour turnover: this includes the cost of recruiting new employees who come in to
replace the outgoing employees.
Elements of Labour Costs
Basic wages
Basic wages is the amount contracted for. There are various methods by which basic wages can
be paid out. They include
(a) Fixed rate or fixed salary per month or per annum
Here, the employees earn a fixed amount despite the amount of work done. For instance,
a production manager may be allowed a salary of Shs500,000 per month, whether the
company production is at peak or off-peak.
b) Piece rate or piece work
Under this method, the earnings depend on the level of activity or output achieved and
it is expressed as
Earnings = Output (units) x basic rate per unit
LABOUR COSTS
1 0 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Under the piece rate system, there are three schemes of remuneration. These are straight piece
rate, straight piece rate with a guaranteed minimum pay and a differential piece rate.
Straight piece rate
Here, the basic rate per unit remains constant irrespective of the number of units produced. For
instance, if 200 units are produced at a basic rate of Shs1000 per units, then the earnings will
be
= Shs.1,000 per unit x 200 units
= Shs.200,000
The graphs below illustrate the straight piecework remuneration method
Straight piece rate with a guaranteed minimum pay
Under this scheme, although the employee is paid on the number of units produced, one is
guaranteed of some main wage since there are occasions when production does not take place
due to power failures, machine breakdowns, etc. Therefore, a standard rate is agreed upon for
the production of each unit based upon an expected time to produce one unit and the normal
rate per hour.
The total wages graph for this scheme would appear as shown below
(b) Piece rate or piece work
Under this method, the earnings depend on the level of activity or output achieved and it
is expressed as
Earnings = Output (units) x basic rate per unit
Under the piece rate system, there are three schemes of remuneration. These are
straight piece rate, straight piece rate with a guaranteed minimum pay and a differential
piece rate.
 Straight piece rate
Here, the basic rate per unit remains constant irrespective of the number of units
produced. For instance, if 200 units are produced at a basic rate of Shs1000 per units,
then the earnings will be
= Shs1,000 per unit x 200 units
= Shs200,000
The graphs below illustrate the straight piecework remuneration method
 Straight piece rate with a guaranteed minimum pay
Under this scheme, although the employee is paid on the number of units produced, one
is guaranteed of some main wage since there are occasions when production does not
take place due to power failures, machine breakdowns, etc. Therefore, a standard rate is
agreed upon for the production of each unit based upon an expected time to produce
one unit and the normal rate per hour.
The total wages graph for this scheme would appear as shown below
 Differential piece rate
Here, employees’ basic rate of pay per unit changed as the level of activity changes.
Under differential rate system, the workers time rate is fixed at a higher level than the
Unit
Cost
Output
Unit
Cost
Total
Cost
Output Output
b) Piece rate or piece work
Under this method, the earnings depend on the level of activity or output achieved and it
expressed as
Earnings = Output (units) x basic rate per unit
Under the piece rate system, there are three schemes of remuneration. These are
straight piece rate, straight piece rate with a guaranteed minimum pay and a differential
piece rate.
 Straight piece rate
Here, the basic rate per unit remains constant irrespective of the number of units
produced. For instance, if 200 units are produced at a basic rate of Shs1000 per units,
then the earnings will be
= Shs1,000 per unit x 200 units
= Shs200,000
The graphs below illustrate the straight piecework remuneration method
 Straight piece rate with a guaranteed minimum pay
Under this scheme, although the employee is paid on the number of units produced, one
guaranteed of some main wage since there are occasions when production does not
take place due to power failures, machine breakdowns, etc. Therefore, a standard rate is
agreed upon for the production of each unit based upon an expected time to produce
one unit and the normal rate per hour.
The total wages graph for this scheme would appear as shown below
 Differential piece rate
Here, employees’ basic rate of pay per unit changed as the level of activity changes.
Under differential rate system, the workers time rate is fixed at a higher level than the
Unit
Cost
Output
Unit
Cost
Total
Cost
Output Output
107
S T U D Y T E X T
Differential piece rate
Here, employees’ basic rate of pay per unit changed as the level of activity changes. Under
differential rate system, the workers time rate is fixed at a higher level than the usual rate of
payment if the output exceeds the expected (usually set) level. The objective of this system
is to provide an incentive to the workers while retaining the simplicity of the system. It is most
appropriate for easily measurable output to which groups of workers contribute e.g. car assembly
lines. The low piece rate is applicable where a worker is not able to achieve the standard (normal)
output and the highest piece rate is for those above standard. It does not provide the security
of a guaranteed minimum wage but has the enhanced incentive of increased rates for higher
production. The graphical illustration of the scheme will be as follows;
If it does not guarantee minimum wages on time basis, this may lead to high wage differential in
the company and consequently demotivation. For this reason, the differential price rate system
as well as many variations of the piece rate system contain a minimum (guaranteed) pay.
(c) Time rate or time work
Under this method, employees earnings depend on the time spent on the job. Total
wages can be expressed as;
Total earnings = Basic rate per hour x total hours worked
Under this system there are various schemes that may be applied. They include
Flat time rate
Under flat time rate, each worker is paid for the time spent without considering the volume
of production during that period. The basic rate per hour remains constant irrespective of the
number of hours worked. For instance, assume that an employee worked for 200 hours on a
specific assignment. Assume further that the basic rate per hour is Shs100. The total earnings
under flat time rate will be
= Shs100 per hour x 200 hours
= Shs20,000
LABOUR COSTS
usual rate of payment if the output exceeds the expected (usually set) level. The
objective of this system is to provide an incentive to the workers while retaining the
simplicity of the system. It is most appropriate for easily measurable output to which
groups of workers contribute e.g. car assembly lines. The low piece rate is applicable
where a worker is not able to achieve the standard (normal) output and the highest piece
rate is for those above standard. It does not provide the security of a guaranteed
minimum wage but has the enhanced incentive of increased rates for higher production.
The graphical illustration of the scheme will be as follows;
If it does not guarantee minimum wages on time basis, this may lead to high wage
differential in the company and consequently demotivation. For this reason, the
differential price rate system as well as many variations of the piece rate system contain
a minimum (guaranteed) pay.
(c) Time rate or time work
Under this method, employees earnings depend on the time spent on the job. Total
wages can be expressed as;
Total earnings = Basic rate per hour x total hours worked
Under this system there are various schemes that may be applied. They include
 Flat time rate
Under flat time rate, each worker is paid for the time spent without considering the
volume of production during that period. The basic rate per hour remains constant
irrespective of the number of hours worked. For instance, assume that an employee
worked for 200 hours on a specific assignment. Assume further that the basic rate per
hour is Shs100. The total earnings under flat time rate will be
= Shs100 per hour x 200 hours
= Shs20,000
The graphical illustration of labour cost behavior under flat time rate is as shown;
Unit
Cost
Output
1 0 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The graphical illustration of labour cost behavior under flat time rate is as shown;
Measured day rate
This is where although the employee is paid on the basis of the number of hours worked, before
such payment is made, one must have completed a given piece of assignment.
Graduated time rate
Under this scheme, the rate of pay is adjusted to reflect changes in the cost of living
Graphical illustrations of the two schemes above; measured day rate and graduated day rate are
as follows;
Time Keeping
A labour cost control routine should ensure that payments are paid only to employees who have
spent time at the work place and that payments are at agreed rates of pay including overtime
premium and shift premium payments where relevant. Where an employee is paid a fixed sum
for an agreed length of working week, it may be decided by a check by the supervisor that the
employee is at work is all that is necessary.
 Measured day rate
This is where although the employee is paid on the basis of the number of hours worked,
before such payment is made, one must have completed a given piece of assignment.
 Graduated time rate
Under this scheme, the rate of pay is adjusted to reflect changes in the cost of living
Graphical illustrations of the two schemes above; measured day rate and graduated day
rate are as follows;
Time Keeping
A labour cost control routine should ensure that payments are paid only to employees
who have spent time at the work place and that payments are at agreed rates of pay
including overtime premium and shift premium payments where relevant. Where an
employee is paid a fixed sum for an agreed length of working week, it may be decided
by a check by the supervisor that the employee is at work is all that is necessary.
Where the employee is being paid at the rate per hour for the time spent at work
together with premium rates for overtime work, it is likely that a detailed record of time
Unit
cost
Total
cost
Time Time
To illustrate measured day rate To illustrate graduated time rate
Unit
cost
Total
cost
Time Time
 Measured day rate
This is where although the employee is paid on the basis of the number of hours worked,
before such payment is made, one must have completed a given piece of assignment.
 Graduated time rate
Under this scheme, the rate of pay is adjusted to reflect changes in the cost of living
Graphical illustrations of the two schemes above; measured day rate and graduated day
rate are as follows;
Time Keeping
A labour cost control routine should ensure that payments are paid only to employees
who have spent time at the work place and that payments are at agreed rates of pay
including overtime premium and shift premium payments where relevant. Where an
employee is paid a fixed sum for an agreed length of working week, it may be decided
by a check by the supervisor that the employee is at work is all that is necessary.
Where the employee is being paid at the rate per hour for the time spent at work
together with premium rates for overtime work, it is likely that a detailed record of time
Unit
cost
Total
cost
Time Time
To illustrate measured day rate To illustrate graduated time rate
Unit
cost
Total
cost
Time Time
109
S T U D Y T E X T
Where the employee is being paid at the rate per hour for the time spent at work together with
premium rates for overtime work, it is likely that a detailed record of time spent on the premises
is required. This is done by having the employee to register his arrival and departure times.
Time analysis
This is usually achieved by having the employee complete a daily or weekly timesheet or by
having job cards or piecework tickets. Where time sheets are issued, the employee records
the time analysis stating how much time was spent on each job and recording idle time. This
sheet will then be authorized by the supervisor. Job cards move with a job as it passes from one
employee to another.
There may be time clocks at each work center where the time spent on the job is recorded.
Where this routine is used, employees may also be required to clock idle time on an idle time
card, which will be analyzed to determine the cause of idle time. Where payments are made in
return for out put units, piecework tickets may be completed which are signed by the supervisor
certifying the number of units claimed. The analysis of employee time will facilitate:
§ Correct charge of direct labour cost to each job
§ Correct charge of indirect labour cost to cost centers
§ Control of labour costs by job and cost center
§ Calculation of employee bonus
§ Measurement of efficiency
Improvement in the differential piece rate system
An improvement of the high day rate system is the measured day work system. This system
attempts to grade workers according to their efficiency and pay them a fixed amount based on
which bracket they fall. For example, a company may have the following efficiency brackets paid
at the respective rates.
Efficiency Bracket Fixed rate
90% to 95% Shs.50,000 per month
96% to 100% Shs.60,000 per month
101% to 105% Shs.70,000 per month
Suppose a worker falls in the 96% to 100% bracket, the actual amount of wages to be paid to
him is Shs.60,000. The challenge here is that some employees may be more or less efficient
than graded. Does the company still pay them the same amount as indicated in the efficiency
LABOUR COSTS
11 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
table? This calls for a consistent review of the employees’ efficiency and remuneration scheme.
Where, for instance, an employee has performed more efficiently, the company may pay an
excess amount based on the evaluation. Assuming the employee in the same bracket as above
achieves 104% efficiency, the company may decide to pay him/her the basic amount plus an
extra amount based on evaluation.
i.e:
The challenge comes in when the employee hits a lower class than the one he has been rated.
Does the company pay him less?
Note: Labour efficiency and or productivity measures how efficiently the employees are working.
It can be expressed as follows:-
Efficiency ratio = Standard time x 100
Actual hours worked (productive and nonproductive)
Overtime premium:
This is the compensation paid to employees in addition to normal wages for hours worked in
excess of normal working hours. The overtime is that time paid for over and above the basic
hours for the period. Overtime premium is the difference between the rate at which normal
working hours are paid and the rate at which overtime hours are paid.
Overtime by direct workers might either be to make up for the lost time earlier in the production
process or to produce more of the product than was originally anticipated. The premium is
considered to be an indirect labour cost and is treated as a production overhead.
Note that if overtime is needed to produce extra units i.e. overtime hours are worked for general
production, then it is unavoidable and it should be treated as part of production overheads (indirect
labour costs). In addition, if overtime is worked at a specific request of a customer, to get his work
or order completed, then the premium is charged to that order as part of direct labour costs.
Shift premium
This is the payment of labour over and above the standard rate when they work on shifts especially
during the nights or periods outside the normal working hours.
= Shs.60,000 +
104 -100
105 -100
x(70,000 - 60,000)
= Shs.60,000 +
4
5
x10,000
= Shs.60,000 + 8,000
= Shs.68,000
!
" #
$
% &
The challenge comes in when the employee hits a lower class than the one he has been
rated. Does the company pay him less?
Note: Labour efficiency and or productivity measures how efficiently the employees are
working. It can be expressed as follows
x100
Actual hours worked (productive and nonproductive)
Standard time
Efficiency ratio =
Overtime premium:
This is the compensation paid to employees in addition to normal wages for hours
worked in excess of normal working hours. The overtime is that time paid for over and
above the basic hours for the period. Overtime premium is the difference between the
rate at which normal working hours are paid and the rate at which overtime hours are
paid.
Overtime by direct workers might either be to make up for the lost time earlier in the
production process or to produce more of the product than was originally anticipated.
The premium is considered to be an indirect labour cost and is treated as a production
overhead.
Note that if overtime is needed to produce extra units i.e. overtime hours are worked for
general production, then it is unavoidable and it should be treated as part of production
overheads (indirect labour costs). In addition, if overtime is worked at a specific request
of a customer, to get his work or order completed, then the premium is charged to that
order as part of direct labour costs.
Shift premium
This is the payment of labour over and above the standard rate when they work on shifts
especially during the nights or periods outside the normal working hours
Bonus payments
Bonus payment is paid to employees to increase their efficiency. Various incentive
bonus schemes have been introduced. The characteristics of such schemes include;
 Employees are paid more for their efficiency
 In spite of extra labour costs, unit cost of output is reduced and the profit earned
per unit of sale is increased
111
S T U D Y T E X T
Bonus payments
Bonus payment is paid to employees to increase their efficiency. Various incentive bonus schemes
have been introduced. The characteristics of such schemes include;
§ Employees are paid more for their efficiency
§ In spite of extra labour costs, unit cost of output is reduced and the profit earned per unit
of sale is increased
§ The morale of the employees should be expected to improve since they are seen to
receive extra reward for extra effort.
Idle time
Idle time is non-predictive time paid for i.e. workers are paid but no goods have been produced
e.g. when there is machine breakdown, power failure or tea breaks. Idle time can either be
avoidable or unavoidable. It could be due to production disruptions whereby there is machine
breakdown, inefficient scheduling of jobs or shortage of raw materials or policy decisions i.e.
changes in production specifications or retraining skills.
Labour costs for paying for hours of avoidable time are costs that simply should not have occurred.
Therefore, they should be written off in the profit and loss account.
Unavoidable idle time is that which cannot be helped. It is uncontrollable or unnecessary cost to
the business e.g. tea breaks, unexpected fall in demand for a product or a strike at the suppliers
affecting vital supplies. Unavoidable idle time of direct workers may be included in the cost of
products as a production overhead. All other idle time is treated as period costs.
Idle time ratio = Idle time x 100
Total hours worked
Labour turnover
It is the number of employees leaving or being recruited in a period of time. It is expressed as a
percentage of the total labour force. It is expressed as;
Labour turnover = Replacement x 100
Average no. of employees in a period
LABOUR COSTS
11 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Causes of labour turnover; these causes outline the reasons why an employee may leave an
organization. They include
§ Illness and accidents
§ Retirement and death
§ Rate of payment; the employee may find that the remuneration is not commensurate to
the amount of work done
§ Poor working relationship between the management and the employee
§ Lack of opportunity for career or lack of job satisfaction
Costs of labour turnover
Costs of labour turnover can be broadly categorized into replacement costs and preventive
costs.
Replacement costs are costs incurred as a result of hiring a new employee. They include cost
of selection and placement (advertising and interviewing), inefficiencies in new labour, lower
productivity, cost of training, loss of output due to delay in new labour becoming available,
increased wastage and spoilage due to lack of expertise among the new staff, possibility of more
frequent accidents, cost of tools and machine breakages.
Preventive costs are costs incurred in order to prevent employees from leaving an organization.
They include cost of personnel administration in maintaining good relationships and cost of
welfare, services and pension schemes.
>>> Illustration
Company BC which operates a flat time rate method of remuneration has won a tender to do Job
XYZ which requires 30 hours of labour input. On negotiation, the employer agreed to pay to the
employee Shs.500 per normal hour of input. The company has a policy of paying overtime at 1
½. The job was due in three days time. Each working day has 8 normal working hours.
Required
Compute the actual cost of labour incurred in the completion of the job.
Solution
Note that the normal working hours available in three days are 24. This means that the employee
has to work overtime for 6 hrs to meet the deadline.
113
S T U D Y T E X T
Therefore the actual analysis of labour cost incurred would be:
Hours Rate
Total amount
(rate used)
Total amount
(Normal rate)
Premium
24 hrs 500 12,000 12,000 0
6 hrs 750 =(500 x 1 ½) 4,500 3,000 1,500
30 1,250 16,500 15,000 1,500
Premium paid to the employee may also be calculated as
Premium = (Overtime - Normal Rate) x Overtime hours
= (750 – 500) x 6
= 250 x 6
= 1,500
>>> Illustration 1
Under a premium bonus scheme, workers receive a guaranteed basic hourly minimum rate of
pay plus a bonus of 50% of the time saved. No payment is paid beyond the time allowed but the
bonus which is paid at the basic hourly rate is applicable to the accepted output only. No penalty is
imposed on rejected output. The following details are available for the month of January 2003
Worker A B C
Time allowed per unit (hrs) ¼ 1/6 ½
Units produced 474 684 175
Units rejected 54 84 25
Time taken (hrs) 78 72 80
Basic Pay per hour (Kshs) 6 6 3
Required
From the above information, calculate for each employee
(a) Bonus hours and amount of bonus paid
(b) Gross wages earned
(c) Labour cost for each good unit sold
LABOUR COSTS
11 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Solution
Time allowed per Unit ¼ 1/6 ½
Time taken 78hrs 72 hrs 80 hrs
Regular pay (6;6;3) Shs.468 Shs.432 Shs.240
Bonus pay Shs.81 Shs.84 Nil
Gross wages Shs.549 Shs.516 Shs.240
Required
From the above information, calculate for each employee
(a) Bonus hours and amount of bonus paid
(b) Gross wages earned
(c) Labour cost for each good unit sold
Solution
Worker A
Total time saved = Expected time - Time taken
= 1
4 (474 - 54) - 78 = 1
4 X 420 - 78
= 105 - 78
= 27 hours
Accepted time saved = 50% x 27 = 13.5 hrs
Therefore bonus hours = 13.5 hours
Bonus pay = 13.5 x 6 = Shs 81
Worker B
Total time saved = Expected time - Time taken
= 1
6 (684 - 84) - 72 = 1
6 X 600 - 72
= 100 - 72
= 28 hours
Accepted time saved = 50% x 28 = 14 hrs
Therefore bonus hours = 14 hours
Bonus pay = 14 x 6 = Shs 84
Worker C
Total time saved = Expected time - Time taken
= 1
2 (175 - 25) - 80 = 1
2 X 150 - 80
= 75 - 80
= (5) hours
Accepted time saved = Nil
Therefore bonus hours = Nil
Gross Wages = Regular wage by Bonus
115
S T U D Y T E X T
TAXATION OF INCOMES OF PERSONS
Labour cost for each good unit sold
Worker A B C
Units produced 474 684 175
Units rejected 54 84 25
Good units 420 600 150
Total cost of labour
(regular + Bonus pay)
549 516 240
Labour cost per Unit 1.307 0.860 1.600
>>> Illustration 2
Based on the data below, you are required to calculate the remuneration of each employee as
determined by each of the following methods
i. Hourly rate
ii. Basic piece rate
iii. Individual bonus scheme where the employee receives the bonus in proportion of the
time saved to time allowed
Name of employee SS RR PP
Units produced 270 200 220
Time allowed in minutes per unit 10 15 12
Time taken (hours) 40 38 36
Rate per hour (Shs) 125 105 120
Rate per unit (Shs) 20 25 24
Solution
i. Hourly rate
Name of employee SS RR PP
Time taken (hours) 40 38 36
Rate per hour (Shs) 125 105 120
Total amount (Time x Rate) Shs.5,000 Shs.3,990 Shs.4,320
ii. Piece rate
Name of employee SS RR PP
Output in Units 270 200 220
Rate per Unit (Shs) 20 25 24
Gross wage (Units x Rate) Shs.5,400 Shs.5,000 Shs.5,280
LABOUR COSTS
11 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Bonus scheme
GROUP BONUS PLAN
Fast forward
Group incentive schemes are used to encourage teamwork and cooperation among employees
working in a group (team).
There are certain jobs or operations which require to be done collectively by a group of workers,
for example, continuous production work flows in a sequence or in assembly work of computers,
radio, televisions, etc. A team of workers is engaged in various operations and as such it becomes
necessary to introduce bonus schemes for collective efficiency of the group as a whole and the
intention is to create a collective interest in the work. In this case, the bonus is shared among the
members. The proportionate share may depend on a number of factors, for example, the level
of employee in management structure, the department in which the employee falls, his current
salary e.t.c..
Characteristics of an effective bonus scheme
(i) Efficiency in production: when the volume of production is so important, the bonus
incentive scheme should reward higher producers i.e. should be based on output
achieved.
(ii) Effect on workers: the scheme should be designed to motivate the employees. It should
be simple and understood by those of average intelligence.
Rate per Unit (Shs) 20 25 24
Gross wage (Units x Rate) Shs.5,40
0
Shs.5,00
0
Shs.5,2
80
Bonus Name of employee SS RR PP
Units produced 270 200 220
Time allowed in minutes per unit 10 15 12
Total time allowed (hrs)
(units x time per unit/60) 45 50 44
Time taken (hours) 40 38 36
Time saved 5 12 12
Proportion (time saved/ time allowed) 1
9
6
25
3
11
Bonus time
Time saved
Time allowed
x time taken
!
" #
$
% &
4.44 9.12 9.82
Total time to be paid
(time taken + bonus)
44.44 47.12 45.81818
Rate per hour (Shs) 125 105 120
Total pay 5,555.56 4,947.0 5,498.18
Group Bonus plan
Fast forward
Group incentive schemes are used to encourage teamwork and cooperation among
employees working in a group (team).
There are certain jobs or operations which require to be done collectively by a group of
workers, for example, continuous production work flows in a sequence or in assembly
work of computers, radio, televisions, etc. A team of workers is engaged in various
operations and as such it becomes necessary to introduce bonus schemes for collective
efficiency of the group as a whole and the intention is to create a collective interest in the
work. In this case, the bonus is shared among the members. The proportionate share
may depend on a number of factors, for example, the level of employee in management
structure, the department in which the employee falls, his current salary e.t.c..
Characteristics of an effective bonus scheme
(i) Efficiency in production: when the volume of production is so important, the
bonus incentive scheme should reward higher producers i.e. should be based on
output achieved.
(ii) Effect on workers: the scheme should be designed to motivate the employees. It
should be simple and understood by those of average intelligence.
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S T U D Y T E X T
(iii) Both the employer and the employees should share the gains in labour efficiency.
This will motivate the employees to be more efficient since they benefit from the gains
made.
(iv) The method of calculating the bonus should be known and acceptable to the
employees
(v) The standard hours set should be achievable and realistic. When the standards are
high then the employees will not achieve them and the bonus will not be earned
Benefits associated with group bonus schemes include
§ It encourages cooperation and teamwork among workers since each member in the
group has an interest in the work.
§ It reduces absenteeism since an absent worker is found to reduce the group earnings
and the group may dislike him
§ The approach reduces supervision time and cost, thus it is administratively much
simpler.
§ It greatly reduces the number of rates to be negotiated.
§ It may encourage flexible working arrangements within the group.
But it suffers the following setbacks
§ It may not provide a strong incentive to the individual workers, as it is group based.
§ Less hardworking group members are similarly rewarded as the very hardworking ones:
this may cause demotivation in the group.
§ It is hard to determine each group members’ fair share of the bonus.
Co-ownership incentive scheme (Profit Sharing Schemes)
Profit-sharing scheme is where a proportion of company profits is allocated to employees either
in the form of cash or in company stock. The actual proportion of company profits to be allocated
is normally calculated by a formula which is known in advance. This converts employees from
mere salary seekers to individuals who are part of the organization.
Their purpose is to enable employees to benefit from the success of their employer in a taxefficient
way and, at the same time, encourage them to participate in their success. Approved
profit-sharing schemes facilitate the allocation of company shares rather than the distribution
of company profits in the form of cash. To receive the tax advantages, a profit-sharing scheme
LABOUR COSTS
11 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
must be set up under trust and approved by the Revenue. The trust receives a proportion of the
company’s profits, which it uses to buy shares for allocation to individual employees.
Employees must agree to leave their shares in the scheme for at least two years (unless they
leave due to injury, redundancy or retirement). If they leave for any other reason, they must leave
their shares in the scheme until they have been held for two years. If shares are sold within
five years, income tax is payable on a percentage of their value or on the proceeds of the sale
(whichever is the smaller). Shares which are held for more than five years and then sold are not
liable for any income tax.
Departments involved in the accumulation of labour costs
Labour costs are accumulated by various departments.
(i) Personnel department
It is responsible for engagement, discharge and transfer of employees, classification
and method of remuneration. It determines which employee to hire, the amount of
remuneration based on the negotiation and to which branch or department the hired
employee shall work.
(ii) Production planning department
It is responsible for scheduling work and issuing job orders to the production department.
It schedules the work as it comes based on a number of factors such as urgency of the
assignment and availability of resources: materials, time and /or others.
(iii) Time keeping department
It is responsible for recording the attendance time and job time i.e. time spent by each
worker in a factory and time spent by each worker on each job.
The documents used are
(1) clock card: it is a document on which is recorded the starting and finishing time
of an employee for the ascertainment of total actual attendance time.
(2) job card; it records time spent on a job
(3) time sheet; It is a record of how a person’s time has been spent daily or weekly.
Time sheets on which the employee enters all particulars himself are commonly
issued to indirect workers e.g. maintenance staff
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S T U D Y T E X T
(iv) Wages department
It is responsible for preparing the payroll and the payment of wages. The routine will
require analysis of clock cards and check of overtime authorization, calculation of
bonus, compilation of gross earning, calculations of deductions, and preparation of pay
details for each employee showing net wages.
To arrive at the net amount of wages, a range of deductions are made from gross earnings.
Some of the deductions are statutory or obligatory in nature while others are voluntary. In
Kenya, Statutory deductions are pay as you earn (PAYE) tax, pensions, and employees, national
insurance contributions. The employer is obliged to deduct and submit the deductions to the
relevant parastatal bodies to which they act as agents. Examples of such bodies include Kenya
Revenue Authority (KRA) to whom PAYE tax deducted is remitted, National Hospital Insurance
Fund to whom the national insurance contributions deducted are submitted.
Voluntary deductions include items such as trade union subscription, charity deductions and
contributions to saving schemes.
(v) The cost accounting department
It is responsible for the accumulation and classification of all costs. It will identify the
direct and indirect costs and identify the direct costs with specific jobs, process or
product to which they are charged.
Control of labour costs
Most of the firms aim at maximizing profits by minimizing costs, while optimizing on the revenues
received. Labour costs being a significant expense in the books of account must be controlled
in order to ensure that no overpayments are made and that only authorized payments are
effected.
For effective control, the following techniques should be applied
(i) Production planning
The preparation of a production planning schedule well in advance with a supporting
schedule of man hour requirements should result in the most efficient use of the man
power available. Idle time should be reduced as much as possible and if possible
avoided entirely. The scheme should also enable the management to predict long term
labour requirements.
(ii) Labour budget and use of labour standards
A standard of expected performance is required for various reasons.
(1) to make production schedule and labour budgets,
(2) to measure productivity by comparing actual time against an expected time and
taking control action if necessary. Without a labour standard, productivity cannot
LABOUR COSTS
1 2 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
be measured or controlled and greater productivity is the only realistic way of reducing
labour costs
(iii) Labour performance reports
This should provide a periodic stimulus for controlled action. It is from the report that
management is able to identify where the weaknesses were and take appropriate action.
In other words, control action is very effective where regular feedbacks are provided.
(iv) Wages incentive schemes
Employees’ productivity can be increased in various ways. One of the major ways that
the employees can be motivated to be more productive and more efficient is through
introduction of successful wages incentive schemes. These schemes reward both the
company and employees for raising productivity.
(v) Identification of direct labour
The cost accounting system must be able to identify direct labour cost with a product,
job or process. Cost control may then be applied by the manager responsible for the
product, job or process.
>>> Illustration
All of a company’s skilled labour, which is paid at Shs800 per hour, is fully employed in
manufacturing a product to which the following data refer:
Shs per unit Shs per unit
Selling price 6000
Less Variable costs:
Less Skilled labour 2000
Less others 1500
(3500)
Contribution _2500
The company is evaluating a contract, which requires 90 skilled labour hours to complete. No
other supplies of skilled labour are available.
Required:
Calculate the relevant skilled labour cost for the contract.
Solution
Each unit of the product being manufactured currently takes 2.5 hours
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Shs. 2,000 per unit = 2.5 hours per unit
Shs.800 per hour
The contribution foregone by taking the contract shall be;
90 hours x 2500 per unit = Shs.90,000
2.5 hours per unit
Therefore, relevant labour cost shall be the sum of the labour cost on ordinary hours at Shs800
and the foregone contribution from the product currently being manufactured.
Shs
Normal labour cost charged (Shs800 x 90hrs) 72,000
Contribution forgone _90,000
Total relevant labour cost 162,000
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S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER SUMMARY
the chapter discuss the various methods of labour remuneration and the calculation of labour
costs. It has also highlighted on labour cost control.
There are various elements of labour costs. They include
• Fixed rate or fixed salary per month
• Piece rate or piece work
o Straight piece rate
o Straight piece rate with a guaranteed minimum pay
o Differential piece rate
• Time rate or time work
o Flat time rate
o Measured day rate
o Graduated time rate
Other than basic wages, there are other costs of labour. The premiums include overtime premium
and shift premium. Bonus payments and idle time paid for also constitute cost of labour.
Labour turnover is the number of employees leaving or being recruited in a period of time. It is
expressed as:
Labour turnover = Replacement x 100
average no. of employess in a period
Costs of labour turnover include replacement cost and preventive cost
Characteristics of an effective bonus scheme include
(i) Efficiency in production: when the volume of production is so important, the bonus
incentive scheme should reward higher producers i.e. should be based on output
achieved.
(ii) Effect on workers: the scheme should be designed to motivate the employees. It should
be simple and understood by those of average intelligence.
(iii) Both the employer and the employees should share the gains in labour efficiency.
This will motivate the employees to be more efficient since they benefit from the gains
made.
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S T U D Y T E X T
(iv) The method of calculating the bonus should be known and acceptable to the
employees
(v) The standard hours set should be achievable and realistic. When the standards are
high then the employees will not achieve them and the bonus will not be earned
Departments involved in accumulation of labor costs include
• Personnel department
• Production planning department
• Time keeping
• Wages department
• Cost accounting department
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Define labour cost
2. Highlight the elements of labour cost
3. What is labour turnover?
4. List the costs of labour turnover
5. List at least three departments that accumulate labour cost
LABOUR COSTS
1 2 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
ANSWERS TO CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Labour costs refer to all the costs incurred in compensating the human resources
employed to provide a useful service in the production process
2. Elements of labour cost
• Basic wages
• Overtime premium
• Shift premium
• Bonus
3. Labour turnover is the number of employees leaving or being recruited in a period of
time.
4. Costs of labour turnover
• Replacement cost
• Preventive cost
5. Departments accumulating labour cost
• Personnel department
• Production planning department
• Time keeping department
• Wages department
• Cost accounting department
PAST PAPER ANALYSIS
Question from this chapter have been tested in the following exam sittings
06/07 Q4 ; 05/05 Q3; 06/04 Q6(c); 12/03 Q7(a); 12/01 Q5; 12/00 Q6; 05/00 Q5
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S T U D Y T E X T
EXAM QUESTIONS
Question one
A factory issues a job to employee A to produce 35 articles; it takes two standard hours to
produce each article. Another job is given to employee B to produce 60 articles; it takes one and
half standard hours to produce each article. For every hour saved, a bonus is paid at 50% of the
base, which is Sh.200 per hour. The factory works a 40-hour week and overtime is paid at a rate
of one and a third. At the end of the week, A’s articles and B’s clock cards show 49 and 46 hours
respectively and the work is complete. However, three of A’s articles and three of B’s articles
failed to pass inspection. This was due to defective material and, in view of this, all the articles
produced were paid for, although as scrap they have no saleable value.
Required
For both A and B: compute
a) Bonus due (8 marks)
b) Total gross wages due (8 marks)
c) Wages cost per unit of articles passing inspection (4 marks)
(Total 20 Marks)
Question two
Sannet Products Ltd., who manufactures and retails products A, B and C employs 60 direct
workers who work under a group of bonus scheme. The company engages three grades of
workers, who are paid a bonus of the excess of time allowed over time taken. The bonus paid
is 75% of the workers’ base rate and is shared by the workers in proportion to the time spent on
the work. The following production data has been extracted from the company’s records for April
2007.
Product Units produced Time allowed per unit (minutes)
A 320 63
B 640 120
C 1200 100
Grade of worker Number of Base rate Hours worked
direct workers per hour per worker
1 20 30 30
2 8 27 64
3 32 24 50
Required:
Compute
(i) Percentage of bonus saved to hours taken
(ii) Bonus due to the group
(iii) Gross earnings due to the group (CPA 05/00)
LABOUR COSTS
1 2 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Question three
(a) Ardhi Company is considering the type of remuneration scheme to adopt for its
employees. The following information is availed to you for your analysis:
Mambo Saidi Mbogo
Actual hours worked 38 36 40
Hourly rate of pay (Sh.) 30 20 25
Output (units) A 42 120 -
B 72 76 -
C 92 - 50
A B C
Standard time allowed per unit (minutes) 6 9 15
For the calculation of piecework earnings, the company values each minute at the rate
of Sh.0.5.
Required:
Calculate the earnings for each employee using:
i) Basic guaranteed hourly rates (4 marks)
ii) Piecework rates; (4 marks)
iii) Premium bonus, given that an employee earns the premium bonus at the rate of two
thirds of the time saved. (5 marks)
(b) Ushindi Limited manufactures ornaments for export trade. Jobs are allocated to two operators,
Mbotela and Juma with bonus paid for hours saved.
In the month of February, 2005, Mbotela made 186 units and Juma made 210 units for which
the time allowed of 30 standard minutes and 25 standard minutes per unit respectively was
credited.
The basic wage rate was Sh.18 per hour for both employees. For every hour saved, a bonus
was paid at 20% of the basic wage rate. Hours worked in excess were paid at the basic wage
rate plus two thirds. Mbotela completed his job in 44 hours and Juma completed his job in 39
hours.
A basic week has 40 hours.
Required;
For each operator, compute:
i) The amount of bonus payable; (2 marks)
ii) The total gross wage payable; (3 marks)
iii) The wages cost per unit (2 marks)
(Total: 20 marks)
(cpa05/05)
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S T U D Y T E X T
CASE STUDY
Labour turnover in Europe
Annual percentage change
Country/Region LT LC LC Comp 2009
2008 Q2 2008 Q2 2008 Q3 (forecast)
EU 27 4.8 3.4 4.1 -
Austria 4.6 - - 2.6
Belgium 3.7 4.6 - 2.6
Bulgaria 5.2 21.9 19.4 10.9
Cyprus 5.4 6.7 6.0 5.7
Czech Republic 2.5 7.6 4.3 5.4
Denmark 8.1 3.2 4.0 3.9
Estonia 4.6 16.8 13.1 4.3
Finland 9.1 6.1 6.7 4.3
France 6.3 2.7 2.9 2.1
Germany 4.3 0.7 2.5 2.2
Portugal 3.5 3.0 5.5 2.3
Romania 3.1 23.0 21.2 9.0
Slovak Republic 2.6 7.7 5.2 7.6
Slovenia 4.4 8.1 11.5 5.1
Spain 7.3 4.8 6.1 3.0
Sweden 8.9 2.4 2.5 2.1
United Kingdom 4.3 4.3 2.7 1.7
Sources: Eurostat, National statistical offices and FedEE
Key: LT = Annual rate of labour turnover, LC = Annual increase (decrease) in labour costs since
the same quarter of the previous year. Comp = compensation of employees per head
The annual rate of labour turnover is defined by FedEE as the percentage of employees who
have changed jobs within the last 3 months. This will vary significantly due to the proportion of
the working population who are on temporary or fixed-term contracts.
Labour costs are the total hourly payroll costs to employers (working day adjusted). They include
wages, salaries, employer social security contributions and taxes net of subsidies connected to
employment.
LABOUR COSTS
1 2 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
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CHAPTER SIX
OVERHEAD COSTS
S TSUTDUYD YT ETXETX T
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S T U D Y T E X T
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S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER SIX
OVERHEAD COSTS
OBJECTIVES
After you study this chapter, you should be able to:
• Define overhead costs and analyze overhead costs on various basis
• Define absorption costing and explain why firms absorb overheads costs.
• Distinguish between service departments and production departments.
• Distinguish between allocation and apportionment of overhead costs and explain the
various methods of cost apportionment
• Explain the advantages and disadvantages of activity-based-costing, how appropriate
it is and as a method of cost absorption.
INTRODUCTION
Overhead costs may be defined as costs incurred in the course of manufacturing a product,
providing a service or running a department which cannot be traced directly to the product, service
or department. It is the total cost of indirect materials, indirect labour and indirect expenses.
Overheads may be divided into production overheads, administration overheads and selling and
distribution. With this, they may be charged to production cost centers i.e. making, finishing and
packing departments, service costs centers, for example, maintenance and power generation or
other non-production cost centers for example administration, selling and distribution. Production
overheads for instance, are added to the prime cost in order to obtain the total production
costs.
This chapter focuses on how these overhead costs are charged to production and non-production
departments so as to determine the total cost incurred by every department in the organization.
1 3 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Service cost center; this is a department that provides services to the production department.
Overhead allocation; the process by which the whole cost items are charged directly to a cost
unit or as a cost center.
Overhead apportionment; occurs where the total value of an overhead item is shared between
two or more cost centers that use the overheads
Over absorption; arises where the absorbed overheads are more than the actual overheads
incurred
Under absorption; occurs when the overheads charged to the cost of sales are less than the
actual overheads incurred.
EXAM CONTEXT
This chapter is frequently examined. Key areas that you need to understand are calculation of
overhead rates, cost allocation and cost apportionment.
The examiner may set a question touching on almost every part of this chapter. You need to
understand how the various sections interrelate and integrate with the other chapters, especially
material cost and labour cost chapters.
INDUSTRY CONTEXT
In the real world, identification, allocation and apportionment of overhead costs is applied in
manufacturing organizations in job and / or product costing.
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S T U D Y T E X T
ANALYZING OVERHEADS
Fast forward;
Overhead analysis is the first step in determining how to treat overheads. This may be done for
reasons such as allocation, apportionment, control, profit measurement and decision making.
Overheads are of different types
There are overheads that are directly identifiable with a single cost center, for example, wages
paid to indirect workers who work solely in one cost center such as finishing department. Such
costs are entirely allocated to that department.
There are overheads arising in one department as a result of giving service to other departments
or cost centers. Such costs, incurred as a single figure, are shared amongst cost centers that
use them, for instance the rates payable to the local authority. If such rates apply to the whole
organization, then the cost centers I, II and III in the diagram below will be the production cost
centers, the service centers and other non-production cost centers respectively to which the cost
shall be apportioned.
There are other overheads that arise in a service department or cost centers which are
a composition of many other costs. For instance, in the diagram, the total cost of a service
department, will have various costs charged to it for material, labor and other expenses.
OVERHEAD COSTS
Analyzing overheads
Fast forward;
Overhead analysis is the first step in determining how to treat overheads. This may be
done for reasons such as allocation, apportionment, control, profit measurement and
decision making.
Overheads are of different types
There are overheads that are directly identifiable with a single cost center, for example,
wages paid to indirect workers who work solely in one cost center such as finishing
department. Such costs are entirely allocated to that department.
There are overheads arising in one department as a result of giving service to other
departments or cost centers. Such costs, incurred as a single figure, are shared
amongst cost centers that use them, for instance the rates payable to the local authority.
If such rates apply to the whole organization, then the cost centers I, II and III in the
diagram below will be the production cost centers, the service centers and other nonproduction
cost centers respectively to which the cost shall be apportioned.
There are other overheads that arise in a service department or cost centers which are a
composition of many other costs. For instance, in the diagram, the total cost of a service
department, will have various costs charged to it for material, labor and other expenses.
Reasons for absorbing overheads
There are a number of situations in which the analysis of overhead costs will assist in
the satisfactory evaluation of the relevant cost data. These include:
Material
costs
Labour
costs
Other
costs
Service Department
(Total cost)
Overhead cost (Rates)
Cost Center I
(65%)
Cost center II
(20%)
Cost Center III
(15%)
Analyzing overheads
Fast forward;
Overhead analysis is the first step in determining how to treat overheads. This may be
done for reasons such as allocation, apportionment, control, profit measurement and
decision making.
Overheads are of different types
There are overheads that are directly identifiable with a single cost center, for example,
wages paid to indirect workers who work solely in one cost center such as finishing
department. Such costs are entirely allocated to that department.
There are overheads arising in one department as a result of giving service to other
departments or cost centers. Such costs, incurred as a single figure, are shared
amongst cost centers that use them, for instance the rates payable to the local authority.
If such rates apply to the whole organization, then the cost centers I, II and III in the
diagram below will be the production cost centers, the service centers and other nonproduction
cost centers respectively to which the cost shall be apportioned.
There are other overheads that arise in a service department or cost centers which are a
composition of many other costs. For instance, in the diagram, the total cost of a service
department, will have various costs charged to it for material, labor and other expenses.
Reasons for absorbing overheads
There are a number of situations in which the analysis of overhead costs will assist in
the satisfactory evaluation of the relevant cost data. These include:
Material
costs
Labour
costs
Other
costs
Service Department
(Total cost)
Overhead cost (Rates)
Cost Center I
(65%)
Cost center II
(20%)
Cost Center III
(15%)
1 3 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Reasons for absorbing overheads
There are a number of situations in which the analysis of overhead costs will assist in the
satisfactory evaluation of the relevant cost data. These include:
a) The control of overhead expenditures
There must be a link between overhead costs and the manager responsible for its control. This
is best achieved by having the planned level of overhead costs for each cost center compared
to the actual cost incurred in order that any differences may be investigated and corrective
measures taken. Where the actual cost incurred is less than the budgeted expenditure, it may
give a sign of less activity being undertaken thus not achieving the targeted performance. On
the other hand, the overhead cost per unit of output may be less than budgeted thus giving a
favorable variance.
Where the actual expenditure is more than the budgeted, there may be more activity than
anticipated (more than the target output) or the overhead cost per unit may be more than the
budgeted thus giving an adverse expenditure variance. These need to be investigated.
b) Charging of overheads to cost units
Just as direct costs are charged to the product, overheads relating to a specific job must be
charged to that product, job or process in order to come up with the correct cost of the cost object
or unit. Each product or job should share a part of indirect costs of the business. This may be
done by assessing the benefits extracted from each cost center through which the product or job
passes and then choosing a suitable absorption basis.
c) Valuation of work in progress
At any point in time, there may be partly completed goods in the production cycle. Such work in
progress must be valued at the end of an accounting period to enable calculate profit and derive
a balance sheet. To calculate profit, the cost of goods manufactured must be determined. A
statement of goods manufactured (Manufacturing account) is prepared, which incorporates both
opening and ending work in progress in order to determine cost of goods manufactured.
Inventory is a major current asset, which appears in the balance sheet, especially for manufacturing
and merchandising firms. For manufacturing firms, work in progress (work in process) forms part
of the inventory. Therefore, it becomes necessary to determine with accuracy the value of the
work in process which comprises prime cost and manufacturing overheads.
d) Valuation of abnormal losses
This is a similar procedure to that for work in progress. Abnormal losses arise when the actual
output given the budgeted input yields less than the expected output. (Abnormal loss = Expected
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S T U D Y T E X T
output – actual output) In other words, the actual loss incurred exceeds the expected or normal
loss. (Abnormal loss = Actual loss – Normal loss). They arise due to unanticipated inefficiencies
in production. Such losses need to be charged to the departments that incur them for efficiency
analysis purposes.
e) Profit measurement
The valuation of work in progress and finished goods stock will affect the profit reported. The
basis on which production overhead has been absorbed by cost units will, therefore, have a
direct influence on the level of profit reported during the period.
f) Decision making
It is vital that relevant costs are used in any decision making situation. Production overhead
costs may be allocated to a department (cost center) or apportioned to it using some arbitrary
apportionment basis. In addition, overhead cost may be a fixed or variable behavior pattern as
activity changes. The total costs associated with cost centre and the organization as a whole affect
the kind of decisions made by the management. But such relevant costs need to be incremental
(making a difference) and future costs (not sunk costs) that are controllable (not uncontrollable)
by management.
ABSORPTION COSTING
This is the process by which overheads are absorbed into production. It is also known as full
costing. The absorption of total overheads into product costs has implications for performance
measurement, cost control and stock valuation and students should be aware that the process
described is subject to criticism by some managers and accountants.
The criticism arises from the fact that overheads contain items, known as fixed costs - which do
not change when the activity level changes and which would still have to be paid if there was
no activity, e.g. rates - and items, known as variable costs, which vary more or less directly with
activity, e.g. power consumption. To overcome some of the difficulties, an alternative method of
costing has been developed, known as marginal costing, which, although using the process of
absorption, excludes fixed costs from the absorption process.
Service Cost Centers or departments
These are departments that provide services to the production department. They do not provide
products to be used externally. They include maintenance, stores, canteen, e.t.c. there are no
production cost units that pass through the service cost centers. Therefore, it is necessary to
OVERHEAD COSTS
1 3 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
apportion the service department costs, to the production cost centers so that all production
costs (including those for the servicing departments) are absorbed into production. Examples of,
and the basis of apportionment to the various departments are given below.
Type of cost Possible basis of Apportionment
Maintenance § Machine time or number of hours spent
Insurance/depreciation of assets § Value of assets and exposure to risk
Space cost e.g. rent and rates § Size of the space occupied (floor area) per unit
Salaries § Number of employees
Canteen costs § Number of people
Stores cost § Number of requests
Inspection § Number of hours spent
Notes;
The basis chosen should be one that is judged to be the most equitable way of sharing the
service department’s costs over the departments which use the service. This may mean that
a particular and unique basis of apportionment may have to be derived. It must reflect the use
made of the services provided.
Wherever possible, service department costs should be charged directly i.e. allocated to
respective departments. An example of this would be maintenance wages and materials. When
a maintenance job is done for a department, the wages and materials used would be charged
directly to the department concerned. In this way, only unallocated service department costs
need to be apportioned.
Allocation and Apportionment of Overhead Costs
Allocation of overheads this is the process by which the whole cost items are charged directly to
a cost unit or as a cost center. Examples of such costs include the salary of a service department
manager.
Apportionment of overheads (primary apportionment) occurs where the total value of
an overhead item is shared between two or more cost centers that use the overheads. Reapportionment
of overheads (secondary apportionment) occurs when service department costs
are charged to user departments. For example, the maintenance department overhead costs are
summarized and then charged to the user department, which will probably include other service
or non-production departments.
Service departments do not participate directly in the manufacturing process but play a supportive
indirect role. Products do not pass through the support departments. It is for this reason that
service department costs have to be reapportioned to the production cost centers or departments.
The re-apportionment of service department costs may be implemented in a number of ways.
The three extremes are:
a) Direct Method; Where costs of each service department are only charged to production
centers. Administration; selling and distribution centers are not charged with the cost of
137
S T U D Y T E X T
the service departments as they are not production centers.
b) Where the reciprocal nature of service costs is fully recognized; that is service
departments serve each other, a different approach is adapted. This can be implemented
in a number of ways:
i. The repeated distribution method: this recognizes fully the reciprocal nature of
service departments. It apportions the overhead costs. It continuously
reapportions a share of a service cost center to other service centers instead of
eliminating a center once its costs have been reapportioned.
ii. Using an algebraic approach: this recognizes the reciprocal nature of the
service departments and expresses it as an equation.
c) A compromise method (elimination method or stepwise method) may be used where
by the costs of each service cost centers are re-apportioned in turn. The costs of the
first service center will be reapportioned to all user centers including other service
centers, if any. The first service center, however, is then eliminated from any further
reapportionment. The cost of the second service center including any costs already
reapportioned from the first service center is then reapportioned to all user centers
other than the first service center. The process is continued until all service centers are
eliminated.
>>> Illustration 1
The following information is available in respect of overhead costs by Keringeti Ltd.
Production
department
Service
departments
Non Production
Department
A B C S1 S2 ND1 ND2
Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs
Allocated Overheads
Indirect materials 1500 1000 2400 4800 3300 1000 1200
Indirect labour 10000 1200 900 14000 4400 2000 800
Other expenses 15000 8000 3000 1500 12400 24000 6600
Depreciation 8000 800 1200 2000 4800 1500 2300
Unallocated overheads
Rates 18000
Net vending machine
cost
2300
Heat and light 4000
Other statistics 0
Occupancy sq. m 600 400 500 50 100 200 50
Number of employees 20 40 50 20 10 70 15
Power estimate (KWH) 15000 2500 2500 2000 1500 500
Maintenance (hours) 2000 200 400 1000 250 400
OVERHEAD COSTS
1 3 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Required
Calculate the final distribution of overheads to cost centers including the reapportionment of
maintenance and power generation service costs to user cost centers where:
a) The reciprocal nature of maintenance and power generation center is ignored.
b) The elimination method is used whereby the costs of each service center are apportioned
in turn between users but once they have been apportioned they are eliminated from
any subsequent apportionment.
c) The repeated distribution method is used taking into account the reciprocal nature of
the service costs.
d) An algebraic approach is used as an alternative to the repeated distribution method.
Solution
a) The Direct Method Ignoring reciprocal service charges
Overhead cost allocation and apportionment statement
Basis of
Allocation
Making Finishing Packing Maintenance Power Admin. Selling Distribution Total
Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs. Shs.
Overhead item
Indirect materials Direct 1500 1000 2400 4800 3300 1000 1200 1600 16800
Indirect labour Direct 10000 1200 900 14000 4400 2000 800 5600 38900
Other expenses Direct 15000 8000 3000 1500 12400 24000 6600 4000 74500
Depreciation Direct 8000 800 1200 2000 4800 1500 2300 1800 22400
Rates Occupancy 5400 3600 4500 450 900 1800 450 900 18000
Vending machine Employee 200 400 500 200 100 600 150 150 2300
Heat and light Area 1200 800 1000 100 200 400 100 200 4000
Subtotal 41300 15800 13500 23050 26100 31300 11600 14250 176900
139
S T U D Y T E X T
Reapportionment of service department overheads to other departments is based on proportionate
consumption as indicated by cost drivers. In this case for instance, maintenance cost of 23050 is
reapportioned to making department using the following formula;
= Number of maint. hours spent in Making x Overhead costs incurred in maintenance
Total number of maint. hours (excluding service dept)
= 2000 x 23050 = Shs.11,525
2000 + 200 + 400 + 250 + 400 + 750
Please note that we have ignored the other service department in this case.
(Power department)
Service reapportionment; this is also known as secondary apportionment
Maintenance 11525 1152 2305 (23050) 1441 2305 4302
Power 17622 2837 2837 (26100) 1702 567 1135
Total Costs 69847 19789 18642 0 0 34443 14472 19707 176900
b) Using elimination method:
This procedure is exactly the same as for the above method except for the reapportionment of
the maintenance and power generation costs. The illustration is, therefore, commenced on the
subtotal point where the initial allocation and apportionment has been implemented
Note that the reciprocal nature of service is considered in this case. We start by reallocating
maintenance department overheads to all departments including Power department (also a
service department) based on proportionate consumption. We then proceed to reallocate Power
Department overhead costs to all other departments excluding maintenance department. Please
note that the denominator value used in the first reallocation is different from one used in the
second since we only consider the departments to which costs are to be reallocated.
An illustration of first reallocation using Making department:
= Number of maint. hours spent in Making x Overhead costs incurred in maintenance
Total number of maint. hours (excluding service dept)
= 2000 x 23050 = Shs.9220
2000 + 200 + 400 + 250 + 400 + 750 + 1000
OVERHEAD COSTS
1 4 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
An illustration of second reallocation using making department;
Please note that the denominator value is less by value of maintenance department cost driver
since we have already allocated Maintenance Department Overheads. In general, once a Cost
Center’s overheads are allocated, the department is eliminated in the next step of allocation.
Additionally, you must sum up the total cost after reallocation at every step to obtain the figure to
reallocate in the step after.
= Number of maint. hours spent in Making x Overhead costs incurred in maintenance
Total number of maint. hours (excluding service dept)
= 2000 x 30710 = Shs.20028
2000 + 200 + 400 + 250 + 400 + 750
The final apportionment will appear as follows
Overhead item
Making
Shs
Finishing
Shs
Packing
Shs
Maint
Shs
Power
Shs
Admin.
Shs
Selling
Shs
Distribt. Total
Subtotal 41300 15800 13500 23050 26100 31300 11600 14250 176900
Service
reapportionment
Maintenance 9220 922 1844 (23050) 4610 1152 1844 3458
Power 20028 3338 3338 (30710) 2003 668 1335
Total 70548 20060 18682 0 0 34455 14112 19043 176900
c) Recognizing fully the reciprocal nature of service costs (repeated distribution method)
This method differs from the elimination method in that it continues to reapportion a
share of a service cost center to other service centers instead of eliminating a center once its
costs have been reapportioned in the first instance. The cycle is repeated until the numbers
become so small that no further reapportionments are required
The repeated distribution summary will appear as follows:
Overhead item Making Finishing Packing Maint. Power Admin. Selling Distrit. Total
Maintenance hrs
(%)
40 4 8 20 5 8 15
Power kwh (%) 60 10 10 8 6 2 4
Subtotal Kshs 41300 15800 13500 20050 26100 31300 11600 14250 176900
Service
reapportionment
1st distrib.
Maintenance
9220 922 1844 (23050) 4610 1152 1844 3458
1st distribution
power
18426 3071 3071 2457 (30710) 1843 614 1228
2nd distrib.
maintenance
983 98 197 (2457) 491 123 196 396
2nd distribution
power
295 49 49 39 (491) 123 196 396
3rd distrib.
Maintenance
15 2 3 (39) 8 2 3 6
141
S T U D Y T E X T
3rd distrib. Power 5 1 1 (8) 1
Total distrib
maintenance
10218 1022 2044 5109 1277 2043 3833
Total distribution
power
18726 3121 3121 2496 1873 624 1248
Total overhead
charge to user
department
70244 19943 ? 0 0 34450 14267 19331 176900
d) Algebraic approach
This method requires that the reciprocal nature of the service costs is expressed in a set of
simultaneous equations which are solved by matrix algebra
Let x = Total cost of the maintenance cost center
Let y = Total cost of the power generating cost center
Then x = 23050 + 0.20Y
Y = 26100 + 0.20x
The equation shows that;
Maintenance cost = initial allocated and apportioned costs of Shs.23050 plus 8% of the total cost
of the power generating center
Power generating cost = initial allocated and apportioned costs of Shs. 26100 plus 20% of the
total cost of maintenance center
Hence x = Total maintenance cost center cost is Kshs 25,546
y = Total power generating cost center cost is Kshs 31,209
OVERHEAD COSTS
d) Algebraic approach
This method requires that the reciprocal nature of the service costs is expressed in a
set of simultaneous equations which are solved by matrix algebra
Let x = Total cost of the maintenance cost center
Let y = Total cost of the power generating cost center
Then x = 23050 + 0.20Y
Y = 26100 + 0.20x
The equation shows that;
Maintenance cost = initial allocated and apportioned costs of Shs.23050 plus 8% of the
total cost of the power generating center
Power generating cost = initial allocated and apportioned costs of Shs. 26100 plus 20%
of the total cost of maintenance center
In a matrix equation it is
1 -0.08 24050
-0.2 1 26100
Simplifying the matrix gives
1 0 25546
0 1 31209
Hence x = Total maintenance cost center cost is Kshs 25,546
y = Total power generating cost center cost is Kshs 31,209
The percentage distribution of the service in the repeated distribution calculation
1 4 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The percentage distribution of the service in the repeated distribution calculation summary shown
above is then applied to the total cost figures x and y
For example for the making cost center
Maintenance cost to making cost center = Kshs 25546 x 40% = Shs. 10,218
Power to cost to making cost center = Kshs 31209 x 60% = Shs. 18,726
Note
You can also use the simultaneous equation solving method to arrive at exactly the same answers
above (Shs.25,546 and Shs.31,209). Probably, this is more popular than the matrix.
Absorption of production overhead costs
Absorption of overheads refers to the sharing out of overhead costs to the various cost centers
that used the overheads. It is used when the overheads cannot be allocated or attributed to a
specified cost centre.
The aim is to establish the overhead cost per unit of output. Having allocated and or apportioned
overhead costs, the next stage should be to absorb them into the cost of production.
There are various bases of overhead absorption used. Various factors are normally considered
in determining the best base of overhead absorption. Overheads are not absorbed on the basis
of actual cost but on the basis of estimated and budgeted costs calculated prior to the beginning
of the period. This is because the actual overheads are not known until the year end and it is not
easy to calculate overheads on a regular basis e.g. every month.
The first stage in absorption is to establish the absorption rate. The following is the general
procedure followed in calculating the absorption rate;
(i) Estimation of the overheads likely to be incurred during the period
(ii) Estimation of the various levels of activities on which overhead absorption rates are to
be calculated
(iii) Calculation of the overheads absorption rate using the formula
143
S T U D Y T E X T
>>> Illustration 2
The budgeted production overheads and other budgeted data of Calmxa Ltd are as follows:
Budget
Overhead cost for the period = Shs 36,000 Production department
Direct material cost Shs 32000
Direct labour cost Shs 40000
Machine hours 10000 hrs
Direct hours of labour 18000 hrs
Units of output 10000 hrs
Required
Determine the absorption rate of the overheads
OVERHEAD COSTS
The first stage in absorption is to establish the absorption rate. The following is the
general procedure followed in calculating the absorption rate;
(i) Estimation of the overheads likely to be incurred during the period
(ii) Estimation of the various levels of activities on which overhead
absorption rates are to be calculated
(iii) Calculation of the overheads absorption rate using the formula
Budgeted activity level
budgeted overheads
Absorption rate =
(i)
Percentage of direct material cost x100
Direct Material Cost
Overhead Cost
=
(ii)
Percentage of direct labour cost x100
Direct Labour Cost
Overhead Cost
=
(iii)
Percentage of prime cost x100
Prime Cost
Overhead Cost
=
(iv)
Rate per direct labour hour
Labour hours
Overhead Cost
=
(v)
Rate per machine hour
Machine hours
Overhead Cost
=
(vi)
Units of output Units of Output
Overhead Cost
=
1 4 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Solution
Total overhead costs to be absorbed = Shs.36000
The overhead cost will vary according to the absorption base.
Assume that in the company an individual production has a material cost of Shs 80, labour cost
of Shs. 85, requires 36 labour hours and 23 machine hours to complete. Determine
i. Overhead per individual production on the above different bases
ii. Individual production cost
Solution
a) Production overhead per each absorption rate
Absorption rate Calculation
a) Direct material cost =112.50% x Shs.80 = Shs.90
b) Direct labour = 90% x Shs.85 = Shs.76.50
c) Machine hours =Shs.3.6 pmh x 23 = Shs.82.80
d) Labour direct hours =Shs.2 pdlh x 36 = Shs.72.00
e) Overhead absorption rate based on prime cost = 50% x (80+85) = Shs.82.50
36,000
department
Direct material cost Shs 32000
Direct labour cost Shs 40000
Machine hours 10000 hrs
Direct hours of labour 18000 hrs
Units of output 10000 hrs
Required
Determine the absorption rate of the overheads
Solution
Total overhead costs to be absorbed = Shs.36000
Absorption rate Calculation
a) Direct material cost
x100
Shs.32000
Shs.36000
= = 112.50%
b) Direct labour
x100
Shs.40000
Shs.36000
= = 90%
c) Machine hours
10000hrs
Shs.36000
= =Shs.3.6 per machine hr
d) Labour direct hours
18000hrs
Shs.36000
= =Shs.2 per Direct labour hr
e) Units of output
10000 units
Shs.36000
= = Shs3.6 per unit
f) Prime cost
= (Direct labour + direct material cost)
=Shs(32000 + 40000)
=Shs.72000
∴Overhead absorption rate
based on prime cost
x100%
Shs.72000
Shs.36000
= = 50%
The overhead cost will vary according to the absorption base.
Assume that in the company an individual production has a material cost of Shs
80, labour cost of Shs. 85, requires 36 labour hours and 23 machine hours to
complete. Determine
i. Overhead per individual production on the above different bases
ii. Individual production cost
Solution
a) Production overhead per each absorption rate
Absorption rate Calculation
a) Direct material cost =112.50% x Shs.80 = Shs.90
b) Direct labour = 90% x Shs.85 =
145
S T U D Y T E X T
Production cost per each absorption base
Absorption rate (Prime cost + Overhead cost) Production cost
a) Direct material cost Shs. 165 +Shs.90.00 Shs.255.00
b) Direct labour Shs. 165 +Shs.76.50 Shs.241.50
c) Machine hours Shs. 165 +Shs.82.80 Shs.247.80
d) Labour direct hours Shs. 165 +Shs.72.00 Shs.237.00
e) Overhead absorption rate based
on prime cost
Shs. 165 +Shs.82.50 Shs.247.50
>>> Illustration 3
The following is the budget of Superb Engineering Works for the year 2002
Factory overheads Shs.62,000
Direct labour cost Shs.98,000
Direct labour hours 155,000
Machine hours 50,000
Actual labour hours were 40,000
Actual machine hours were 30,000
Actual direct labour costs were Shs.50,000
Actual direct material costs were Shs.45,000
Required
Determine:
a) The overhead application rate on the basis of
i. Direct labour hours
ii. Direct labour cost
iii. Machine hours, and
b) Overhead costs based on the absorption rates above
c) Production cost
Solution
(a)
OVERHEAD COSTS
Solution
(a)
Absorption rate Calculation
a) Direct labour hours
155,000 labour hrs
Shs.62000
= = Shs.0.4 pdlh
b) Direct labour cost
x100
Shs.98,000
Shs.62000
= = 63.27 %
c) Machine hours
50,000 machine hrs
Shs.62000
= = Shs. 1.24 pmh
(b)
Overhead costing using Calculation
a) Direct labour hours = Shs.0.4 pdlh x 40,000hrs = Shs.16000
1 4 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(b)
Overhead costing using Calculation
a) Direct labour hours = Shs.0.4 pdlh x 40,000hrs = Shs.16000
b) Direct labour cost =63.27 % x Shs.50,000 = Shs.31,635
c) Machine hours =Shs. 1.24 pmh x 30,000hrs = Shs.37,200
(c)
Overhead costing
using
Prime cost
(50000 + 45000)
Overhead
cost
Production
cost
Cost per
Unit
a) Direct labour hours 95,000 +Shs.16000 =Shs.111,000 =Shs.111.00
b) Direct labour cost 95,000 +Shs.31,635 =Shs.126,635 =Shs.126.64
c) Machine hours 95,000 +Shs.37,200 =Shs.132,200 =Shs.132.20
OVER AND UNDER ABSORPTION OF PRODUCTION
OVERHEAD COSTS
Fast forward
The main reason for over or under absorption of overheads is a variance from the expected in the
base of absorption.
The rate of overhead absorption is based on estimates i.e. both in the numerator and the
denominator and it is quite likely that either one or both estimates will not agree with the actual
overheads incurred. The difference between the absorbed and actual overheads incurred gives
rise to an over or under absorption of overheads.
An over absorption arises where the absorbed overheads are more than the actual overheads
incurred. One of the causes may be overestimation of overheads used to calculate the absorption
rate. The other cause may be to under estimate the activity level or units of the cost driver at a
given level of overhead cost.
An under absorption occurs when the overheads charged to the cost of sales are less than the
actual overheads incurred. In this case, we say that the overheads absorbed are insufficient.
147
S T U D Y T E X T
The causes of over or under absorption of overheads may be analyzed as follows;
a) Activity Level of the business or cost center
Expenditure on some items of production overhead costs will vary directly with activity
whereas others will be fixed irrespective of the changes in activity level. For example
in a machine oriented cost center, power cost will vary in proportion to machine hours
whereas salary of the cost center manager will be fixed.
b) Level of expenditure on production overhead
Expenditure level may change from the budgeted level because of a change in the price
of an overhead item or a change in the usage of the overhead item
c) Activity level and the absorption of production overhead cost
The variable cost per machine hour is fixed and may not cause an over or under
absorption of overheads. This is because variable overheads vary with the level of
activity or the cost driver chosen. However, fixed overhead absorption rate will change
depending on the level of activity.
>>> Illustration:
Assuming that Company ABC incurred overhead costs amounting to Shs120,000 of which
Shs60,000 were variable costs at an output level of 6000 units. Each unit required 2 machine
hours to produce. The company’s policy is to absorb costs on the basis of machine hours.
The absorption rate will be:
Total overheads = Shs.120,000
activity level 6000 units x 2 hrs per unit
= Shs.10 per machine hrs
If the company produced 6000 units but due to increase in efficiency each unit used 1.75 hrs then
the total overheads absorbed will be:
Shs.10 p.m.h x 6000 x 1.75 = Shs.105,000
There is, therefore, an under absorption of the total overheads by Shs15,000. If it could be broken
down to its constituents, then we would get an under absorption of the fixed overheads amounting
to Shs.60,000 - Shs.60,000 x 6000 x 1.75 = Shs.7,500 and no under or over absorption of the
12,000mh variable overheads since they vary
in direct proportion to the activity level. The difference, Shs7500 is between the actual fixed
overheads and the absorbed fixed overheads.
OVERHEAD COSTS
1 4 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The total overheads are supposed to be Shs.60,000 + Shs.60,000 x 6000 x 1.75 = Shs.112,500
12,000mh
i.e. comprising of actual fixed overheads and variable overheads
Note:
If the actual number of machine hours used differs from the number used in the calculation of
the overhead absorption rate, an over or under absorption will occur. Over absorption will arise
when the actual activity level is higher than the activity level on which the absorption rate was
calculated (the budgeted). Under absorption will arise where the actual activity level is lower than
the budgeted activity level (the activity level on which the absorption rate was based).
>>> Illustration 4
Using data from the table above, assume that the production overhead absorption rate was
calculated where an activity of 200 machine hours was estimated. Prepare a summary showing
any over or under absorption of overhead cost where the actual machine hours charged to jobs
turns out to be
a) 150 hours
b) 250 hours
Solution
Absorption rate is Shs.5.50 per machine hour. This may be analyzed into fixed rate Shs.2.50 per
machine hour and variable rate; Shs. 3 per machine hour.
a) Where actual activity is 150 hours
Fixed Variable Total
Shs Shs Shs
Overhead incurred 500 450 950
Variable overhead absorbed (150 x 3) (450)
Fixed overhead absorbed (150 x 2.50) (375)
Total overhead absorbed (150 x 5.5) (825)
Over or (Under) absorption (125) Nil (125)
b)
Where actual activity is 250 hours
Fixed Variable Total
Shs Shs Shs
Overhead incurred 500 750 1250
Variable overhead absorbed (250 x 3) (750)
Fixed overhead absorbed (250 x 2.5) (625)
Total overhead absorbed (250 x 5.5) (1250)
Over or (Under) absorption 125 Nil 125
149
S T U D Y T E X T
c) Expenditure level and the absorption of production overhead cost
A charge in expenditure on an overhead cost item may occur because of a charge in
the price per unit and/or because of change in the number of units of the overhead
commodity which are required
Expenditure changes can affect the absorption of both fixed and variable overheads
>>> Illustration 5
AB Ltd has a machine cost center for which the following information is available
a) Budget
i. Budgeted (expected) activity 3000Machine hrs
ii. Variable production overhead cost per machine hour Shs.2
iii. Fixed production overhead cost (total) Shs.9000
b) Actual
i. Activity level 3000 machine hours
ii. Variable production overhead cost incurred Shs. 6400
iii. Fixed production overhead cost incurred Shs. 8800
Required
§ Calculate the over and under absorption of variable overhead and fixed overhead
cost
§ Comment on possible causes of over or under absorption figures
Variable overhead cost Fixed overhead cost
Absorbed overheads Shs 2/hr x 3000hrs
=Shs.6000 Shs.9000
Actual overheads incurred =Shs.6400 Shs.8800
Over or (Under) absorption =(Shs.400) Shs.200
Under absorption of the variable overhead cost may have occurred through a combination
of
§ Increased price per unit of variable cost e.g. a rise in price or electricity
§ An increase in the number of units of overhead cost item, e.g. machine efficiency has
fallen through lack of maintenance
The fixed overhead absorption rate is 9000/3000 machine hours = Shs.3 per machine hour.
The actual activity level of 3000 machine hours is the same as that budgeted. The over absorption
of fixed overhead is, therefore, due to expenditure factors. It may have occurred because of the
combination of
OVERHEAD COSTS
1 5 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
§ A lower price of a fixed item e.g. salary may be lower than budgeted
§ A reduced usage of what was classified as a fixed cost item e.g. the quantity of oil used
to lubricate the machines
Absorption of non production overheads in production cost
Product costs may be compiled for a range of purposes including
a) Stock valuation
b) Product pricing
c) Decision making
For stock valuation purposes International Accounting Standard No. 2 define cost being that
expenditure which has been incurred in the normal course of business in bringing the product or
service to its present location and condition. This expenditure should include in addition to the
cost of purchase such costs of conversion as are appropriate to that location and condition
For product pricing purposes, administration, selling and distribution overheads may be
absorbed in a number of ways including
a) As a percentage of selling price
b) As a percentage of full cost of production
c) As a percentage of conversion costs
d) As a rate per unit sold
For Decision Making purposes, it is also relevant to know which part of administration selling
and distribution overhead costs are directly attributable to a particular product and which are
avoidable if that product is discontinued. Only relevant costs are important in decision making.
151
S T U D Y T E X T
ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC)
Fast forward;
ABC identifies costs pools and cost drivers and absorbs overheads based on the cost drivers.
ABC is a costing method which recognizes that costs are incurred because of the activities
which take place within the organization and for each activity a cost driver may be identified.
Those costs which are driven or incurred by the same cost drivers are grouped together into cost
pools and the cost drivers are then used as a basis for charging the cost of each activity in the
product.
A cost pool is a collection of costs which may be charged to products by the use of a common cost
driver. A cost driver is any activity or activities, series of which take place within an organization
and which cause costs to be incurred. The essence of ABC is that activities are the cost drivers,
not products. Products do consume activities. If the cost of activities and their relationship
to products is understood, there can be established basis for product costing, performance
measurement and profitability analysis.
Some examples of cost pools and related cost drivers are as shown below.
Cost pool Cost driver
Power Number of machine operations
Material handling Quantity or weight of materials handled
Material receipt Number of batches of materials received
Production planning Number of jobs or materials planned
Sales administration Number of customers or orders received
Set up costs Number of jobs run
The development of ABC has been a response to a change in the cost base of many manufacturers
over the last decades. In earlier times, most manufacturing was labour intensive. The variable
cost of direct labour greatly outweighed all other costs and the overheads were a relatively
small component of the total cost. Traditional absorption costing was accurate enough in these
circumstances. Nowadays, most manufacturing processes are automated. The fixed overhead
cost of depreciation is now an important component of the total cost. At the same time, work
forces have been greatly reduced. This means that the variable cost of direct labour is now a
much smaller proportion of the total cost. Traditional absorption costing has become inaccurate
as a result and misleading product costs have led to poor decision making.
ABC analyses costs as short-term variable cost and long-term variable costs. Short-term variable
costs equate with variable costs under the traditional absorption costing. These characteristics
are volume related and change proportionately with the volume of production. Long-term variable
costs are equivalent to fixed costs under traditional cost accounting. Under ABC, such costs
do vary with activity even though there is a time lag e.g. salaried production engineers will not
be immediately made redundant if the number of products decline but they may be if decline
continues.
OVERHEAD COSTS
1 5 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
In addition the cost classification does not stop with factory overheads. Non-production overheads
such as design and marketing costs are included in product costs and profitability analysis by the
ABC system. Short-term variable costs can be identified with the products using volume related
cost drivers such as direct labour hours, machine hours and direct materials used.
The cost drivers may be different depending on how the cost is driven thus the cost of power
will be related to or driven by machine hours. Long-term variable costs, however, using volume
related drivers will tend to be inappropriate e.g. the number and cost of salaried production
engineers is not a function of direct labour hours or machine hours but a function of the number
of times a machine has been set up for a production run. The activity which drives the cost is the
number of setups. Costs should thus be allocated to products using this number. This contrasts
with traditional practice, which absorbs all overheads based on (often) direct labour hours and
has no regard to the activity.
Note:
1. Activities cause costs; activities include ordering, materials handling, machining,
assembly, production scheduling and dispatching.
2. Products create demand for the activities.
3. Costs are assigned to products on the basis of a product’s consumption of the
activities.
4. Absorption rates under ABC should, therefore, be more closely linked to the cause of
overhead costs and hence product costs should, therefore, be more realistic especially
where support overheads are high.
The ABC system generally works on these guidelines;
(i) Identification of the organization’s major activities
(ii) Identification of the cost drivers. These are factors which determine the size of the
costs of the activity or causes of the incurrence of costs. Volume related cost drivers
are commonly used for costs that vary with the production levels in the short term.
Examples of some costs and their cost drivers are shown below
Activity Possible cost driver
Car fuel cost Number of kilometers
Materials handling Number of production runs
Production scheduling Number of production runs
Mailing costs Number of mails sent
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S T U D Y T E X T
(iii) Collection of the costs of each activity into cost pools. Cost pools are equivalent to
cost centers. They are used to describe locations to which overhead costs are initially
assigned.
(iv) Charging support overheads to products on the basis of their usage of the activity. A
product’s usage of an activity is measured by the number of the activity’s cost driver it
generates. The service costs are only allocated to the production department according
to the usage of the services provided.
Absorption costing and ABC are similar in many respects. In both systems, direct costs go straight
to the product and overheads are allocated to production cost centers/cost pools. The difference
lies in the manner in which overheads are absorbed into products.
Advantages of ABC
(i) It is a more equitable method of charging costs to products: The product which
uses the activity that causes the cost to be incurred bears those costs associated with
the product activities in a more equitable manner. This overcomes the drawback in
absorption costing where general overheads are spread over the product range using
largely unrelated methods to the ways costs are generated.
(ii) It takes into consideration product complexity: The costs charged to products relate
to the production circumstances in which those products are produced. Under ABC,
short run and complex products might attract consequently higher levels of unit cost
compared to the long run and simple products. This aspect would have considerable
impact therefore, in the measurement of relative product profitability compared to
absorption costing approach.
(iii) Costs are more closely related to activity level: Those costs which under absorption
and marginal costing are traditionally regarded as fixed in total may be treated as variable
in the long-term under ABC. As a consequence, ABC encourages the measurement of
efficiency levels of administration functions.
(iv) It encourages a more realistic approach to stock policy: ABC does not encourage
the buildup of finished goods stock as in absorption costing. In ABC, the over recoveries
which encourage stock build up in absorption costing do not arise to the same extent
because greater proportion of the costs are treated as variable rather than fixed.
(v) It includes stock control: ABC reflects closely what is happening in the production
environment and identifies those elements which would be subject to managerial control.
It encourages costs that management can best achieve through the management of
those activities which cause costs to be incurred.
Disadvantages of ABC System
(i) A more detailed analysis is required: A more detailed analysis of cost pools and
drivers than necessary for absorption costing is usually required for an effective ABC
system with the constant increase in the cost of administering the accounting system.
OVERHEAD COSTS
1 5 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(ii) Some simplification required: Identification of cost pools and drivers is not always a
straight forward activity and at times, it is necessary to rationalize the number of cost
pools and cost drivers in the interest of reducing complexity and the cost of ABC. This
may be regarded as a compromise to the ABC system
(iii) It does not conform to the accounting standard on stock; the ABC system encourages
all costs including selling and distribution costs to be charged to work in progress and
finished goods as product costs. This cuts across the normal basis of valuing stock for
financial purposes. The accounting standard on stock requires that stocks and work in
progress be valued at total production cost up to the stage of production reached which
usually excludes the selling, distribution and administration overheads.
(iv) It is a more complex system of absorption costing: ABC is regarded by some as
not so very different from absorption costing in that absorption rates for each cost driver
are still required to be computed under the ABC System in order to recover the cost of
each cost pool.
Cost allocation
This refers to the distribution or assignment of a group of costs to cost centers. Such costs are
assimilated in a similar manner and should be allocated on the same base. Allocation base is the
measure of activity used to allocate a cost pool to the cost centers.
Reasons for Cost Allocation
§ To facilitate comparison with externally provided services: It assists in assessing whether
to continue the service or contact outsiders.
§ To provide ideas on the efficiency of service departments: It helps to determine whether
a service department is operating efficiently and its size is optimal.
§ To discourage unnecessary service by some managers as they know they will be
charged.
§ To provide opportunity for cost price-quality trade offs: Cost allocation helps to eliminate
friction between departments. This is because a user department that demands higher
quality knows that it will have to bear higher costs.
Allocation of Service Department Costs to Production departments
Service departments are those departments that provide support to production departments
but do not engage directly in the production of the products e.g. the accounting department,
maintenance department, and the legal department. Service departments provide services to
each other and at the same time to the production department. The methods of allocating service
costs include
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S T U D Y T E X T
1. Direct Allocation Method
2. Step-wise Method
3. Reciprocal Method
(i) Direct Method
The service costs are only allocated to the production department according to the
usage of the services provided. For example, maintenance services offered to the
mixing department will be charged to the mixing department directly.
(ii) Step-wise Method
It is also referred to as elimination method. Some of the costs of the reciprocal services
will be recognized although only to some extent. The steps followed include:
Choose one of the service departments and allocate its costs to all the other departments
including the other service departments. Normally, the basis of choosing that service
department to start with is the service department that provides services to the greatest
number of other departments or the greatest percentage of the service costs incurred
in that department is attributed to service offered to other departments.
Another service department is chosen and its total costs allocated the remaining
departments excluding the first service departments.
Repeat the process until all the service department costs have been allocated to the
production departments.
(iii) Reciprocal Method
This method fully considers all reciprocal services. It is the most precise in technically
finished method. This method employs the following techniques as discussed earlier in
this chapter.
a) Simultaneous Equation
b) Matrix Algebra
>>> Illustrations
Assume the following data:
User department Unit of service provided
Costs Prior to Service
Department
S1 S2 S3 Shs
S1 0 2,000 4,500 92,,400
S2 1,000 0 0 184,800
S3 2,000 4,000 0 138,600
P1 4,000 10,000 1,500 400,000
P2 3,000 4,000 9,000 500,000
Totals 10,000 20,000 15,000 1,315,800
OVERHEAD COSTS
1 5 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(i) Direct Method allocation to production departments;
S1 S2 S3 P1 P2
Cost Prior to Allocation 92,,400 184,800 138,600 400,000 500,000
Allocate S1(4:3) (92,400) 52800 39600
Allocate S2 (5:2) (184,800) 132000 52800
Allocate S3(1 :6) (138,600) 19800 118800
(ii) Step wise method (Elimination Method)
S1 S2 S3 P1 P2 Total
Cost Prior to Allocation 92,400 184,800 138,600 400,000 500,000 1,315,800
Allocate S1(1:2:4:3) 9,240 18,480 36,960 27,720
194,040 157,080 436,960 527,720
Allocate S2 (2:5:2) (194,040) 38,808 97,020 58,212
195,888 533,980 585,932
Allocate S3(1 :6) (195,888) 27,984 167,904
561,964 753,836 1,315,800
(iii) Reciprocal Method
Let Sa be the total costs of service dept 1
Let Sb be the total costs of service dept 2
Let Sc be the total costs of service dept 3
Each of the coefficients in the expressions hereunder cost after recognition) are
percentages based on proportional service received by a department from the departments
(i) Direct Method allocation to production departments;
S1 S2 S3 P1 P2
Cost Prior to
Allocation
92,,400 184,800 138,600 400,000 500,000
Allocate S1(4:3) (92,400) 52800 39600
Allocate S2 (5:2) (184,800) 132000 52800
Allocate S3(1 :6) (138,600) 19800 118800
(ii) Step wise method (Elimination Method)
S1 S2 S3 P1 P2 Total
Cost Prior to
Allocation
92,400 184,800 138,600 400,000 500,000
1,315,800
Allocate S1(1:2:4:3) 9,240 18,480 36,960 27,720
194,040 157,080 436,960 527,720
Allocate S2 (2:5:2) (194,040) 38,808 97,020 58,212
195,888 533,980 585,932
Allocate S3(1 :6) (195,888) 27,984 167,904
561,964 753,836 1,315,800
(iii) Reciprocal Method
Let Sa be the total costs of service dept 1
Let Sb be the total costs of service dept 2
Let Sc be the total costs of service dept 3
Each of the coefficients in the expressions hereunder (used to get cost after recognition)
are percentages based on proportional service received by a department from the
departments
S 138600 0.2S 0.2S Equation (iii)
S 184800 0.1S Equation (ii)
S 92400 0.1S 0.30S Equation (i)
c a b
b a
a b c
KKKKKK
KKKKKKKKK
KKKKKK
= + +
= +
= + +
Substituting Equation (ii) into Equation (i) and solving, we get;
0.99S 110880 0.3S Equation (iv)
S 110880 0.01S 0.3S
S 92400 (18480 0.01S ) 0.30S
S 92400 0.1(184800 0.1S 0.0S ) 0.30S Equation (i)
a c
a a c
a a c
a a c c c
KKKKKKKKKKKKKK
KKKK
= +
= + +
= + + +
= + + + +
Substituting Equation (ii) into Equation (iii) and solving, we get,
0.98S 175480 0.2S Equation (v)
S 175480 0.2S 0.02S
S 138600 0.2S 36880 0.02S
S 138600 0.2S 0.2(184400 0.1S ) Equation (iii)
c a
c a a
c a a
c a a
KKKKKKKKKKKKKK
KKKKKK
= +
= + +
= + + +
= + + +
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S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER SUMMARY
We have looked at overhead allocation and apportionment, reasons for absorbing overheads and
the various methods of absorbing service cost center overheads into production cost centers.
We have established how we can incorporate all costs associated with production in the item
produced.
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Define ABC Costing.
2. Define absorption costing.
3. Highlight reasons why overheads are absorbed.
4. List the methods used to apportion service department costs
OVERHEAD COSTS
Substituting (v) into Equation (iv) and solving we get,
S 175,832
0.93
163524
S
0.93S 163524
0.99S 163524 0.06S
0.99S 110880 52,644 0.06S
0.99S 110880 0.3(175,480 0.2S ) Equation (iv)
a
a
a
a a
a a
a a
=
=
=
= +
= + +
= + + KKKKKKKK
Therefore
S 184,400 0.1(175,832) 201,983 b = + =
S 138,600 0.2(175,832) 0.2(201,983) 214,163 c = + + =
S1 S2 S3 P1 P2 Total
Cost Prior to
Allocation
92,,400 184,800 138,600 400,000 500,000
1,315,800
Cost after
recognition 175,832 201,983 214,163
Allocate S1(1:2:4:3) 9,240 18,480 36,960 27,720
194,040 157,080 436,960 527,720
Allocate S2 (2:5:2) (194,040) 38,808 97,020 58,212
195,888 533,980 585,932
Allocate S3(1 :6) (195,888) 27,984 167,904
561,964 753,836 1,315,800
Chapter summary
We have looked at overhead allocation and apportionment, reasons for absorbing
overheads and the various methods of absorbing service cost center overheads into
production cost centers.
We have established how we can incorporate all costs associated with production in the
item produced.
Chapter quiz
1. Define ABC Costing.
2. Define absorption costing.
3. Highlight reasons why overheads are absorbed.
4. List the methods used to apportion service department costs
1 5 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
ANSWERS TO CHAPTER QUIZ
1. ABC is a costing method which recognizes that costs are incurred because of the
activities which take place within the organization and for each activity a cost driver
may be identified
2. Absorption costing is the process by which overheads are absorbed into production
3. Reasons why overheads are absorbed
• To control overhead expenditure
• Charging overheads to cost units
• Valuation of work in progress
• Valuation of abnormal losses
• Profit measurement
• Decision making
4. Methods used to allocate service department costs
• Direct method
• Repeated distribution method
• Algebraic
• Compromise methods
PAST PAPER ANALYSIS
05/06 Q4; 12/05 Q4; 06/04 Q1; 06/04 Q7(a); 12/03 Q5; 06/03 Q1; 12/02 Q1; 05/02 Q6; 05/01
Q4
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S T U D Y T E X T
EXAM QUESTIONS
Question one
(a) Explain the following terms giving an example of each:
(i) Service centre; and
(ii) Production centre.
Explain how the treatment of overheads differs between the two different types of
centers. (6 marks)
(b) Explain how Activity Based Costing differs from traditional absorption costing, giving an
example. (4 marks)
Question two
A factory consists of two production cost centers (G and H) and two service cost centers (J and
K). The total overheads allocated and apportioned to each centre are as follows:
G H J K
Shs.40,000 Shs.50,000 Shs.30,000 Shs.18,000
The work done by the service cost centers can be represented as follows:
G H J K
Percentage of service cost centre J to 30% 70% – –
Percentage of service cost centre K to 50% 40% 10% –
The company apportions service cost centre costs to production cost centers using a method
that fully recognizes any work done by one service cost centre for another.
What are the total overheads for production cost centre G after the reapportionment of all service
cost centre costs? (20 marks)
OVERHEAD COSTS
1 6 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Question three
Given: Total budgeted overheads = Shs.240,000
Production budget is as follows:
Product A B
Units 20,000 10,000
Labour hours 20,000 20,000
Labour cost Shs.17,500 Shs.22,500
Machine hours 45,000 15,000
Material cost Shs.15,000 Shs.25,000
Required
Compute the overhead absorption rate per unit of A and B using the following methods:
a) Unit method
b) Percentage on material cost
c) Percentage on labour cost
d) Percentage on prime cost
e) Labour hour rate
f) Machine hour rate
Question four
ABC Company manufactures leather products with various end uses. The company applies
factory overheads to individual jobs on the basis of machine hours for department A, and on the
basis of direct labour cost for department B. The following budget estimates were made by the
company at the start of year 2:
Department A
Shs.
Department B
Shs
Direct material cost 800,000 600,000
Direct labour cost 600,000 500,000
Factory overheads 600,000 400,000
Hrs Hrs
Direct labour hours 40,000 50,000
Machine hours 120,000 7,500
Cost records kept by the company showed that Job No.T506 consumed the following inputs
during the year:
Department A
Shs.
Department B
Shs
Materials issued 5,000 15,000
Direct labour cost 4,800 4,000
Hrs Hrs
Direct Labour hours 400 500
Machine hours 1,500 100
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S T U D Y T E X T
Required:
(a) Determine the overhead application rate for both department A and B.
(b) Calculate the total cost of Job No.T506.
(c) Suppose the job consists of 50 items, what would be the cost per unit?
(d) At the end of the year 2, total factory overheads incurred amounted to Shs.975,000. A
total of 110,000 machine hours were worked in department A while the total labour cost
for department B was Shs.540,000.
Required
Calculate the over or under-applied for the company as a whole and indicate whether it is
favorable or unfavorable.
Question five
(a) Equator Garments Ltd. manufactures custom-made suits tailored to the requirements
of each customer. They use predetermined overhead absorption rates in allocating
overheads to each job. In the cutting department, the rate is based on direct labour hours
and in the stitching department the rate is based on machine hours. The management
of Equator Garments Ltd. wants to set overhead absorption rates to help in determining
prices in the next financial year.
The cost accountant has provided the following budgeted data for the next financial
year.
Cutting Stitching
Direct labour cost Shs.1200000 Shs.750000
Factory overhead Shs.1500000 Shs.1620000
Direct labour hours 60000 30000
Machine hours 40000
Required
Calculate the overhead absorption rates for each department
b) The following data relates to Job No.A4
Cutting Stitching
Direct materials Shs.500 Shs. 750
Direct labour hours 30 10
Machine hours - 20
Administration overheads are absorbed at 25% on factory costs.
Profit mark-up is 33 1/3 % on cost.
OVERHEAD COSTS
1 6 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Required
Prepare a cost statement for job A4 showing the price that will be charged to the customer.
c) At the end of the year, the following data was obtained:
Cutting Stitching
Hours actually worked
Direct labour hours 68,000 30,000
Machine hours 17,000
Factory overhead cost incurred 1,600,000 760,000
Required
Calculate the amount of under or over absorption for each department.
(Your attention is drawn to the interrelation between a, b, and c).
CASE STUDY
“It is now fairly and widely accepted that conventional cost accounting, distorts management’s
view of business through unrepresentative overhead allocation and inappropriate product costing.
This is because the traditional approach usually absorbs overhead costs across products solely
on the basis of the direct labour involved in their manufacture. As direct labour cost expressed as
a proportion of total manufacturing cost continues to fall, this leads to more and more distortion
and misrepresentation of the impact of particular products on total overhead costs” (from Financial
Times)
Overhead absorption is the technique of attributing departmental overhead costs to a cost unit.
Traditionally, the basis of overhead absorption was the number of labour hours expected within
the budget period and this was then used to calculate an absorption rate per labour hour. This
was then used to attribute costs to the cost units on the basis of the number of labour hours used
to produce the cost unit.
Alternative bases of apportioning exist such as the number of machine hours or the percentage of
particular elements of prime costs incurred in respect of cost units. If the method of manufacture
is machine intensive, for example, it is more realistic to absorb the overhead cost on the basis of
the number of machine hours instead of the number of labour hours.
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S T U D Y T E X T
A further development is to divide the overheads into those costs, which are labour related, and
those, which are machine hour, related and apply a separate absorption rate to each part of the
overhead cost. This is the use of multiple rates similar to the principle of activity bases costing
(ABC).
ABC is based on the principle that activities cause costs and therefore the use of activities should
be the basis of attributing costs to cost units. Costs are identified with particular activities and the
performance of those activities is linked with products.
Traditional budgeting systems are incremental in nature and tend to focus on cost centers.
Activity based budgeting (ABB) links strategic planning to the overall performance measurement
aimed at continuous improvement
Incremental budgeting uses the previous year’s budget as the starting point for the preparation
of the following year’s budget. It assumes that the basic structure of the budget will remain
unchanged and that adjustments will be made to allow for changes in volume, efficiency and price
levels. The budget is, therefore, concerned with increments to operations that will occur during the
period and the focus is on existing uses of resources rather than considering alternative strategies
for the future budget period. Incremental budgeting suffers from the following weaknesses:
i. It perpetuates past inefficiencies
ii. There is insufficient focus on improving efficiency and effectiveness.
iii. The resource allocation tends to be based on existing strategies rather than considering
future strategies.
iv. It tends to focus excessively on the short term and often leads to arbitrary cuts being
made in order to achieve short-term financial targets
OVERHEAD COSTS
1 6 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
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S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER SEVEN
COST BOOK KEEPING
S TSUTDUYD YT ETXETX T
1 6 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
167
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER SEVEN
COST BOOK KEEPING
OBJECTIVES
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
• Distinguish between the two basic accounting systems normally used.
• Come up with a set of cost accounts from financial accounts.
• Identify the various ledgers required in cost book keeping and establish the link between
cost and financial books of accounts.
• Reconcile profits disclosed by financial and cost accounts in an interlocking systems.
• List the causes of discrepancy between financial and cost accounts.
INTRODUCTION
In this chapter, we look at the two main systems of cost book keeping. That is the integrated cost
accounting system and interlocking cost accounting system.
We look at the process of cost book keeping and the main accounts that are normally kept in
both sets of accounts.
We later look at the reconciliation of cost accounting books with financial accounting books using
the T account.
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Integrated accounting system;. A system of accounting where the cost and financial accounts are
kept in the same set of books. This system avoids the need for separate set of books for financial
and costing purposes
Interlocking accounting system; this is an accounting system where separate cost accounting
and financial accounting books are maintained although both use the same basic accounting
data
1 6 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
EXAM CONTEXT
The examiner will expect you to be able to reconcile cost accounts to financial accounts. You
should, therefore, understand the concept of book keeping and reconciliation in depth. You must
also be able to prepare various accounts when given the data.
INDUSTRY CONTEXT
Book keeping is applicable in every business enterprise.
COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEMS
Fast forward
There are two main cost accounting systems. These are interlocking cost accounting system and
integrated cost accounting system.
Interlocking Cost Accounting System:
Under this system, separate cost accounting and financial accounting books are maintained
although both use the same basic accounting data. The financial accounting books have the
normal and credit entries within themselves. In addition, a memorandum account, also known
as Cost Ledger Control account is maintained and all the items to be transferred to the cost
accounts are posted in this account.
Cost accounting books on the other hand contain impersonal accounts necessary for costing
purposes in addition to a Financial Ledger Control Account, also known as Cost Ledger Control
Account which enables the financial and Cost Ledger to be interlocked. The interlocking cost
accounting system, costing and financial profit differ and have therefore to be reconciled at the
end of the financial year.
Required Ledgers
In the financial Systems, the required ledgers are:
a) The General Ledger
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S T U D Y T E X T
b) Debtors Ledger (or Sales ledger)
c) Creditors Ledger (or Purchases ledger)
In the cost book-keeping system, the required ledgers are:
(i) General Ledger Adjustment Account: It is sometimes called the cost ledger account.
All the items extracted from the financial account are recorded in this account. The
balance in this account represents the total of all the balances of the impersonal
accounts extracted from the financial books. It completes the double entry in the cost
accounts.
(ii) Stores Ledger Control Account: This account shows all the transaction of materials
e.g. purchases, issuance of materials, returns to suppliers, e.t.c.. The balance of this
account represents in total the detailed balance of the stores account.
(iii) Work in Progress Ledger Control Account: It shows the total work in progress at any
particular time.
(iv) Finished Goods Ledger Control Account: Receipts from production and transfer to
distribution department are entered in this account and the balance of this account
shows the total value of finished goods in stock.
(v) Production Overheads Control Account: It gives the total production overheads incurred
in the manufacture or production of goods in question.
(vi) Wages Control Account: It shows the total wages incurred in the production of goods.
(vii) Selling and Distribution Overheads Control Accounts: It gives the overheads incurred in
marketing the goods produced. Examples of such costs will include advertising costs,
sales commission, repairs made to the distribution van e.t.c.
(viii) Administrative Overheads Control Accounts: This will give the total of administrative
overheads incurred in the organization. These costs are not related to production. Such
costs will include salary to the general manager, salary to accounts department staff,
e.t.c.
Link Between Cost And Financial Books
The link between the two sets of books is achieved by operating a cost ledger control account and
a financial ledger control account (Cost Ledger Contra Account) in the financial and cost books
respectively. In the cost ledger control account, all the items which affect the costs accounts
are recorded, the same items are recorded in the financial ledger control accounts, but on the
opposite side of the account hence the account completes the double entry. The Cost Ledger
Control Account is just a memorandum entry and is, therefore, made in addition to the normal
entries in the financial books of account.
COST BOOK KEEPING
1 7 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
To come up with a set of cost accounts from the financial accounts, a three stage approach is
used;
(i) Recording information directly from the financial ledger
(ii) Recording the information analysis in the cost accounting system operation
(iii) Finally, transferring of balances to costing financial statements
(i) Recording information directly from the financial ledger
In here, information relating to material procurement, labour costs (salaries and wages), sales
revenue and overheads for the period is captured. The set of accounts opened is as shown;
Financial ledger control a/c Stores ledger control a/c
Sales A/c x Stores ledger Control a/c X FLC a/c x
Wages Control a/c X
Production OH Ctrl a/c X
Non Production OH Ctrl a/c X
Wages control a/c
FLC a/c X
Production Overhead control a/c
FLC a/c X
Non production overhead control a/c
FLC a/c X
Sales A/c
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S T U D Y T E X T
The compound journal entry to be passed shall be:
Dr Stores ledger control account(i) x
Wages control account (ii) x
Production overheads control account (iii) x
Non production overheads control account (iv) x
Financial ledger control account (Sales A/c Figure)
Cr Sales account x
Financial ledger control account (i+ii+iii+iv) x
(ii) Recording the information analysis in the cost accounting system
operation
In here, information obtained from the financial ledger is analyzed within the cost ledger. The
analysis mainly involves the major accounts drawn from the financial accounting system. In
addition to the accounts, additional adjusting accounts are drawn to effect the analysis. These
accounts include; Over/under-absorption account and Sundry losses account.
The three major accounts, stores ledger control account, wages control account and production
overheads control account, have credit entries which are equivalent to the debit entries in the
work in progress account. They represent direct materials issued, direct labour and production
overhead cost incurred.
Stores ledger control a/c
FLC a/c x WIP a/c x
Wages control a/c
FLC a/c X WIP a/c X
Production Overhead control a/c
FLC a/c X WIP a/c X
Work in process a/c
Stores ledger Control a/c x
Wages Control a/c X
Production OH Ctrl a/c X
COST BOOK KEEPING
1 7 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
What constitutes production overhead are indirect materials issued for production and indirect
labour; these will be credited to the stores ledger control account and wages control account
respectively and the equivalent debit entries made to the production overheads account as
follows;
Dr: Production overheads a/c (total) x
CR: Stores ledger control a/c x
Wages control a/c x
Wages control a/c
FLC a/c X WIP a/c X
Production OH a/c X
Production Overhead control a/c
FLC a/c X WIP a/c X
Production OH a/c X
Production Overhead control a/c
FLC a/c X WIP a/c X
Stores ledger Control a/c X
Wages Control a/c X
So far, one can identify the items that appear in each of the accounts and the corresponding
entry. In addition, there may be material losses through evaporation, pilferage or theft while in
store. Such an adjustment will be done in the stores ledger control account and the adjusting
entry will be as follows:
Dr: Sundry losses a/c x
Cr Stores ledger control a/c x
The balance in the Sundry losses account will be charged to the costing profit and loss account
by passing the following journal entry;
Dr: Costing profit and loss a/c x
Cr Sundry losses a/c x
173
S T U D Y T E X T
Fixed Overhead costs are normally absorbed into the units of production by use of a predetermined
rate, which is based on standard or budgeted output. The actual output may be less or more than
the budgeted thus translating to an over or under absorption of the fixed production overheads.
Under absorption of overheads is adjusted in the production overhead control account
as follows;
Dr: Under absorption a/c x
Cr Production overhead control a/c x
The balance in the under absorption account is closed off in the costing profit and loss statement
by passing the following journal entry;
Dr: Costing profit and loss a/c x
Cr Under absorption a/c x
In case of an over absorption, the journal entry above will be reversed and the balance in the
over absorption account will be closed off in the costing profit and loss account.
The three major accounts so far are as follows:
Stores ledger control account
Financial ledger control a/c x Work in progress a/c x
Sundry losses a/c x
Production overheads a/c x
Wages control account
Financial ledger control a/c x Work in Progress a/c x
Production overheads a/c x
Production overhead control account
Financial ledger control a/c x Work in progress a/c x
Stores ledger control a/c x Under absorption a/c x
Wages ledger control a/c x
Over absorption a/c x
COST BOOK KEEPING
1 7 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Finalized goods from the manufacturing process are transferred to the finished goods control
account. The journal entry passed is;
Dr: Finished goods a/c x
Cr: Work in Progress a/c x
(iii) Transferring balances to Costing profit and Loss account
As discussed above, balances for the under absorption a/c and Sundry losses account are closed
to the Costing Profit and loss account by debiting the later and crediting the individual accounts.
A similar treatment is rendered to non production overheads balance.
To determine the profit earned, one needs to determine the cost of goods sold, which shall be
subtracted from the sales revenue to obtain gross profit.
To transfer the cost of goods sold into cost of sales, the following journal entry is passed;
Dr Cost of sales a/c x
Cr Finished goods a/c x
The Cost of sales a/c balance is closed off in the costing profit and loss account by passing the
following journal entry;
Dr Costing profit and loss a/c x
Cr Cost of sales a/c x
The Costing profit and loss a/c shall appear as below;
Costing Profit and Loss a/c
Cost of sales a/c xx Sales xx
Under absorption a/c xx Over absorption a/c xx
Sundry losses a/c xx
Non Production overhead
control a/c xx
Balance c/f xx
xx xx
175
S T U D Y T E X T
The final trial balance in the cost ledger will show:
DR CR
Stores ledger control a/c x
W.I.P Control a/c x
Finished goods control a/c x
Costing profit and loss a/c x
Financial Ledger Control a/c x
The debit and credit total should be equal. Any difference should be investigated and corrected.
Focus on financial and cost accounts in relation to Materials
Transaction
(i) Purchase of Materials on Credit
(ii) Return of Materials to Suppliers
(iii) Purchase of Materials in Cash.
The above transactions affect both the financial accounts and cost accounts and the entries in
the two sets of books will appear as follows:
In the Financial Books In the Costing Books
Purchases on Credit:
Dr Purchases a/c Dr Stores Ledger Control a/c
Cr Creditors a/c Cr General Ledger Adjustment a/c
Return of Materials to Suppliers
Dr Creditors a/c Dr. General Ledger Adjustment a/c
Cr. Purchases a/c Cr. Stores Ledger Control a/c
Purchases of Materials in Cash
Dr. Purchases a/c Dr. Stores Ledger Control a/c
Cr. Cash a/c Cr. General Ledger Adjustment a/c
COST BOOK KEEPING
1 7 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The following entries of material transactions affect only the cost of books because they are
merely transfers in the cost ledger:
Focus on financial and cost accounts in relation to labor
transactions
(i) Wages paid in cash
(ii) Wages incurred as
a) direct labor or
b) Indirect labor
In the Financial Books In the Costing Books
Wages Paid in cash:
Dr. Wages Account Dr. Wages Control a/c
Cr. Cash a/c Cr. General ledger adjustment a/c
Wages incurred as direct labour
Not distinguished as direct labour Dr. Work in process a/ c
Cr. Wages Control a/ c
Wages incurred as indirect labour
Not distinguished as indirect labour Dr. Work in Process a/ c
Cr. Production Overheads Control a/ c
Tutorial Note
A cost account ledger system is required to analyze accounting information in order that costs
may be accumulated for individual cost centers and charged to cost units. The information in the
cost ledger will be used for a range of planning, control and decision making purpose.
The cost ledger control account in the financial ledger is a memorandum account which records
the financial information, which has been extracted for use in the cost ledger. The financial ledger
control in the cost ledger has two main purposes:
(i) It makes the cost ledger self-balancing: It takes the place of an asset liability accounts
in which one leg of the double entry would appear in the financial ledger for each
transaction e.g. the purchase of material on credit would be credited to Sundry creditors
control account in the financial ledger. In the cost ledger, it is credited to the financial
ledger control account.
177
S T U D Y T E X T
(ii) It enables an internal check to be performed by comparing its balances with that of the
cost ledger control account in the financial ledger. Both should record a balance which
represents stock balances (Raw material, W.I.P and financial goods) the net profit, when
all other transactions have been completed. Any difference should be investigated and
reconciled. Thus the final trial balance in the cost ledger will show:
DR CR
Stores ledger control a/c x
W.I.P Control a/c x
Finished goods control a/c x
Costing profit and loss a/c x
Financial Ledger Control a/c x
>>> Illustration of the book keeping entries in a job costing system
Reconciliation of profits disclosed by Financial Accounts and Cost Accounts in an interlocking
system
Fast forward;
Costing accounting profits can always be reconciled by identifying the items causing the difference
in the numbers.
When interlocking cost accounting system is applied, there will always be differences between
the profit shown in the financial accounts and that shown in the Cost accounts even if there are
no errors in either accounts. This disparity in profits is caused by the different ways of recording
accounting entries in the cost books and the financial books. For this reason, the two profit figures
in the set of the two accounts should be periodically reconciled if they are to be meaningful. This
reconciliation is done using an account known as the Memorandum Reconciliation Account.
Differences between the profit figures in the cost books and the financial books are caused by
factors such as
(i) Items shown only by one set of accounts i.e. Items appearing in the financial accounts
and not in the cost books and vice versa.
Item shown only in the financial books include:
• Losses on disposal of assets
• Stamp duty and other expenses on issues and transfers of capital stock (shares, bonds,
debentures, e.t.c.)
COST BOOK KEEPING
1 7 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
• Losses on investment
• Interest on bank loans
• Discounts on bonds and debentures
• Dividends received
• Profits arising from sale of fixed assets
• Dividends paid
• Rent receivable but excluding that portion receivable from sub-letting part of the business
premises if it has been included in the cost accounts.
Items shown only in the cost books: These are normally notional charges therefore not
real. They include:
• Interest on capital employed in production
• Notional rental charges of premises owned
The above two notional costs represents the opportunity cost of employing the capital in the
business rather than investing it outside the business.
(ii) Different bases of Stock Valuation
Stocks are valued differently, in cost accounts and financial accounts; the financial
stock is valued at the lower cost and net realizable value (mark value). The valuation of
stocks in cost accounts is either based on LIFO, FIFO or weighted average. This use
of different bases in valuing stocks will affect the profit/losses shown in the financial or
cost accounts hence the need for reconciliation of the two.
(iii) Different Treatment of Overheads
In cost accounts, indirect expenses are recovered as overheads based on estimated
expenditure and aligned with the estimated level of production. This results in under or
over-absorption of overheads and this must be taken into account when reconciling the
profits of the two sets of accounts. In the financial accounts, however, indirect expenses
are recorded at the actual cost and charged to the production account.
179
S T U D Y T E X T
>>> Illustration
The following are the final accounts of XYZ Limited for the year ending 31st December
1999
COST BOOK KEEPING
Illustration
The following are the final accounts of XYZ Limited for the year ending 31st December
1999
Manufacturing Trading Profit and Loss Appropriation Account
Total Factory Costs c/ d 311,000 Sales 480,000
Finished goods; opening stock 20,000
Cost of goods manufactured and
transferred b/d
311,000
Less closing stock (22,000)
309,000
Gross profit c/d 171,000 ______
480,000 480,000
Expenses
Office Salaries 35,000 Gross profit b/f 171,000
Office Expenses 20,000 Dividends received 3,000
Salesmen Commissions 18,000 Interest on bank
deposits
1,000
Selling Expenses 15,000
Loss on sale of land 1,000
Distribution expenses 13,000
Interest on mortgage 2,000
Fines 1,000
Net Profit c/d 70,000 ______
175,000 175,000
Taxation 24,000 Net Profit b/d 70,000
Transfers to general reserve 9,000 Retained profit c/f 36,000
Ordinary share dividend 18,000
Preference dividend 11,000
Goodwill written off 7,000
Retained Earnings c/f 37,000 ______
106,000 106,000
Retained earnings b/f
The cost accounting records show the following:
(i). Profits were Shs.114,000. Office salaries and office expenses provided for as (in the
financial books)
(ii). Stocks were as follows:
Opening Stocks: Raw Materials 26,000
Work in process 21,000
Finished goods 23,000
Closing stock Raw materials 30,000
Work in process 20,000
Finished goods 24,000
Required:
Prepare a Memorandum Reconciliation account
1 8 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Solution
Memorandum Reconciliation account
Profit as per cost books 114,000
Items not Debited in cost a/c Items not credited in cost a/c
Stock difference: Dividend received 3,000
Closing finished goods
difference
1,000 Interest received 1,000
Closing WIP difference 2,000
Opening finished goods
difference
3,000 Difference in stocks
Closing raw materials difference 1,000 Opening WIP difference 8000
Other costs Opening raw materials 1,000
Salesman Commission 18,000
Selling expenses 15,000
Loss on sale of land 1,000
Distribution Expenses 13,000
Interest on mortgage 2,000
Fines 1,000
Net profit as per the financial
books
70,000
______
127,000 127,000
Workings
Financial a/c Cost a/c Difference
Work in progress: opening stocks: 29,000 21,000 8,000 CR
Finished goods: opening stocks: 20,000 23,000 3,000 DR
Raw materials: opening stocks: 27,000 26,000 1,000 CR
Raw materials: closing stocks: 21,000 20,000 1,000 DR
Work in progress: closing stock 22,000 24,000 2,000 DR
Finished goods: closing stock 29,000 30,000 1,000 DR
The Nature of Integrated Accounts
In integrated account, ledger system has a number of features which may be viewed as
preferable to the interlocking ledger system. In the recent decade, there has in fact been
a move towards greater integration of accounting information requirements in a single
unified system (an integrated ledger system). Such an integrated ledger system has the
following advantages:
181
S T U D Y T E X T
THE NATURE OF INTEGRATED ACCOUNTS
In integrated account, ledger system has a number of features which may be viewed as
preferable to the interlocking ledger system. In the recent decade, there has in fact been a move
towards greater integration of accounting information requirements in a single unified system (an
integrated ledger system). Such an integrated ledger system has the following advantages:
i. There is only one set of accounting records which is kept with sufficient analysis to
enable the preparation of financial and cost accounting statements and to facilitate the
control mechanisms undertaken by financial and management accountants.
ii. There is only one profit and loss account. This removes the possibility of senior
management confusion and frustration from the production of two seemingly different
profit figures.
iii. There is no requirement to reconcile cost and financial accounting records.
iv. There is a removal of the duplication of effort and cost which arises when separate
ledgers are maintained.
v. The integrated ledger system fits in with the use of computer based information systems
and a database approach to information availability and use.
Entries in the Integrated ledger system
The integrated ledger system contains most of the entries in the interlocking ledger system. The
financial ledger control account is no longer in use. The range of asset and liability accounts
required for financial control purposes and for the preparation of financial accounting statements
will incorporate the entries, which would have appeared in the financial ledger control account.
>>> Illustration
a) List and explain the reasons as to why profit or loss between cost and financial records
may differ in an interlocking accounting system. (10 marks)
b) Inter products Kenya Ltd. operates separate cost and financial accounting systems.
The following balances from the final accounts of the company for both systems are
available to you as the Company’s Financial and Management Accountant.
COST BOOK KEEPING
1 8 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Shs’000
Net Profit as per financial accounts 95,670
Net profit as per cost accounts 100,140
Dividend paid 180
Loss due to theft and pilferage charged in the financial accounts 345
Stock depreciation charged in the financial accounts 1,290
Stores adjustment credited to financial accounts 630
Bank interest credited in financial accounts 345
Interest received not included in the cost accounts 675
Depreciation recovered in the financial accounts 5,925
Depreciation charge in the financial accounts 5,490
Excess administration cost recovered 6,375
Factory cost under-recovered in cost accounts 8,550
Tax premium 900
Required
A reconciliation of the company’s cost and financial accounts (10 Marks)
Suggested Solution
Reasons why profit or loss between cost and financial accounts may differ in an interlocking
system.
Solution
Generally, when certain transactions are viewed differently in these systems, any profit or loss
declared will not be the same.
Some of the items which lead to differences include:
Items recorded in financial books but not in cost books and which tend to increase financial
profits. These are mainly incomes and gains.
Examples
• Dividends received
• Interest received
183
S T U D Y T E X T
• Discounts received
• Profits on disposal of assets
Items recorded in financial books but not cost books which tend to decrease financial
profits.
These are expenses and losses. Examples:-
• Discounts allowed
• Capitalized items of profit appropriation i.e. Income tax
• Differences in overhead calculations
• Methods of stock valuation applied
• Items recorded in costing books and not in financial books (10 marks)
COST BOOK KEEPING
a) (i) Use of a T account Memorandum of Reconciliation
(ii) Use of Reconciliation statement (Vertical Format)
Inter Products Limited
Reconciliation Statement
Shs’000 Shs’000
Profit as per financial accounts 95,670
Deduct Items increasing financial profit:
Memorandum of Reconciliation
Cost accounting Profit 100,140
Items debited in the FA but not in CA profit Items Credited in the FA but not in CA profit
Stock depreciation charged in the
financial a/c s
1,290 Bank interest credited in financial a/cs 345
Loss due to theft and pilferage charged
in the financial a/c
390 Stores adjustment credited to financial
a/c s
630
Depreciation charge in the financial a/cs 5,490 Interest received not included in the
cost a/c s
675
Tax Premium 900 Depreciation recovered in the financial
a/c
5,925
Dividend paid 1,800
Items Increasing Cost accounting Items Increasing Financial a/c
profit
Factory cost under-recovered in cost
accounts a/c s
8,550 Excess administration cost recovered 6,375
Financial accounting profits 95,670
114,090 114,090
1 8 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER SUMMARY
The chapter has covered the preparation of cost accounting and financial accounting records.
Reconciliation of the two sets of accounts has also been covered.
It has elaborated substantially on the items that may bring a difference in the two sets of accounts,
which act as the reconciling items. These are:
Items recorded in financial books but not in cost books and which tend to increase financial
profits. These are mainly incomes and gains such as;
• Dividends received
• Interest received
(ii) Use of Reconciliation statement (Vertical Format)
Inter Products Limited
Reconciliation Statement
Shs’000 Shs’000
Profit as per financial accounts 95,670
Deduct Items increasing financial profit:
Stores adjustment 630
Bank interest 345
Interest received 675 (1,650)
Add: Items decreasing financial profit:
Dividend paid 1,800
Loss due to theft 390
Stock depreciation 1,290
Tax premium 900
Depreciation charge 5,490 9,870
Deduct: Items tending to increase cost profits
Depreciation 5,925
Excess administration costs 6,375 (12,300)
Add: Items in cost books tending to reduce
cost profit
Factory cost under covered 8,550 8,550
100,140
Factory cost under-recovered in cost
accounts a/c s
8,550 Excess administration cost recovered 6,375
Financial accounting profits 95,670
114,090 114,090
185
S T U D Y T E X T
• Discounts received
• Profits on disposal of assets
Items recorded in financial books but not cost books which tend to decrease financial profits.
These are expenses and losses such as;
• Discounts allowed
• Capitalized items of profit appropriation i.e. Income tax
• Differences in overhead calculations
• Methods of stock valuation applied
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. What is an interlocking accounting system?
2. Highlight the reasons that cause the profit figures in the cost accounting books and
those in the financial books to be different
3. Highlight the advantages of integrated systems.
4. Highlight some of the items that may appear in the cost accounting books and not
financial accounting books.
COST BOOK KEEPING
1 8 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
ANSWERS TO CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Interlocking accounting system is a system where separate cost accounting and financial
accounting books are maintained although both use the same basic accounting data.
2. Differences between the profit figures in the cost books and the financial books are
caused by factors such as
• Items shown only by one set of accounts
• Different bases of stock valuation
• Different treatment of overheads
3. Integrated ledger system has the following advantages:
i. There is only one set of accounting records which is kept with sufficient analysis to
enable the preparation of financial and cost accounting statements and to facilitate the
control mechanisms undertaken by financial and management accountants.
ii. There is only one profit and loss account. This removes the possibility of senior
management confusion and frustration from the production of two seemingly different
profit figures.
iii. There is no requirement to reconcile cost and financial accounting records.
iv. There is a removal of the duplication of effort and cost which arises when separate
ledger are maintained.
v. The integrated ledger system fits in with the use of computer based information systems
and a database approach to information availability and use.
4. Items that appear only in cost accounting books
• Interest on capital employed in production
• Notional rental charges of premises owned
PAST PAPER ANALYSIS
Question in this chapter have been tested in the following exam sittings;
12/06 Q5; 05/ 06 Q5; 11 04 Q2; 06/ 03 Q4; 12/01 Q6
187
S T U D Y T E X T
EXAM QUESTIONS
QUESTION ONE
a) Explain the following terms as used in accounting for costs:
i. Financial Accounting (3 marks)
ii. Management Accounting (3 marks)
iii. Cost Accounting (2 marks)
b) Explain how the following accounts are used in cost accounts
i. Ledger Adjustment Account
ii. Stores Ledger Control Account
iii. Work in Progress Ledger Control Account
iv. Finished Goods Ledger Control Account (3 marks each)
QUESTION TWO
Explain the reasons that cause the profit figures in the cost accounting books and those in the
financial books to be different. (Total: 20 marks)
QUESTION THREE
The profit shown in the financial books as at 31 March 2004 was Shs.l1,287 and for the same
period, the cost accounting books showed a profit of Shs.2,704. After checking the two sets of
accounts for the source of the differences, the following issues come to your attention:
Cost Accounts Financial Accounts
Shs Shs
Depreciation 9,826 10,520
Stock Valuations:
Opening Stock 27,510 25,500
Closing Stock 18,218 18,750
Profit on sale of asset 850
Dividends Received 2,635
Imputed rent Charge 3,250
Required:
Prepare a statement to reconcile the two profits, starting with the profits as per financial
accounts
(20 marks)
COST BOOK KEEPING
1 8 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
QUESTION FOUR:
The profit shown in the financial accounts is Shs.18,592 and for the same period, the cost accounts
showed a profit of 20,496. Comparison of the two sets of accounts revealed the following:
Stock Valuations: Cost Accounts Financial Accounts
Raw Materials Shs Shs
Opening Stock 6,821 7,259
Closing Stock 5,483 5,128
Finished Goods
Opening stock 13,291 12,905
Closing stock 11,430 11,131
Dividends and interest received of Shs.552 and a loss of 1,750 on the sale of a milling machine
were not entered in the cost accounts
Required
Prepare a reconciliation of the two profits (20 marks)
QUESTION FIVE
Mali Yote Limited is a company engaged in the manufacture of specialist marine engines. It
operates a job costing accounting system which is not integrated with financial accounts.
At the beginning of the month of May 2002, the operating balances in the cost ledger were as
follows:
Sh. ‘000’
Stores ledger control account 85,000
Work in progress control account 167,000
Finished goods control account 49,000
Cost ledger control account 302,000
During the month, the following transactions took place.
Materials: Purchases 42,700
Issues to: Production 63,400
General maintenance 1,400
Assembling of manufacturing equipment 7,600
Factory wages: Total wages paid 124,000
189
S T U D Y T E X T
Of the total wages paid. Shs.12,500,000 was incurred in the assembly of manufacturing
equipment. Shs.35,700,000 was indirect wages and the balance was direct wages.
Other production overhead costs incurred amounted to Shs.152,000,000. Shs.30,000,000 of
which was absorbed by the manufacturing equipment under assembly while Shs.7,500,000 was
under absorbed overhead costs written off.
One of the engines manufactured by the company is produced under license. During the month
of May 2002. Shs.2,100,000 was paid as royalty for that particular engine.
Selling overheads and distribution overhead costs were as follows:
Sh. ‘000’
Selling overheads 22,000
Distribution overheads 410,000
The company’s gross profit margin is 25% on factory cost.
At the end of May 2002, the stock of work in progress had increased by Shs.12,000,000. The
manufacturing equipment under assembly was completed within the month and transferred out
of the cost ledger at the end of the month.
Required: Prepare,
(i) Cost ledger control account (8 marks)
(ii) Stores ledger control account (3 marks)
(iii) Work in progress control account (3 marks)
(iv) Finished goods control account (3 marks)
(v) Costing profit and loss account (3 marks
(CPA 06/03)
COST BOOK KEEPING
1 9 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
CASE STUDY
Company XYZ maintains separate cost and financial ledgers.
The financial accountant has prepared the following Profit Statement from the financial ledger:
Income Statement For 31st December 2007
$ $
Sales 188,300
Material purchases 73,200
Wages & Salaries 32,490
Expenses excluding depreciation 46,860
Depreciation 17,340
169,890
Stock Increase 2,800
167,090
21,210
Investment Income 8,180
Profit 29,390
The profit reported by the cost accountant was $19,206
The following are discovered:
1. Neither investment income nor interest charges were included in the cost accounts
2. Stock valuations in the cost accounts were
$ $
1/12/07 31/12/07
Raw materials 11,800 9,900
Work-in-progress 8,120 8,530
Finished goods 18,910 22,170
3. The same depreciation methods and rates are used in both ledgers. However, in the
cost ledger, depreciation continues to be charged at the rate of 10% per annum on fixed
assets which have been fully depreciated. Fixed assets which had cost $468,000 have
been fully depreciated in the financial ledger.
4. In the cost ledger, production overheads incurred comprises:
• 5% of the cost of materials used
• 10% of the wages and salaries
• 80% of the expenses excluding depreciation
• 60% of the depreciation cost
191
S T U D Y T E X T
Absorbed production overheads were $54,310 and the under-absorbed production overheads
were carried forward, and not written off to the Income Statement
Required:
Prepare a reconciliation statement, commencing with the financial profit of $28,310 and showing
how this can be reconciled to the cost ledger profit of $19,206
COST BOOK KEEPING
Suggested Solution:
Profit as per financial accounts $29,390
Financial
Ledger
($)
Cost
Ledger
($)
Add ($) Less ($)
Investment income 8,180 - - 8,180
Increase in stock 2,800 1770 (W1) - 1,030
Over-depreciation 3,900 (W2) - 3,900
Under-absorbed production
overhead
2,926 (W3) 2,926 -
2,926 13,110 $(10,184)
Profit as per Cost accounts $19,206
Workings: (W1):
Opening Stock
($)
Closing Stock
($)
Raw materials 11,800 9,900
Work-in-progress 8,120 8,530
Finished goods 18,910 22,170
Total 38,830 40,600
Increase in stock = $40,600-$38,830 = $1,170
W2:Depreciation in cost ledger = 10% x$468,000/12 = $3,900
W3: Production Overhead:
$
Opening stock of material 11,800
Add: Purchases 73,200
85,000
Less: Closing Stock _9,900
Material Used 75,100
Actual overhead incurred in cost accounts:
$
Material used 5% x$75,100 3,755
Wages & salaries 10% x$32,490 3,249
Expenses 80% x$46,860 37,488
Depreciation 60% x($17,340+$3,900) 12,744
1 9 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Opening stock of material 11,800
Add: Purchases 73,200
85,000
Less: Closing Stock _9,900
Material Used 75,100
Actual overhead incurred in cost accounts:
$
Material used 5% x$75,100 3,755
Wages & salaries 10% x$32,490 3,249
Expenses 80% x$46,860 37,488
Depreciation 60% x($17,340+$3,900) 12,744
57,236
Less: Overhead absorbed 54,310
Under-absorbed overhead _2,926
193
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER EIGHT
MARGINAL AND
ABSORPTION COSTING
S TSUTDUYD YT ETXETX T
1 9 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
195
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER EIGHT
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• Distinguish between marginal and absorption costing
• Define contribution and explain the principles of marginal costing
• Compare and contrast marginal costing and absorption costing and pass arguments in
favor of each depending on the circumstances
• Reconcile marginal profits and absorption profits
• Apply marginal costing in decision making, determination of the break-even point and
carrying out the cost-volume-profit analysis
• Calculate the margin of safety of a firm and advise on whether a firm is to make or buy
some items based on cost.
• Explain the decision making cycle and importance of relevant costs in decision
making
• Analyze direct costs, opportunity and incremental costs as relevant costs
INTRODUCTION
This chapter explores the use of cost accounting information for decision-making purposes.
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Marginal cost: This is the cost of a unit of a product or service, which would be avoided if that
unit or service was not produced or provided
Break-even point: This is the volume of sales where there is neither profit nor loss.
1 9 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Margin of safety: This is the excess of sales over the break-even volume in sales. It states the
extent to which sales can drop before losses begin to be incurred in a firm
Contribution: This is the difference between sales value and the marginal cost of sales.
EXAM CONTEXT
A variety of questions can be set from this chapter. The understanding of the this is critical
since majority of the questions on decision making are set from it. The questions may not be
straight forward and may require application of knowledge from other chapters such as cost
classification.
INDUSTRY CONTEXT
The theory in this chapter is applicable in real life situation especially in decision making. This
may include ‘make or buy’ decisions, costing of an assignment, sensitivity analysis and strategy
formulation and evaluation.
MARGINAL COSTING AND ABSORPTION COSTING
Fast forward:
Marginal costing is built on cost behavior.
To understand this topic, you need to understand the topic on cost behavior first. Marginal costing
is built on cost behavior and terms. Of key importance are product costs, period costs, variable
costs and fixed cost.
Product costs are costs identified with goods produced or purchased for resale. Such costs are
initially identified as part of the value of stock and only become expenses when the stock is
sold. In contrast, period costs are costs that are deducted as expenses during the current period
without ever being included in the value of stock held. We saw how product costs are absorbed
into the cost of units of output. Now we describe marginal costing and compare it with absorption
costing.
Whereas absorption costing recognizes fixed costs (usually fixed production costs) as part of
the cost of a unit of output and hence as product costs, marginal costing treats all fixed costs as
period costs. Two such different costing methods obviously each have their supporters and we
will be looking at the arguments both in favor of and against each method. Each costing method,
because of the different stock valuation used, produces a different profit figure and we will be
looking at this particular point in detail.
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S T U D Y T E X T
Note that in marginal costing, all costs need to be classified as variable costs or fixed costs.
Semi-variable costs are separated into their fixed and variable components. For instance, if
total overhead cost figure given is Shs.50,000, which comprises of, say, Shs.20,000 fixed costs,
the difference, Shs.30,000 is taken to be variable and is taken into account when computing
contribution. The fixed cost (Shs.20,000) is deducted from the contribution to get the profit
figure.
MARGINAL COST AND MARGINAL COSTING
Marginal Costing is an alternative method of costing to absorption costing. In marginal costing,
only variable costs are charged as a cost of sale and a contribution is calculated which is sales
revenue minus the variable cost of sales. Closing stocks of work in progress or finished goods are
valued at marginal (variable) production cost. Fixed costs are treated as a period cost, and are
charged in full to the profit and loss account of the accounting period in which they are incurred.
Marginal costing as a form of management accounting is based on the distinction between the
marginal costs of making selling goods or services, and fixed costs, which should be the same
for a given period of time, regardless of the level of activity in the period.
Marginal Cost
This is the cost of a unit of a product or service which would be avoided if that unit or service was
not produced or provided. A marginal cost refers to a variable cost just that the term ‘marginal
cost’ is usually applied to the variable cost of a unit of product or service, whereas the term
‘variable cost’ is more commonly applied to resource costs, such as the cost of materials and
labour hours.
The marginal production cost per unit of an item usually consists of the following items, which
have been well elaborated in the previous chapters:
Ø Direct materials,
Ø Direct labour,
Ø Variable production overheads.
Contribution is the difference between sales value and the marginal cost of sales.
Contribution is fundamental in marginal costing, and the term ‘contribution’ is really short for
‘contribution towards covering fixed overheads and making a profit’. Before a firm can make a
profit in any period, it must first of all cover its fixed costs.
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
1 9 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Suppose that a firm makes and sells a single product that has a marginal cost of Shs.25 per unit
and that sells for Shs.40 per unit. For every additional unit of the product that is made and sold,
the firm will incur an extra cost of Shs.25 and receive income of Shs.40. The net gain will be
Shs.15 per additional unit. This net gain per unit is called contribution
Contribution per Unit = Sales – variable costs
= Shs.40 – Shs.25
= Shs.15
The Principles of Marginal Costing
The principles of marginal costing are as follows:
Period fixed costs are the same, for any volume of sales and production (provided that the level
of activity is within the ‘relevant range’). Therefore, by selling an extra item of product or service
the following will happen:
Ø Revenue will increase by the sales value of the item sold,
Ø Costs will increase by the variable cost per unit,
Ø Profit will increase by the amount of contribution earned from the extra item.
Similarly, if the volume of sales falls by one item, the profit will fall by the amount of contribution
earned from the item.
Profit measurement should, therefore, be based on an analysis of total contribution. Since fixed
costs relate to a period of time, and do not change with increases or decreases in sales volume,
it is misleading to charge units of sale with a share of fixed costs from total contribution for the
period to derive a profit figure.
When a unit of product is made, the extra costs incurred in its manufacture are the variable
production costs (in this case, the variable costs are the marginal costs). Fixed costs are
unaffected, and no extra fixed costs are incurred when output is increased. It is therefore argued
that the valuation of closing stocks should be at variable production cost (direct materials, direct
labour, direct expenses (if any) and variable production overhead) because these are the only
costs properly attributable to the product. Before explaining marginal costing principles any
further, it will be helpful to look at a numerical example.
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S T U D Y T E X T
WORKED EXAMPLES
>>> Marginal Costing Illustration I
Water Ltd makes a product, the Splash, which has a variable production cost of Ksh.6 (production,
administration, sales and distribution). There were no variable marketing costs. Fixed costs per
annum amount to Sh45,000.
Assuming a 20,000 splashes production and a selling price of Sh10; calculate the contribution
and profit for September 19x0, using marginal costing principles, if sales were as follows:
a) 10,000 Splashes
b) 15,000 Splashes
c) 20,000 Splashes
Solution
The first stage in the profit calculation must be to identify the variable costs, and then the
contribution. Fixed costs are deducted from the total contribution to derive the profit. All closing
stocks are valued at marginal production cost (Ksh.6 per unit). For 10,000, 15,000 and 20,000
Splashes this would be:
10,000 Splashes 15,000 Splashes 20,000 Splashes
Ksh. Ksh. Ksh. Ksh. Ksh. Ksh.
Sales (at Ksh.10) 100,000 150,000 200,000
Opening stock 0 0 0
Variable production
cost
60,000 90,000 120,000
Variable cost of sales 60,000 90,000 120,000
Contribution 40,000 60,000 80,000
Less fixed costs 45,000 45,000 45,000
Profit/(loss) (5,000) 15,000 35,000
Profit/(loss) per unit Ksh.(0.5) Ksh.1.00 Ksh.1.75
Contribution per unit Ksh.4.00 Ksh.4.00 Ksh.4.00
The conclusions which may be drawn from the example are as follows:
a) The profit per unit varies at differing levels of sales, because the average fixed
overhead cost per unit changes with the volume of output and sales.
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 0 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
b) The contribution per unit is constant at all levels of output and sales. Total contribution,
which is the contribution per unit multiplied by the number of units sold, increases in
direct proportion to the volume of sales.
c) Since the contribution per unit does not change, the most effective way of calculating
the expected profit at any level of output and sales would be as follows:
- First calculate the total contribution,
- Then deduct fixed costs as a period charge in order to find the profit.
In our example, the expected profit from the sale of 17,000 Splashes would be as
follows:
Total contribution (17,000 x Ksh.4) 68,000
Less fixed costs 45,000
Profit 23,000
So:
• If total contribution exceeds fixed costs, a profit is made,
• If total contribution exactly equals fixed costs, no profit and no loss is made and breakeven
point is reached,
• If total contribution is less than fixed costs, there will be a loss.
>>> Marginal costing illustration II
Plumber Ltd makes two products, the Loo and the Wash. Information relating to each of these
products for April 19X1 is as follows
Loo Wash
Opening stock Nil Nil
Production (units) 15,000 6,000
Sales (units) 10,000 5,000
Shs. Shs.
Sales price per unit 20 30
Direct costs per Unit
Direct materials 8 14
Direct labour 4 2
Variable production overhead 2 1
Variable sales overhead __2 __3
Total direct cost per unit 16 20
Contribution (p – v)x 4 10
Fixed costs for the month
Production costs Shs.40,000
Administration cost Shs.15,000
Sales and distribution costs Shs.25,000
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S T U D Y T E X T
Using marginal costing principles, calculate the profit in April 19x1. Use the approach set out in
note (d) to the Water Ltd case, above.
Solution
We shall use the approach derived from the conclusions reached above. We first compute the
contribution per unit, total contribution and then deduct total fixed costs to arrive at the profit.
Contribution from Loo (unit contribution =Ksh.20 – Ksh.16 = Ksh.4 x10,000) 40,000
Contribution from Washes (unit contribution =Ksh.30 - Ksh.20 = Ksh.l0 x 5,000) 50,000
Total contribution 90,000
Fixed costs for the period (80,000)
Profit 10,000
>>> Marginal Costing Illustration II
The Ghost Company manufactured one product, the Ghost. The following costs relate to a
financial year when 50,000 units of Ghost are made
Direct materials Shs.175,000
Direct labour Shs.115,000
Indirect costs Shs.155,000
Investigations into the cost behavior of the costs have revealed that:
§ Direct materials behave as variable costs
§ Direct labour behaves as a variable cost
§ Of the Indirect costs, Shs.130,000 behaves as a fixed cost, and the remainder as a
variable cost.
Required:
(a) Calculate the cost of one unit of Ghost using marginal costing
(b) If each unit of Ghost sells for Shs.10 and all the production of 50,000 units is sold,
calculate the profit for the year using marginal costing statement. Show the contribution
per unit and total contribution
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 0 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Solution
Costing of a unit Ghost
Using only the variable (marginal) costs to cost one unit of Ghost
Direct materials (Shs.175,000 ÷ 50,000) Shs.3.50
Direct materials (115,000 ÷ 50,000) Shs.2.30
Variable costs (Ksh.155,000 – 130,000) =25,000 ÷ 50,000) Shs.0.50
Marginal costing statement for the financial year
Per unit For year
Shs Shs
Sales 10.00 500,000
Less: variable costs 6.30 315,000
Contribution 3.70 185,000
Less Fixed costs** 130,000
Profit 55,000
**Note that the fixed costs are not calculated in unit terms but are simply deducted in total from
the total contribution
MARGINAL COSTING AND ABSORPTION COSTING
COMPARED
Fast forward:
The main cause of difference between marginal and absorption profits is fixed costs carried in
opening and closing inventory in absorption costing.
Marginal Costing as a cost accounting system is significantly different from absorption costing.
It is an alternative method of accounting for costs and profit, which rejects the principles of
absorbing fixed overhead into unit costs.
Marginal costing
Absorption costing
(sometimes referred to as full costing)
0 Closing stocks are valued at marginal
production cost, that is, the variable
production costs only.
0 Closing stocks are valued at full
production cost, and including a share
of fixed production and include a share
of fixed production costs
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S T U D Y T E X T
0 Fixed costs are charged in full against
the profit of the period in which they are
incurred. They are treated as period
costs.
0 Fixed costs are treated as product
costs**. They are only expensed when
stock is sold.
**This means that the cost of sales in a period will include some fixed overhead incurred in a
previous period (in opening stock values) and will exclude some fixed overhead incurred in the
current period but carried forward in closing stock values as a charge to a subsequent accounting
period.
This distinction**between marginal costing and absorption costing is very important and the
contrast between the systems must be clearly understood. Work carefully through the following
example to ensure that you are familiar with both methods.
The diagram below will help us understand the different approaches in computing the profits in
both costing methods.
Absorption costing Marginal costing
Direct costs Variable costs
Direct materials Variable direct materials
Direct labour Variable direct labour
Direct overheads Variable direct expenses
Variable overheads
Indirect expenses Fixed costs
Variable overheads Fixed direct costs
Fixed overheads Fixed overheads
>>> Illustration
Two Left Feet Ltd manufactures a single product, the Claud. The following figures relate to the
Claud for a one-year period,
Activity level 50% 100%
Sales and productions (units) 400 800
Shs Shs
Sales 8,000 16,000
Production costs: Variable 3,200 6,400
Fixed 1,600 1,600
Sales and distribution costs Variable 1,600 3,200
Fixed 2,400 2,400
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 0 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The normal level of activity for the year is 800 units. Fixed costs are incurred evenly throughout
the year, and actual fixed costs are the same as budgeted. There were no stocks of Clauds at the
beginning of the year. In the first quarter, 220 units were produced and 160 units sold.
Now:
(a) Calculate the fixed production costs absorbed by Clauds in the first quarter if absorption
costing is used,
(b) Calculate the profit using absorption costing,
(c) Calculate the profit using marginal costing,
(d) Explain why there is a difference between the answers to (c) and (d).
Solution
a) The fixed production costs absorbed by Clauds in the first quarter (with absorption
costing) are:
Budgeted fixed production costs = Shs.1,600
Budgeted output (Normal activity Level) 600 Units
Absorption rate = Ksh.2 per unit produced.
During the quarter, fixed production overhead was
= 220 units x Shs.2 = Shs.440
b) The under/over recovery of overheads for the quarter would be:
Accrual fixed production overhead 400 (3/12 mth x Shs.1,600)
Absorbed fixed production overhead 440
Over absorption of overhead 40
c) Profit for the quarter, absorption costing,
Shs Shs
Sales (160 x Shs.20) 3200
Production costs
Variable (220 x Shs.8) 1760
Fixed (absorbed Overhead (220 x Shs.2) 440
Total Production cost 2200
Less: ending Inventory (60 units x Shs.10) (600)
Cost of sales (220 x Shs.10) 1600
Adjustment for over absorbed overheads (40)
Net Cost of sales 1560
Gross Profit 1640
Less: Sales and distribution costs
Variable (160 x shs.4) 640
Fixed (¼ of Shs.2400) 600
1240
Net Profit 400
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S T U D Y T E X T
Profit for the quarter, marginal costing
Shs Shs
Sales (160 x Shs.20) 3,200
Variable Production costs (220 x Shs.8) 1760
Less closing stock (60 x Shs.8) (480)
Variable Production cost of sales (160 x Shs.8) 1280
Variable sales and distribution costs (160 x Shs.4) 640
Total variable cost of sales (1,920)
Gross Profit 1,280
Less:
Fixed production cost 400
Fixed sales and distribution (¼ of Shs.2400) 600
1000
Net Profit 280
d) The difference in profit is due to the different valuations of closing stock. In absorption
costing the 60 units of closing stock include absorbed fixed overheads of Ksh.120 (60
x Ksh.2), which are therefore costs carried over to the next quarter and not charged
against the profit of the current quarter. They are treated as product costs. In marginal
costing, all fixed costs incurred in the period are charged against the profit. They are
treated as period costs.
The absorption costing profit may be reconciled to the marginal costing profit by adjusting
it for the fixed costs carried forward to the next period as shown below.
Absorption costing profit 400
Fixed production costs carried forward in stock values (120)
Marginal costing profit 280
We can draw a number of conclusions from this example:
(a) Marginal costing and absorption costing are different techniques for assessing profit in
a period.
(b) If there are any changes in stocks during a period, marginal costing and absorption
costing give different results for profit obtained:
§ If stock levels increase, absorption costing will report the higher profit because some
of the fixed production overhead incurred during the period will be carried forward
in closing stock (which reduces cost of sales) to be set against sales revenue in the
following period instead of being written off in full against profit in the period concerned
(as in the example above),
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 0 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
§ If stock levels decrease, absorption costing will report the lower profit because as well
as the fixed overhead incurred, fixed production overhead which had been brought
forward in opening stock is released and is included in cost of sales.
(c) If the opening and closing stock volumes and values are the same, marginal costing
and absorption costing will give the same profit figure.
(d) In the long run, total profit for a company will be the same whether marginal costing
or absorption costing is used because in the long run, total costs will be the same by
either method of accounting. Different accounting conventions merely affect the profit
of individual accounting periods.
>>> Review question
The overhead absorption rate for product X is Ksh.10 per machine hour. Each unit of product X
requires five machine hours. Stock of product X on 1.1.X1 was 150 units and on 31.12.x1 it was
100 units. What is the difference in profit between results reported using absorption costing and
results reported using marginal costing? Is it:
a) The absorption costing profit would be Ksh.2,500 less?
b) The absorption costing profit would be Ksh.2,500greater?
c) The absorption costing profit would be Ksh. 5,000 less?
d) The absorption costing profit would be Ksh.5,000 greater?
Solution
The key is the change in the volume of stock. Stock levels have decreased therefore absorption
costing will report a lower profit. This eliminates options (b) and (d).
Option (c) is NOT correct because it is based on the closing stock only (100 units x 5 hours). The
correct answer is (a), based on the change in stock levels x fixed overhead absorption per unit
= (150 - 100) x Ksh.10 x 5 = Ksh.2,500 lower profit, because stock levels decreased.
Comparison of total profits
To illustrate the point about profit in the long-term, let us suppose that a company makes and
sells a single product. At the beginning of period 1, there are no opening stocks of the product,
for which the variable production cost is Ksh.4 and the sales price Ksh.6 per unit. Fixed costs are
Ksh.2,000 per period, of which Ksh.1,500 are fixed production costs,
Period 1 Period 2
Opening stock 0 units 300 units
Sales 1,200 Units 1,800 Units
Production
Closing stock
1,500 Units
300
1,500 Units
0
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S T U D Y T E X T
What would the profit be in each period using the following methods of costing?
(a) Absorption costing. Assume normal output is 1,500 units per period.
(b) Marginal costing.
Solution
It is important to notice that although production and sales volumes in each period are different
(and therefore the profit for each period by absorption costing will be different from the profit by
marginal costing), over the full period, total production equals sales volume, the total cost of
sales is the same, and therefore the total profit is the same by either method of accounting.
a) Absorption costing: the absorption rate for fixed production overhead is,
Shs.1,500 = Shs.1 per Unit
1,500 Units
Period 1 Period 2 Total
Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs
Sales 7,200 10,800 18,000
Production costs
Variable 6,000 6,000 12,000
Fixed 1,500 1,500 3,000
7,500 7,500 15,000
Add opening stock b/f ___-_ 1,500 - .
7,500 9,000 15,000
Less closing stock c/f (1,500) - . - .
Production cost of sales 6,000 15,000
Over/(Under) absorbed
overheads
- . - . -
Total production costs (6,000) (9,000) (15,000)
Gross profit 1,200 1,800 3,000
Other costs (500) (500) (1,000)
Net profit 700 1,300 2,000
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 0 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
b)
Period 1 Period 2 Total
Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs
Sales 7,200 10,800 18,000
Production costs
Variable 6,000 6,000 12,000
Add opening stock b/f ___-_ 1,200 - .
6,000 7,200 12,000
Less closing stock c/f (1,200) - . - .
Variable production cost
of sales
(4,800) (7,200) (12,000)
Contribution 2,400 3,600 6,000
Fixed (2,000) (2,000) (4,000)
400 1,600 2,000
Note that the total profit over the two periods is the same for each method of costing, but the profit
in each period is different.
>>> Review Exercise
When opening stocks were 8,500 liters and closing stocks 6,750 liters, a firm had a profit of
Ksh.62,100 using marginal costing.
Assuming that the fixed overhead absorption rate was Ksh.3 per liter, what would be the profit
using absorption costing?
a) Ksh.41,850
b) Ksh.56,850
c) Ksh.67,350
d) Ksh.82,350
Solution
Stock levels reduced; therefore the absorption costing profit would be lower. You can eliminate
options (c) and (d).
The closing stock is less than the opening stock. This means that the production fixed costs
absorbed in stock (in absorption costing) brought forward to the current period shall be released
and charged to the profit statement in the current period. Thus our absorption costing profits will
be less than marginal profits by the amount of fixed costs absorbed in opening stock (closing
stock for previous period) brought forward and released in the current period.
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S T U D Y T E X T
Difference in profit = (8,500 - 6,750) x Ksh.3 = Ksh.5,250
∴Absorption costing profit = Ksh.62,100 - Ksh.5,250 = Ksh.56,850
The correct answer is (b)
Note that, the difference in income equals the difference in the total amount of fixed manufacturing
overhead charged as expense during a given year.
Distinction between marginal and absorption costing
These are two approaches of arriving at the cost of production or net profit for a given
period.
The main difference between absorption costing and marginal costing is on the treatment of the
fixed cost.
In absorption costing both variable and fixed production costs are included in the determination
of the cost of a product. This implies that the fixed cost is treated as a product cost and not as
a period expense. It is important for the student to note the term “fixed production costs” as
they are the only costs that make the difference between the marginal and absorption in costs
of production. In marginal costing, only variable costs are included in the determination of the
production cost. This implies that fixed costs are treated as:
- Period costs
- Product costs
>>> Illustration
The following information was extracted from the book of Happy Ltd for the year ended
31/12/2001
Output 100,000 units
Production Costs
Direct labour costs 5 Million
Direct material costs 2 million
Variable overheads 2 million
Fixed overheads 4 Million
Units sold 90,000
Selling Price per Unit Shs.100,000
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 1 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Assume closing stocks at the end of the previous period were nil.
Required
Using both absorption and marginal costing determine
i. Cost per unit
ii. Prepare the income statement
Solution
Marginal costing
Cost per unit will constitute variable production costs only i.e. the incremental costs of producing
the output. Fixed overheads are not included in the cost per unit.
Cost per unit = 5,000,000 + 2,000,000 + 2,000,000 = Shs.9 per Unit
100,000
Note: Only variable costs are considered.
Total cost of units sold = Shs.90 x 90,000 = Shs.8,100,000
Closing stock = Shs.90 x 10,000 = Shs.910,000
Total costs for goods produced =Shs.8.1m +0.9m = Shs.10,000,000
Absorption costing
Cost per unit will constitute both fixed and variable production costs. i.e. all costs incurred to bring
the product into existence.
Cost per unit = 5,000,000 + 2,000,000 + 2,000,000 + 4,000,000 = Shs.130 per Unit
100,000
Note: All costs (fixed and variable) are considered in arriving at the cost per unit:
Total cost of units sold = Shs.130 x 90,000 = Shs.11,700,000
Closing stock = Shs.130 x 10,000 = Shs.1,300,000
Total costs for goods produced = Shs.11.7m +1.30m = Shs.13,000,000
211
S T U D Y T E X T
Income statement for the year ended 31.12.2001
MARGINAL COSTING ABSORPTION COSTING
Shs Shs Shs Shs
Sales (90,000 x Sh100) 9,000,000 9,000,000
Cost of sales
Opening stock Nil Nil
Cost of finished goods 9,000,000 13,000,000
Cost of goods available
for sale
9,000,000 13,000,000
Less closing stock (900,000) (1,300,000)
Cost of goods sold (8,100,000) (11,700,000)
Gross profit/loss 900,000 (2,700,000)
Period costs
Fixed overheads 4,000,000 ________
Net loss (3,100,000) (2,700,000)
How can the above differences in net losses be explained?
Note that they are caused chiefly by the differences in cost of goods sold, which is in turn caused
by the differences in the cost per unit for finished goods and closing stock
Reconciliation of marginal costing and absorption costing profits
Net loss as per absorption costing (2,700,000)
Net loss as per marginal costing (3,100,000)
Difference 400,000
Value of closing stock as per absorption costing 1,300,000
Value of stock as per marginal costing (900,000)
Difference 400,000
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 1 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
APPLICATION OF MARGINAL COSTING
Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Analysis
Fast forward;
CVP involves the determination of either of the variables (cost, profit or volume) given a relevant
set of data. This includes the price per unit, cost per unit, fixed cost, and/ or profit.
In marginal costing, marginal cost varies directly with the volume of production or output. On the
other hand, fixed cost remains unaltered within the relevant range. Thus, if volume is changed,
variable cost will vary in proportion to the volume. In this case, selling price remains fixed, fixed
cost remains fixed which translates to a change in profit.
Managers constantly strive to relate these elements in order to achieve maximum profit. Apart
from profit projection, the concept of Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) is relevant to virtually all decisionmaking
areas, particularly in the short run.
The relationship among cost, revenue and profit at different levels of output may be expressed in
graphs such as break-even charts, profit volume graphs, or in various statement forms.
Profit depends on a large number of factors, most important of which are the cost of manufacturing
and the volume of sales. Both these factors are interdependent. Volume of sales depends upon
the volume of production and market forces which in turn is related to costs. Management has no
control over market. In order to achieve certain level of profitability, it has to exercise control and
management of costs, mainly variable cost. This is because fixed cost is a non-controllable cost
and is irrelevant for decision making where it is not changed by the course of action taken.
But then, cost is determined by various factors which include:
• Material prices, wage rates and overhead costs may all change because of the impact
of inflation
• Material usage may change where scrap is expected to fall because of improved
methods, better trained workers or better material quality.
• Labor efficiency may change where improved training programs or a reduction in labour
turn over is expected to occur.
• Internal efficiency and the productivity of the factors of production; Overhead expenses
may fall due to more efficient placement of order with suppliers who offer best terms
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S T U D Y T E X T
• Product volume of production or size of batches.
• Product mix may change either as part of overall company strategy or due to increased
competition.
• Methods of production and technology.
• Size of plant.
Thus, one can say that cost-volume-profit analysis furnishes the complete picture of the profit
structure. This enables management to distinguish among the effect of sales, fluctuations in
volume and the results of changes in price of product/services.
In other words, CVP is a management accounting tool that expresses relationship among sale
volume, cost and profit. CVP can be used in the form of a graph or an equation. Cost-volume-profit
analysis can answer a number of analytical questions. Some of the questions are as follows:
a) What is the break-even revenue of an organization?
b) How much revenue does an organization need to achieve a budgeted profit?
c) What level of price change affects the achievement of budgeted profit?
d) What is the effect of cost changes on the profitability of an operation?
Cost-volume-profit analysis can also answer many other “what if” type of questions. Cost-volumeprofit
analysis is one of the important techniques of cost and management accounting. It provides
an answer to “what if” theme by telling the volume required to produce. Cost and revenues will
change as well as sales revenue due to a number of factors. These are:
a) Increased competition may require selling price discounts in order to stimulate
demand
b) Material prices, wage rates and overhead costs may all change because of the impact
of inflation
c) Material usage may change where scrap is expected to fall because of improved
methods, better trained workers or better material quality
d) Labour efficiency may change where improved training programs or a reduction in
labour turn over is expected to occur
e) Overhead expenses may fall due to more efficient placement of order with suppliers
who offer best terms
f) Product mix may change either as part of overall company strategy or due to increased
competition
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 1 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Following are the three approaches to a CVP analysis:
• Cost and revenue equations
• Contribution margin
• Profit graph
Objectives of Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis
a) In order to forecast profits accurately, it is essential to ascertain the relationship between
cost and profit on one hand and volume on the other.
b) Cost-volume-profit analysis is helpful in setting up flexible budget which indicates cost
at various levels of activities.
c) Cost-volume-profit analysis assists in evaluating performance for the purpose of control
thus enabling management to take corrective actions where necessary and in good
time.
d) Such analysis may assist management in formulating pricing policies by projecting the
effect of different price structures on cost and profit.
Assumptions and Terminology
CVP is based on various assumptions as listed below:
1. Volume is the only factor affecting sales and expenses The changes in the level of
various revenue and costs arise only because of the changes in the volume of output
produced and sold, e.g., bales of flour produced by Unga Ltd. The number of output
(units) to be sold is the only revenue and cost driver.
2. Total costs can be divided into fixed and variable components. Variable component will
vary directly with level of output. Direct materials, direct labour and direct chargeable
expenses form the direct variable costs while variable part of factory overheads,
administration overheads and selling and distribution overheads form the variable
overheads.
3. There is linear relationship between revenue and cost.
4. The behavior of both sales revenue and expenses is linear throughout the entire relevant
range of activity. Graphically, it assumes a linear equation of the form Y=mX + C
5. The unit selling price, unit variable costs and fixed costs are constant.
6. The theory of CVP is based upon the production of a single product. However, of late,
management accountants are functioning to give a theoretical and a practical approach
to multi-product CVP analysis.
215
S T U D Y T E X T
7. There is only one product or service or a constant Sales Mix. The analysis either covers
a single product or assumes that the sales mix sold in case of multiple products will
remain constant as the level of total units sold changes.
8. All revenue and cost can be added and compared without taking into account the time
value of money.
9. The theory of CVP is based on the technology that remains constant.
10. The theory of price elasticity is not taken into consideration.
11. Inventories do not change significantly from period to period:
Many companies, and divisions and sub-divisions of companies in various industries have found
the simple CVP relationships to be helpful in Strategic and long-range planning decisions and
product features and pricing decisions
In real life, the assumptions described above may not hold. The theory of CVP can be tailored for
individual industries depending upon the nature and peculiarities of the same.
For example, predicting total revenue and total cost may require multiple revenue drivers and
multiple cost drivers. Some of the multiple revenue drivers are as follows:
• Number of output units
• Number of customer visits made for sales
• Number of advertisements placed
Some of the multiple cost drivers are as follows:
• Number of units produced
• Number of batches in which units are produced
The cost equation, for example, will be of the form;
Y = C + m1X1 + m2X2 + m3X3 + ... + mnXn
Managers and management accountants, however, should always assess whether the simplified
CVP relationships generate sufficiently accurate information for predictions of how total revenue
and total cost would behave. However, one may come across different complex situations to
which the theory of CVP would rightly be applicable in order to help managers to take appropriate
decisions under different situations.
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 1 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Limitations of Cost-Volume Profit Analysis
The CVP analysis is generally made under certain limitations and with certain assumed conditions,
some of which may not occur in practice. Following are the main limitations and assumptions in
the cost-volume-profit analysis:
1. It is assumed that the production facilities anticipated for the purpose of cost-volumeprofit
analysis do not undergo any change. Such analysis gives misleading results if
expansion or reduction of capacity takes place, which in most cases does.
2. In case a variety of products with varying margins of profit are manufactured, it is difficult
to forecast with reasonable accuracy the volume of sales mix which would optimize the
profit.
3. It assumes that input price and selling price remain fairly constant which in reality is not
the case. Thus, if cost or selling price changes, the relationship between cost and profit
will not be accurately depicted.
4. It assumes that variable costs are perfectly and completely variable at all levels of
activity and fixed cost remains constant throughout the relevant range. However, this
situation is not a practical one.
5. It is assumed that inventories do not change significantly from period to period. However,
in reality, opening inventory and closing inventory are never the same and in most
cases they vary significantly.
6. Inventories are valued at variable cost and fixed cost is treated as period cost. Therefore,
closing stock carried over to the next financial year does not contain any component
of fixed cost. Inventory should be valued at full cost in reality because such costs were
incurred to bring the inventory into existence..
The limitations of CVP analysis are actually its assumptions, which do not hold outside the
relevant range!
Approaches to CVP
(i) Cost and revenue equations
From the marginal cost statements, the following equations can be derived:
Sales – Marginal cost = Contribution……………… (1)
Contribution – Fixed costs = Profit
∴Fixed cost + Profit = Contribution……………… (2)
From the above equations, we get the fundamental marginal cost equation as follows:
Sales – Marginal cost = Fixed cost + Profit ………. (3)
217
S T U D Y T E X T
Rearranging the equation above to make profit the subject of the formula one will get
Profit = Sales – Marginal cost – Fixed cost………. (4)
Let the selling Price be P, Marginal cost per unit (variable cost per Unit) be V, Profit be J, level of
output be x and fixed costs be F
We have seen that sales and Marginal cost vary directly with output
From equation (4) above we obtain
This is the basic equation used in cost volume profit analysis.
Illustration
Assume the following situation:
Selling price per Unit Shs.2,000
Direct material unit cost Shs.600
Direct labor unit cost Shs.300
Variable manufacturing overhead Shs.200
Variable marketing Shs.250
Fixed manufacturing overhead Shs.500,000
Required:
Calculate the level of profits in the following independent situations.
1. The level of output 1000 units
2. The level of output is 750 units
3. The price falls to Shs.1900 and the level of output produced is 1,500.
4. Direct material unit cost falls to Shs.500, selling price falls to Shs.1900 and the output
produced rises to 1750 units
Solution
S = Shs.2,000
V= Shs. ( 600+300+200+250) = Shs.1,350
F = Shs.500,000
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
COST ACCOUNTING
outside the relevant range!
Approaches to CVP
(i) Cost and revenue equations
From the marginal cost statements, the following equations can be derived:
Sales – Marginal cost = Contribution……………… (1)
Contribution – Fixed costs = Profit
∴Fixed cost + Profit = Contribution……………… (2)
From the above equations, we get the fundamental marginal cost equation as
follows:
Sales – Marginal cost = Fixed cost + Profit ………. (3)
Rearranging the equation above to make profit the subject of the formula one will
get
Profit = Sales – Marginal cost – Fixed cost………. (4)
Let the selling Price be P, Marginal cost per unit (variable cost per Unit) be V,
Profit be ϑ, level of output be x and fixed costs be F
We have seen that sales and Marginal cost vary directly with output
From equation (4) above we obtain
Profit," = (Selling Price,S ! Variable cost,V)Output, x ! Fixed cost,F
" = (S ! V)x ! F
This is the basic equation used in cost volume profit analysis.
Illustration
Assume the following situation:
Selling price per Unit Shs.2,000
Direct material unit cost Shs.600
Direct labor unit cost Shs.300
Variable manufacturing overhead Shs.200
Variable marketing Shs.250
2 1 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(ii) Contribution margin approach
The sales and marginal costs vary directly with the number of units sold or produced. So
contribution will bear a relation to sales, whether sales units or sales revenue, and the ratio of
contribution to sales remains constant at all levels.
From the equation (iii) given above
Sales – Marginal cost = Fixed cost + Profit ………. (3)
(S - V) x = F +Π
But (S – V) is the contribution margin per unit (CM), which is constant.
COST ACCOUNTING
4. Direct material unit cost falls to Shs.500, selling price falls to Shs.1900
and the output produced rises to 1750 units
Solution
S = Shs.2,000
V= Shs. ( 600+300+200+250) = Shs.1,350
F = Shs.500,000
1 At 100 units output level
( )
( )
1 50,000
650,000 - 500,000
650 x 1,000 - 500,000
2,000 -1,350 1,000 500,000
S V F
=
=
=
= !
" = ! x !
2 At 750 units output level
( )
( )
(12,500)
487,500 - 500,000
650 x 750 - 500,000
2,000 - 1,350 750 500,000
S V F
=
=
=
= !
" = ! x !
3 At Selling price of Shs.1900 and output of 1,500 units
( )
( )
325,000
825,000 - 500,000
550 x 1,500 - 500,000
1,900 -1,350 1500 500,000
S V F
=
=
=
= !
" = ! x !
4 At Selling price of Shs.1900 and output of 1,750 units,
( )
( )
637,500
1,137,500 - 500,000
650 x 1,750 - 500,000
1,900 -1,250 1,750 500,000
S V F
=
=
=
= !
" = ! x !
(ii) Contribution margin approach
219
S T U D Y T E X T
Therefore,
CM⋅x = F + Π
To calculate the quantity, x that gives a specific profit, Π one can make x the subject of the
formula by dividing both sides of the equation by the Contribution Margin per unit, CM
This equation is fundamental and is used as the basis for break-even analysis. One can work
with either approach (i) or (ii) of the CVP analysis to obtain the variable needed.
Note, we use the term ‘Profit Volume Ratio’ in this context to refer to ‘Contribution Volume Ratio’.
We use Contribution figure and not Profit figure to calculate this ratio.
One can also use Contribution Margin Ratio (CMR) in the CVP analysis. CMR is extremely
useful in that it shows how contribution margin will change in proportion to a given shilling change
in total sales. It is expressed as a percentage or as a ratio.
i.e. VCR + CMR = 1
This can be justified as follows:
Sales – Variable costs = contribution
Make sales the subject of the formula to get;
Sales = Variable costs + Contribution
Divide through by the number of units sold to get
Selling price = Variable cost per unit + Contribution per Unit
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
COST ACCOUNTING
whether sales units or sales revenue, and the ratio of contribution to sales remains
constant at all levels.
From the equation (iii) given above
Sales – Marginal cost = Fixed cost + Profit ………. (3)
(S - V) x = F +Π
But (S – V) is the contribution margin per unit (CM), which is constant.
Therefore,
CM⋅x = F + Π
To calculate the quantity, x that gives a specific profit, Π one can make x the
subject of the formula by dividing both sides of the equation by the Contribution
Margin per unit, CM
CM
F
x
+!
=
This equation is fundamental and is used as the basis for break-even analysis.
One can work with either approach (i) or (ii) of the CVP analysis to obtain the
variable needed.
Note, we use the term ‘Profit Volume Ratio’ in this context to refer to ‘Contribution
Volume Ratio’. We use Contribution figure and not Profit figure to calculate this
ratio.
One can also use Contribution Margin Ratio (CMR) in the CVP analysis. CMR
is extremely useful in that it shows how contribution margin will change in
proportion to a given shilling change in total sales. It is expressed as a
percentage or as a ratio.
P
CM
CMR
Selling Price(P)
Contribution per Unit(CM)
Selling Price(P) x Units sold( )
Contribution per Unit (CM) x Units sold( )
Total sales
Total Contribution
=
=
= =
x
x
CMR
Variable costs, just as sales revenue, vary directly with sales i.e.
S
VC
is constant.
This ratio is the Variable Cost Ratio, VCR. It can also be calculated by
subtracting the CMR from 1
i.e. VCR + CMR = 1
This can be justified as follows:
Sales – Variable costs = contribution
Make sales the subject of the formula to get;
Sales = Variable costs + Contribution
- 22 -
COST ACCOUNTING
whether sales units or sales revenue, and the ratio of contribution to sales remains
constant at all levels.
From the equation (iii) given above
Sales – Marginal cost = Fixed cost + Profit ………. (3)
(S - V) x = F +Π
But (S – V) is the contribution margin per unit (CM), which is constant.
Therefore,
CM⋅x = F + Π
To calculate the quantity, x that gives a specific profit, Π one can make x the
subject of the formula by dividing both sides of the equation by the Contribution
Margin per unit, CM
CM
F
x
+!
=
This equation is fundamental and is used as the basis for break-even analysis.
One can work with either approach (i) or (ii) of the CVP analysis to obtain the
variable needed.
Note, we use the term ‘Profit Volume Ratio’ in this context to refer to ‘Contribution
Volume Ratio’. We use Contribution figure and not Profit figure to calculate this
ratio.
One can also use Contribution Margin Ratio (CMR) in the CVP analysis. CMR
is extremely useful in that it shows how contribution margin will change in
proportion to a given shilling change in total sales. It is expressed as a
percentage or as a ratio.
P
CM
CMR
Selling Price(P)
Contribution per Unit(CM)
Selling Price(P) x Units sold( )
Contribution per Unit (CM) x Units sold( )
Total sales
Total Contribution
=
=
= =
x
x
CMR
Variable costs, just as sales revenue, vary directly with sales i.e.
S
VC
is constant.
This ratio is the Variable Cost Ratio, VCR. It can also be calculated by
subtracting the CMR from 1
i.e. VCR + CMR = 1
This can be justified as follows:
Sales – Variable costs = contribution
Make sales the subject of the formula to get;
Sales = Variable costs + Contribution
2 2 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(iii) Profit graph
When one plots the various costs and revenue graphs given the CVP assumptions, the
following diagram can be derived:
- 23 -
COST ACCOUNTING
Divide through by the number of units sold to get
Selling price = Variable cost per unit + Contribution per Unit
Divide both sides of the equation by selling price to get;
1 VCR CMR
Selling Price(P)
Contribution per Unit(CM)
Selling Price(P)
Variable cost per Unit(VC)
1
= +
= +
From the approach above, the basic marginal equation in the first approach
" = (S ! V)x ! F , has been modified to give the following two equations.
( )
F
V
P
CM F
i
x
or
x
KKKKKKKK
! !
"
! !
#
$
& = • %
& = • %
" = CMR • S ! FKKKKKKKK(ii)
(iii) Profit graph
When one plots the various costs and revenue graphs given the CVP
assumptions, the following diagram can be derived:
TC
TVC
Quantity
(Units)
Costs &
Revenues
Variable
costs
TR
Profit
Fixed
Costs
Total
Costs
0
-FC
FC
X
- 23 -
COST ACCOUNTING
Divide through by the number of units sold to get
Selling price = Variable cost per unit + Contribution per Unit
Divide both sides of the equation by selling price to get;
1 VCR CMR
Selling Price(P)
Contribution per Unit(CM)
Selling Price(P)
Variable cost per Unit(VC)
1
= +
= +
From the approach above, the basic marginal equation in the first approach
" = (S ! V)x ! F , has been modified to give the following two equations.
( )
F
V
P
CM F
i
x
or
x
KKKKKKKK
! !
"
! !
#
$
& = • %
& = • %
" = CMR • S ! FKKKKKKKK(ii)
(iii) Profit graph
When one plots the various costs and revenue graphs given the CVP
assumptions, the following diagram can be derived:
TC
TVC
Quantity
(Units)
Costs &
Revenues
Variable
costs
TR
Profit
Fixed
Costs
Total
Costs
0
-FC
FC
X
221
S T U D Y T E X T
Where: TC = Total Cost (Variable + Fixed costs)
TVC = Total Variable cost
TR = Total revenue
FC = Fixed costs
X is the break-even point ( no loss and no profit)
Graphical Illustration between Cost and Revenue Behavior
CVP analysis in conditions subject to change
Change in Selling Price and/or variable cost per Unit
The contribution sales ratio is affected by any change in selling price and or variable cost per
unit. This ratio is a measure of the rate at which profit is being earned and its size illustrated by
the steepness of the slope of the profit volume graph
In the figure above graph -FP2 shows the existing profit curve for a company with a fixed cost OF,
Break-even point B2, margin of safety M2. An increase in the selling price and/or decrease in the
variable cost per unit will increase the contribution margin ratio. This translates to a higher profit.
The graph line derived shall be steeper than the original one. In our chart above, the profit line
-FP1 illustrates such a situation.
A decrease in selling price and/or an increase in variable cost per unit will reduce contribution
margin ratio thus translating to a lower profit. The profit graph obtained shall be gentler than the
initial one. In the chart above, the profit line -FP3 illustrates such situation.
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
- 25 -
CVP analysis in conditions subject to change
Change in Selling Price and/or variable cost per Unit
The contribution sales ratio is affected by any change in selling price and or
variable cost per unit. This ratio is a measure of the rate at which profit is being
earned and its size illustrated by the steepness of the slope of the profit volume
graph
In the figure above graph -FP2 shows the existing profit curve for a company with
a fixed cost OF, Break-even point B2, margin of safety M2. An increase in the
selling price and/or decrease in the variable cost per unit will increase the
contribution margin ratio. This translates to a higher profit. The graph line derived
shall be steeper than the original one. In our chart above, the profit line -FP1
illustrates such a situation.
A decrease in selling price and/or an increase in variable cost per unit will reduce
contribution margin ratio thus translating to a lower profit. The profit graph
obtained shall be gentler than the initial one. In the chart above, the profit line -
FP3 illustrates such situation.
Margin of safety (MOS)
This is the excess of budgeted sales over the break-even volume in
sales. It states the extent to which sales can drop before losses begin to
Output, x
B1 B2 B3 S
M2
M1
M3
P2
P1
P3
Profit
-F
0
To illustrate change in selling price and/ or contribution
2 2 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Margin of safety (MOS)
This is the excess of budgeted sales over the break-even volume in sales. It states the extent to
which sales can drop before losses begin to be incurred in a firm.
MOS is calculates as:
MOS = Total budgeted sales – Break-even sales
MOS may also be expressed as a percentage of sales. The higher the percentage, the better
positioned a firm is in its operations.
MOS% = MOS in Shillings x 100%
Total sales
Margin of safety is a tool designed to point out a problem but not to solve it. To rectify the problem
of a low MOS, management must direct its efforts towards either reducing the break-even point
or increasing the overall level of sales.
In the chart above, the margin of safety in the three situations analyzed equals M2, M1 and M3
respectively
Change in fixed cost
- 26 -
x 100%
Total sales
MOS in Shillings
MOS % =
Margin of safety is a tool designed to point out a problem but not to solve
it. To rectify the problem of a low MOS, management must direct its
efforts towards either reducing the break-even point or increasing the
overall level of sales.
In the chart above, the margin of safety in the three situations analyzed
equals M2, M1 and M3 respectively
Change in fixed cost
In figure above graph -F2P2 shows the existing profit curve for a company with a
fixed cost 0F2, Break-even point B2, margin of safety M2. Assuming constant
Output, x
B1 B2 B3 S
M2
M
M3
P2
P1
P3
Profit
&
Costs
0
F3
F1
F2
--F2
--F1
--F3
To illustrate effect of change in fixed costs
223
S T U D Y T E X T
In figure on the previous page graph -F2P2 shows the existing profit curve for a company with a
fixed cost 0F2, Break-even point B2, margin of safety M2. Assuming constant production and sales
volume, an increase in the fixed costs (F3 -F2) will translate to an increase in the break-even point
(B3 -B2), a decrease in the Margin of safety (M2 –M3) and a decrease in profits. The profit graph
line will have the same gradient as the initial one since a change in fixed costs does not affect
the contribution to sales ratio. The line will shift downwards by a vertical distance equivalent to
the increase in the fixed costs (F3 -F2)
The profit line – F3P3 illustrates the situation above.
On the other hand, a decrease in the fixed costs (F2 –F1) will translate to a decrease in the breakeven
point; (B2 –B1), an increase in the margin of safety (M1 –M2) and an increase in the profits.
The profit graph line will have the same gradient as the initial one. The line will shift downwards
by a vertical distance equivalent to the decrease in the fixed costs (F2 –F1). The profit line – F1P1
best illustrates the situation.
Change in production or sales mix
One of the key assumptions of break-even analysis is that there is only one product or service or
a constant Sales Mix. Sales mix refers to the relative combination in which a company’s products
are sold. Managers strive to achieve an optimal sales mix which yields the greatest amounts of
profits. Profits will be greater if high margin items make up a relative large proportion of sales and
less if sales consist of low margin items.
Determining the constituents of the sales Mix
>>> Illustration
T-Bug plc produces and sells 2 products T and B. The following is the budget for the coming
year.
T B Total
Sales Units 120,000 40,000 160,000
Selling price per unit Shs.4 Shs.7.5
Sales 480,000 300,000 780,000
Variable cost Per Unit Shs.2 Shs.4
Total variable cost 240,000 160,000 400,000
Contribution margin 240,000 140,000 380,000
Fixed costs 250,000
Net income 130,000
Required:
a) Compute the company’s break-even point
b) Determine the constituents of the sales mix i.e. quantities of T and B
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 2 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Solution
Sales Mix T B
Units Ratio 120,000 40,000
3 : 1
Let b be the number of units of B sold and 3b be the number of units of T sold.
Using the fundamental marginal cost equation
(Sales – variable cost) – fixed costs = Profit
Contribution – Fixed costs = Profit
But at break-even point, profit is equal to zero. Therefore,
Contribution – Fixed costs = 0 Contribution = Fixed costs
Given;
Sales = (Shs.4 x 3b) + (Shs.7.5 x b)
= Shs.12b + Shs.7.5b
= Shs.19.5 b
Variable costs = (Shs.2 x 3b) + (Shs.4 x b)
= Shs.6b + Shs.4b
= Shs.10b
Fixed costs = Shs.250,000
Contribution = sales – variable costs
= Shs.19.50b – Shs.10b
= Shs.9.50b
Contribution = Fixed costs
Shs.9.50b = Shs.250,000
b = Shs.250,000
Shs.9.50
= 26,315.78 units
b = 26,316 is the number of units of B sold and
3b = 78,948 is the number of units of t sold
225
S T U D Y T E X T
Therefore the break-even point of T-Bug plc is 105,264 units comprising of 78,948 units of T and
26,316 units of B.
A change in sales mix without a change in the total output will no doubt give different results. This
is because the individual products in the mix have different contributions thus giving a different
weighted contribution sales ratio. This will cause a change in the overall profit curve.
>>> Illustration
The summary of results of Donlon Ltd are as follows;
Product A B C Total
Shs’000 Shs’000 Shs’000 Shs’000
Sales revenue 300 200 100 600
Variable costs 150 120 70 340
Contribution 260
Fixed costs 100
Net Profit 160
Contribution sales ratio 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.433
Required:
1. Prepare a profit volume graph which shows the overall results for Donlon Ltd
2. Prepare an amended profit curve where the market forces have led to a switch of
Shs.200,000 of sales from product A to Product C.
3. Prepare a summary which shows the value of each of the following for both the original
results and the amended results.
§ Net profit
§ Break-even point
§ Margin of safety
§ Overall contribution sales ratio
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 2 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Solution:
The above profit volume graph shows the existing and amended cost curves for Donlon Ltd. The
amended data which shows the switch of Shs.200,000 of sales from product A to Product C may
be summarized as follows:
Product A B C Total
Shs’000 Shs’000 Shs’000 Shs’000
Sales revenue 100 200 300 600
Variable costs 50 120 210 380
Contribution 50 80 90 220
Fixed costs 100
Net Profit 120
Contribution sales ratio 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.367
Note that the variable costs for Product A are reduced proportionally while those of product C are
increased proportionally to the change in sales value according to the variable cost sales ratio
(VCR) for each product.
- 29 -
COST ACCOUNTING
Solution:
The above profit volume graph shows the existing and amended cost curves for Donlon
Ltd. The amended data which shows the switch of Shs.200,000 of sales from product A
to Product C may be summarized as follows:
Product A B C Total
Shs’000 Shs’000 Shs’000 Shs’000
Sales revenue 100 200 300 600
Variable costs 50 120 210 380
Contribution 50 80 90 220
Fixed costs 100
Net Profit 120
Contribution sales
ratio
0.5 0.4 0.3 0.367
Note that the variable costs for Product A are reduced proportionally while those of
product C are increased proportionally to the change in sales value according to the
variable cost sales ratio (VCR) for each product.
Initial graph
Amended
graph
Profit
Sales Shs,000
100
227
S T U D Y T E X T
BREAK-EVEN POINT AND ANALYSIS
Fast forward
Break-even point is primarily influenced by the value of fixed costs and contribution margin.
Break-even analysis and CVP analysis are one and the same thing. The only distinction is that
CVP analysis targets to establish the relationship between the volume of output, the cost incurred
and revenue received while Break-even analysis aims at establishing the minimum output that
a firm must produce and sell in order to remain in business. If a firm operates below that level of
activity, it makes a loss. Break-even analysis is built on CVP analysis principles.
Break-even point is the volume of sales where there is neither profit nor loss. At this point
revenues and total costs are equal. For every unit sold in excess of the break-even point, profit
will increase by the amount of the contribution per unit. All the variable costs and fixed costs are
covered by the sales revenue.
At Break-even point, BEP,
Total revenue = Total costs
Profit P = 0
Contribution – Fixed costs = 0
Contribution = Fixed cost
Break-even analysis
Mathematical determination of Break-even point
From the definition of break-even point, one can say that:
At Break-even point, Total revenue = Total costs and therefore, profit is equal to zero. i.e. from
the fundamental marginal equation, CM⋅x = F + Π, one can conclude that
Contribution (CM⋅x) – Fixed costs, F = 0, since Profit is equal to zero. Upon making contribution
the subject of the formula, one derives the following:
Contribution (CM⋅x) = Fixed cost (F)
CM⋅x = F
To obtain break-even point in units, make x (output) the subject of the formula by dividing both
sides of the equation by Contribution margin per unit.
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 2 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Sale, Xbep = Fixed Costs
CMor(P-V)
Note that this formula is identical to the CVP one except for the profit, which in this case is zero.
This brings out clearly the idea that break-even analysis and cost volume profit analysis are one
and the same thing. In fact, the terms are at times used interchangeably.
To obtain break-even sales in shillings where one is dealing with a single item, multiply the breakeven
sales volume by the sales price. Alternatively, use the contribution margin ratio to compute
the same.
Using the equation below, one can calculate break-even sales in Shillings as follows:
To obtain break-even point in sales, divide both sides of the equation by CMR
Using the graphical approach
Break-even charts graphically display the relationship of cost to volume and profits and show
profit or loss at any sales volume within a relevant range. This is shown in the graph below.
(Assumption; fixed costs do not change)
- 31 -
Using the equation below, one can calculate break-even sales in Shillings as follows:
CMR S F
0 F
0
F
• =
" = • !
# =
# = • !
CMR S
but
CMR S
To obtain break-even point in sales, divide both sides of the equation by CMR
CMR
F
Sales (Shs), S bep =
b) Using the graphical approach
Break-even charts graphically display the relationship of cost to volume and profits and
show profit or sales volume within a relevant range. This is shown in the
graph below. (Assumption; fixed costs do not change)
To illustrate the Break-even Point
TR
Quantity
(Units)
Costs &
Revenues
BEP
(Sales)
BEP
(Units)
Profit
TC
- 31 -
Using the equation below, one can calculate break-even sales in Shillings as follows:
CMR S F
0 F
0
F
• =
" = • !
# =
# = • !
CMR S
but
CMR S
To obtain break-even point in sales, divide both sides of the equation by CMR
CMR
F
Sales (Shs), S bep =
b) Using the graphical approach
Break-even charts graphically display the relationship of cost to volume and profits and
show profit or loss at any sales volume within a relevant range. This is shown in the
graph below. (Assumption; fixed costs do not change)
To illustrate the Break-even Point
TR
Quantity
(Units)
Costs &
Revenues
BEP
(Sales)
BEP
(Units)
Profit
TC
- 31 -
Using the equation below, one can calculate break-even sales in Shillings as follows:
CMR S F
0 F
0
F
• =
" = • !
# =
# = • !
CMR S
but
CMR S
To obtain break-even point in sales, divide both sides of the equation by CMR
CMR
F
Sales (Shs), S bep =
b) Using the graphical approach
Break-even charts graphically display the relationship of cost to volume and profits and
show profit or loss at any sales volume within a relevant range. This is shown in the
graph below. (Assumption; fixed costs do not change)
To illustrate the Break-even Point
TR
Quantity
(Units)
Costs &
Revenues
BEP
(Sales)
BEP
(Units)
Profit
TC
229
S T U D Y T E X T
>>> Illustration (Break-even and CVP analysis)
ABC produces and sells Product X at Shs.500. The Unit manufacturing cost of X is Shs.200
and total fixed manufacturing costs equal to Shs.300,000. The company incurs selling and
administration costs equal to 2% of sales revenue and fixed selling cost of Shs.100,000 per
annum.
Required:
a) Determine the break-even sales in units and in shillings
b) Determine the units that should be sold to earn a net income of Shs.200,000
c) If the company was in the 30% tax bracket, how many units will have to be produced to
earn the Shs.200,000
d) Management is considering a policy which would increase fixed manufacturing costs by
shs.200,000 but cut down on the variable manufacturing cost by 20%
(i). What is the break-even point in units and in revenue under this policy?
(ii). Assuming the 30% tax bracket, how many units will have to be produced to earn the
target profit of Shs.200,000 under this new policy?
e) At what level of sales level will management be indifferent between the two policies?
f) Assuming that the maximum possible demand is 6,000 units, determine the range of
sales which will be financially beneficial in each policy.
Solution
Let the number of units produced be x
Shs
Summary of costs Variable manufacturing Costs per Unit 200
Variable Selling Costs (2% x Shs.200) __4
Variable costs per Unit 204
Fixed manufacturing costs 300,000
Fixed selling costs 100,000
Total fixed costs 400,000
(a) At break-even point profit is equal to zero;
i.e. Shs. (500 - 204) x - 400,000 = 0
296 x -400,000 = 0
296 x = 400,000
x = 400,000
296
x = 1,351
Break-even point in sales is equal to
Break-even ouput x selling price
= 1,351 units x Shs.500 per unit
= Shs.675,500
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
Sales (units) = fixed costs
CM
= 400,000
(500 - 204)
= 1,351 units
Sales (units) = fixed costs
CMR
= 400,000
(500 - 204)
= 1,351 units
500
2 3 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(b) To earn a net income of Shs.200,000
Profit = Contribution - fixed costs
200,000 = (500 - 204) x - 400,000
296x = 600,000
x = 600,000
296
x = 2,027 units
Units to be sold shall be 2,027
(c) In the 30% bracket, the number of units to be sold to earn the targeted income shall be
Profit = Contribution - fixed costs
Gross up the amount of target profit in order to obtain the actual amount targeted before
tax
i.e. the desired amount of profits shall be 70% of the total amount of profits earned, P
i.e. 0.7 P = 200,000
P = 200,000
0.7
= Shs.285,714
Using the marginal cost equation
285,714 = 296 x - 400,000
296 x = Shs.685,714
x = 685,714
296
= 2,317 Units
(d) With the new policy the new costs shall be
Variable manufacturing Costs per Unit (0.8 x 200) 160.00
Variable Selling Costs (2% x Shs.160) __3.20
Variable costs per Unit 163.20
Fixed manufacturing costs 500,000
Fixed selling costs 100,000
Total fixed costs 600,000
At break-even point profit is equal to zero;
i.e. Shs(500 - 163.2) x - 600,000 = 0
336.8 x -600,000 = 0
336.8 x = 600,000
x = 600,000
336.8
x = 1,781 Units
Sales (units) = fixed costs + Profit
CM
= 360,000 + 200,000
(500 - 204)
= 2,027 units
Sales (units) = fixed costs +
CMR
= 400,000 +
(500 - 204)
= 2,317 Units
Profit
1 - T
200,000
1 - 0.3
Sales (units) = fixed costs
CM
= 600,000
(500 - 163.2)
= 1,781 Units
( (
( (
231
S T U D Y T E X T
Break-even point in sales is equal to
Break-even ouput x selling price
= 1,781 units x Shs.500 per unit
= Shs.890,500
In the 30% bracket, the number of units to be sold
to earn the targeted income shall be:
Profit = Contribution - fixed costs
Gross up the amount of target profit in order to obtain the actual amount targeted before
tax
i.e. the desired amount of profits shall be 70% of the total amount of profits earned, P
i.e. 0.7 P = 200,000
P = 200,000
0.7
= Shs.285,714
Using the marginal cost equation
285,714 = 336.8 x - 600,000
336.8 x = Shs.885,714
x = 885,714
336.8
= 2,630 Units
(d) The management will be indifferent between the two alternatives when profits obtained
shall be equal i.e. point of equilibrium between the two policies.
i.e. 296 x - 400,000 = 336.8 x - 600,000
(336.8 - 296)x = (600,000 -400,000)
40.8 x = 200,000
x = 200,000/408
x = 4, 902 units
Test for 5,000 units Test for 4000 units
Situation 1 Profit = 296 (5000) - 400,000
= 1,480,000 - 400,000
= 1,080,000
Profit = 296 (4000) - 400,000
= 1,840,000 - 400,000
= 1,440,000
Situation 2 Profit = 336.8 (5000) -600,000
= 1,684,000 - 600,000
= 1,084,000
Profit = 336.8 (4000) - 600,000
= 1,347,200 - 400,000
= 947,200
Policy II is more profitable than Policy I between 2,630 units and 4,902 units while Policy I is more
profitable between 4,902 units and 6,000 units of output.
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
Sales (units) = fixed costs
CMR
= 600,000
(500 - 163.2)
= Shs.890,500
500
Sales (units) = fixed costs +
CMR
= 600,000 +
(500 - 163.2)
= 2,630 Units
Profit
1 - T
200,000
1 - 0.3
( (
( (
2 3 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
CVP and computer applications
The wide availability of personal computers encourages more managers to apply cost volume
profit analysis. Computers can quickly make the computations for changes in the assumptions
identifying proposed projects e.g. computer spreadsheets allow managers to determine the most
profitable combination of selling process, variable and fixed cost volume. A manager enters into
the computer various numbers for price and cost in an equation based on CVP relationships
to yield target income for each combination. Because of a computer’s speed and accuracy in
providing this information, the manager can select the most profitable actions.
DECISION MAKING
Fast forward
Marginal cost information is most relevant in decision making. Make or buy decisions, limiting
factors and decision making, relevant costs and controllable costs are considered under decision
making.
Nature of Decision-making
Decision-making may fall into any of the following categories
1. Short run operational decisions
2. Short run tactical decisions
3. Longer term strategic planning decisions
Short run operational decisions are made in relation to the achievement of short-term output
requirements. A decision may be made to work overtime in a department in order to have a job
completed in accordance with a scheduled delivery date to the customer. Such decisions are
aimed at ensuring that the current business plan is achieved Short run tactical decisions are
related to specific events which management wish to decide upon and which will change the
future operation of the business in some way. Its time horizon is short and it is usually within 12
months.
Longer term strategic planning is more concerned with the overall direction of the business plan.
It may have a time horizon of 5 to 10 years. For example should a decision be made to install
a fully automated production line to replace existing labour intensive machine process. These
decisions require consideration of factors such as;
233
S T U D Y T E X T
• The level of market likely to be available in future
• An estimation of changing price levels
• The timing of cash flows in relation to the decision
• The degree of uncertainty estimated in relation to data used in the evaluation of the
situation
• The strategy which competitors are likely to implement
• The cost of capital or target rate of return
The decision making cycle
Steps in decision-making cycle are:
a) Clearly define the objective, which is to be the focus of the decision. This is important
in order that the decision makers have a well-defined problem, which has to be solved
and not a vague idea which lacks clarity.
b) Consider the alternative strategies available to the satisfactory attainment of the
objective. This is important in order that the final decision agreed upon has taken
account of all relevant possibilities.
c) Gather relevant information in order to compare alternative strategies in quantifiable
terms. This may require considerable thought and effort in order to ensure that all
relevant data are obtained.
d) Consider the qualitative factors, which are likely to influence the decision. This is
important as an element in decision making. There may be non-quantifiable costs and
benefits, which lead to a final choice of strategy different from the highest quantifiable
return.
e) Compare the alternative strategies using both quantitative and qualitative data and then
make a final decision.
f) Re-evaluate your decision; determine if you are achieving the objectives and if not,
repeat the process.
Relevant costs and decision-making
The relevance of costs will depend upon the purpose for which they are being used. Relevance
is related to future decision.
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 3 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The relevance of costs in decision-making is related to whether they are avoidable in relation to
the decision made or if they are unavoidable, in that they will remain irrespective of the decision
taken. Relevant costs in decision-making are, therefore, said to be incremental and future costs
relating to the decision to be made. Costs are incremental if they will result in a difference e.g.
avoidable costs result in reduced cots if they are avoided. Future costs are those costs that have
not yet been incurred i.e. they are not sunk costs or committed costs. This is explained further
in this text.
Limiting factors and decision making
Limiting factor may be defined as ‘any factor, which has a limiting effect on the activities of an
undertaking at a point in time over a specific period’
The decision-making strategy, which management wish to pursue, may be constrained because
of shortage of manpower, machinery, material, money, markets or a combination of these. It
may also be affected by the availability of management expertise and methods improvement
capability.
In short term decision making where one or more factors will limit the strategy which may be
implemented, it is likely that profit maximization will be seen as a major decision making goal.
It should be noted, however, that in practice a number of goals will form part of the objective of
an organization. In addition to short term profits management may wish to consider a number of
longerterm goals, for example
• Consolidation of market share.
• Improving longer term productivity and profitability.
• Quality leadership.
• Employee and customer satisfaction.
• Social responsibility.
This balance between short and long term goals is likely to lead to decisions, which are profit
satisfying rather than profit maximizing resulting in the satisfactory profit level being earned in
the shortterm
Single Limiting factor
Where a single limiting factor exists, the decision making sequence may be implemented as
follows:
• Calculate the contribution per unit of limiting factor for each product.
235
S T U D Y T E X T
• Rank the products in order of size and contribution per unit of limiting factor.
• Allow any minimum retention of less profitable products which is decided upon.
• Use up the total units of the limiting factor in order to fulfill the forecast quantities in
order of product ranking.
A company manufacturers and sells three products A, B & c. The unit cost and revenue structure
for each product and its maximum forecast demand for the coming period are as follows:-
Product A B C
Selling price per unit (Shs) 140 100 120
Variable cost per unit (Shs) 70 60 80
Maximum demand (Units) 500 300 300
Machine hours requested per unit 10 4 5
The company has a maximum of 6000 machine hours available during the coming period. Annual
fixed costs incurred amount to Sh20,000.
Required
(i) Calculate the number of units of each product A, B, and C, which should be produced
and sold in order to maximize profit
(ii) Calculate the maximum profit earned from the decision strategy per (i) above.
(iii) Suggest other factors which management may wish to consider which could result in a
change in their decision
(iv) Calculate the product units to be produced and sold and the net profit earned if the
company wishes to maximize sales of product A because it is thought to be a future
market leader
(v) Calculate the product units to be sold and the net profit earned it the company agree
to produce a minimum of 70% of the maximum demand of each product in order to
maintain market spread.
Solution
Product A B C Total
Maximum demand (Units) 500 300 300
Machine hours requested per unit 10 4 5
Machine hours required 5000 1200 1500 7700
Machine hours available 6000
Short fall 1700
The above calculation confirms that machine time is a limiting factor, which will restrict the number
of products, which can be produced and sold.
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 3 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
*** the figure is the balance of machine hours remaining after allocacting to other products in
order of ranking.
iii. The profit maximizing mix may not be implemented where management wish to maintain
a more balanced market mix or where they wish to concentrate on a future market
leader. In addition they may wish to explore the possibility of sub-contracting some
production or of acquiring additional machinery either on hire or part of a long term
expansion of capacity
iv. Where the sales of product A are to be maximized because it is thought that it will be a
future market leader, the analysis sequence is:
• Utilize the machine hours required to maximize production of A
i.e 500 units x 10 hrs = 5000 hrs
• Use the remaining 1000 machine hours to produce B and C in their ranking order.
Product B has a higher contribution per machine hour. The 1000 machine hours available
are sufficient to produce 1000/4 = 250 units of B. This is less than its maximum demand.
There are no hours left in which to produce product C.
The sales and profit strategy is therefore:
Units
Contribution
per unit (Shs)
Total
Product A 500 70 35000
Product B 280 40 10000
Product C Nil ____0
45000
Less fixed costs (20000)
Net profit 25000
- 39 -
COST ACCOUNTING
*** the figure is the balance of machine hours remaining after allocacting to other products in
order of ranking.
iii. The profit maximizing mix may not be implemented where management wish to maintain
a more balanced market mix or where they wish to concentrate on a future market leader.
In addition they may wish to explore the possibility of sub-contracting some production or
of acquiring additional machinery either on hire or part of a long term expansion of
capacity
iv. Where the sales of product A are to be maximized because it is thought that it will be a
future market leader, the analysis sequence is:
• Utilize the machine hours required to maximize production of A
i.e 500 units x 10 hrs = 5000 hrs
• Use the remaining 1000 machine hours to produce B and C in their ranking order.
Product B has a higher contribution per machine hour. The 1000 machine hours available
are sufficient to produce 1000/4 = 250 units of B. This is less than its maximum demand.
There are no hours left in which to produce product C.
The sales and profit strategy is therefore:
Units Contribution
per unit (Shs)
Total
Product A 500 70 35000
Product B 280 40 10000
Product C Nil ____0
45000
Less fixed
costs
(20000)
Net profit 25000
Contribution per unit (Shs) 70 40 40
Machine hours requested per unit 10 4 5
Contribution per machine hr (Shs)
! !
"
#
$ $
%
&
Machine hrs per unit
Contribution per Unit
Shs.7 Shs.10 Shs.8
Product ranking 3 1 2
Machine hours utilised *** 3300 1200 1500
i. Products units produced
! !
"
#
$ $
%
&
Machine hrs per unit
Machine hrs utilised
330 300 300
Contribution earned 23100 12000 12000 47100
Less fixed costs 20000
ii. Net Profit 27100
237
S T U D Y T E X T
v. Where sales have to be spread in order to satisfy 70% of the maximum demand of each
product as the first criterion, the analysis sequence is
• Utilize the machine hours required to produce 70% of the maximum production of
each product
• Use the residual hours up to the maximum of 6000 hours to produce additional
units of the product in their ranking up to the maximum demand in each case so
far as it is possible
Product A B C Total
Maximum demand (Units) 500 300 300
70% of the units 350 210 210
Machine hours utilised 3500 840 1050 5390
Balance to meet maximum demand 150 90 90
Ranking (as earlier calculated) 3 1 2
Residual hours usage Nil 360 250 610
Machine hours used 3500 1200 1300 6000
Total Units 350 300 260
Total contribution (Shs) 24500 12000 10400 46900
Less fixed costs (20000)
Net profit 26900
Direct cost as a relevant cost
Direct costs may be directly chargeable to a product or a cost center. They may be fixed costs or
variable costs when it comes to decision-making.
>>> Illustration
A summary of profit and loss reported in each of the three product lines B, C and D is as
follows:
Product B C D
Shs’000 Shs’000 Shs’000
Sales revenue 60 40 40
Less variable costs 40 30 42
Contribution 20 10 (2)
Less fixed costs 15 12 10
Net profit _5 (2) (12)
Required:
(i) Comment on the financial situation as required in the above summary
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 3 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(ii) Comment on a decision to discontinue product C where
a. 60% of the fixed costs charged to it relate to advertising of product C and are avoidable
if discontinued.
b. All the fixed costs charged to product C are avoidable if discontinued
(iii) Discuss whether product D should be discontinued if
a. 90% of fixed costs charged to it are company costs arbitrarily apportioned to it OR
b. Eliminating of its variable costs would result to an increase in the material costs for
products B and C because of lost discounts which would have an effect of increasing
their variable costs by 5% OR
c. Products B and D are complementary products whose sales demand is directly related
to that of each other.
Solution
The existing figures show that products Band C are making a contribution towards fixed costs
whereas product D is in a negative contribution situation. The cash out flow directly related to
product D are not paid for by the cash in flows from sales revenue. Product B shows a net profit
of Shs.5000 whereas product C shows a net loss of 2000. The question data has not indicated
whether the fixed costs allocated to each product are an arbitrary apportionment of the total
company fixed cost
Where 60% of the fixed costs charged to product C relate to advertising of the product and are
avoidable if it is discontinued, it is earning a net contribution or net margin of Shs. 10000 - (60%
x Shs. 12000) = Shs. 2800. This means that Product C is contributing to the net cash in flows of
the company and should be retained in the short term if no more profitable use of the capacity if
available
Where all the fixed costs charged to product C are avoidable if it is discontinued, this means
that they are directly attributable to product C. The net loss of Shs. 2000 is a true measure of its
effects on company cash flows. If the position cannot be improved, the company will save Shs.
2000 in the short term by discontinuing product C
Product D has a negative contribution of Shs. 2000, if 10% of the fixed costs charged to it are
directly attributable to the product. This adds a further Shs. 1000 (10% x 10000) to its adverse
effect on company cash flow
b) The variable costs of products B and C would increase by 5% if product D is discontinued
Increase in cost of products B and C = 5% x Shs.40000+ Shs. 30000) = Shs. 3500
Savings by discontinuing product D = Shs. 2000
Net benefit of retaining product D = Shs. 1500
In this situation the discontinuance of product D will result in net loss to the company of
Shs. 1500 because of the increased costs of products B and C due to loss of discount
239
S T U D Y T E X T
c) If products B and D are complementary products, their position must be examined. If
product D is discontinued it implies that product B sales will be lost. Product B currently
earns a contribution of Shs. 20000, which far outweighs the negative contribution of
Shs.2000, which results from product D. Both products should be produced and sold
Incremental costs as relevant costs
An incremental cost is specifically incurred by the following a course of action and avoidable
if such action is not implemented. This contrasts with sunk costs, which have already been
incurred and cannot be avoided whether the future course of action is taken or not. Incremental
costs are relevant in decision-making situations such as:
a) Whether to buy in a component or service or manufacture it using the company’s own
resources
b) Whether to further process one of the joint products which emerge from a process
before it is sold or sell it in its existing form without further processing.
>>> Example 3
A company currently makes a component which has the following unit cost structure
Direct materials Shs.100
Direct wages Shs.200
Variable Overheads Shs.50
Fixed overheads Shs.140
Total Shs.490
Required:
Advise the management whether the component should be bought in from outside the company
at Shs.330
Solution
1. The total cost to manufacture the component is Shs.490
2. The apparent saving by buying the component is Shs(490 - 330) = Shs.160
3. If the fixed overheads is an apportionment of the company’s fixed overhead, which
will be avoided if production is discontinued, the relevant cost of manufacture is
Shs.350. This assumes that direct materials, direct labor and variable overheads are
all directly variable with the production of the component. This still leaves the purchase
of the component for Shs.330 a cheaper option than manufacture at a relevant cost of
Shs.350.
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 4 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
4. Other factors which are non quantifiable in the short term should be considered,
however, before a final decision is made.
a. Will the quality of the bought in component be as acceptable as that which is manufactured
internally?
b. Will the outside supplier be able to supply the components as required or will there be
production delays because of late delivery?
c. Will there be industrial relations problem because of the loss of jobs by workers who
currently make the component?
5. Further analysis of the solution may reveal that the production capacity currently used
to make the component could be used as an alternative manufacturing opportunity
which could be sold externally and yield a contribution equivalent of Shs. 50 for each
component it replaces
Opportunity costs are relevant costs
Opportunity cost introduces an additional concept which is not available as part of normal cost
analysis in the accounting record system
Opportunity cost may be defined as ‘the best opportunity foregone by following a particular course
of action’, it may be redefined as the net cash flow lost by choosing one alternative rather than
another (value of the next best forgone alternative). Opportunity cost may be used in a number
of decision making situations where there is an alternative choice between possible future course
of action, Examples are:
a) Whether to close a department immediately or in one years time
b) Whether to operate an internal service department or to use an outside service.
c) Whether to accept one or another of two mutually exclusive contracts
Opportunity costs will be part of an incremental cost and revenue analysis in many decision
making situations
>>> Illustration question (marginal costing and absorbtion costing)
Karamoja Plc is a manufacturing company which produces and sells a single product, ‘Moto
sana’.
241
S T U D Y T E X T
The following is the standard cost per unit of the product:
Cost Shs
Variable manufacturing 45
Fxed manufacturing 35
Variable selling and administration 8
Fixed selling and administration _30
118
Fixed manufacturing costs per unit are based on a predetermined rate established at a normal
activity level of 18,000 production units per period. Fixed selling and administration costs are
absorbed into the cost of sales at 20% of the selling price. Under/over recovery of overheads are
transferred to the profit and loss account at the end of each period.
The following information has been provided for two consecutive periods.
Period 1 Period 2
Units Units
Sales 17,000 18,000
Production 16,000 18,400
Shs Shs
Sales 2,550,000 2,700,000
Variable manufacturing costs 720,000 828,000
Variable selling and administration costs 136,000 144,000
Fixed manufacturing costs 640,000 630,000
Fixed selling and administration costs 540,000 540,000
Required: Prepare,
a) Income statement for each of the periods under absorption method
b) Income statements for each of the periods under the direct costing method
c) Reconciliation for each period of the profit or loss obtained under the two methods in (a)
and (b) above
d) Outline the arguments in favor of
§ The full costing method
§ The direct costing method
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 4 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Solution
Absorption costing (full costing) method
a)
Karamoja plc
(Absoption Costing) Income statement for
Period 1 Period 2
Shs Shs Shs Shs
Sales (units x Selling price) 2,550,000 2,700,000
Less: cost of sales
Opening Stock (total cost) 80,000
Variable manufacturing costs 720,000 828,000
Fixed manufacturing costs 560,000 644,000
Cost of Goods available for
sale
1360,000 1472,000
Less closing stock ____(0) (32,000)
Cost of sales 1,360,000 1,440,000
Gross profit 1,190,000 1,260,000
Add overabsorption ______0 _14,000
1,190,000 1,274,000
Less: Expenses
Under absorption 80,000
Fixed selling and Admin 510,000 510,000
Variable selling and admin 136,000 30,000
Selling fixed under absorbed 30,000 (756,000) 144,000 (684,000)
434,000 590,000
b)
Karamoja plc
(Marginal Costing)Income statement for
Period 1 Period 2
Shs Shs Shs Shs
Sales (units x Selling price) 2,550,000 2,700,000
Less: cost of sales
Opening Stock (direct cost only) 45,000
Variable manufacturing costs 720,000 828,000
Cost of Goods available for sale 765,000 828,000
Less closing stock ____(0) (18,000)
Cost of sales (765,000) (810,000)
1,785,000 1,890,000
Less variable and administration (136,000) _(144,000)
Contribution 1,649,000 1,746,000
Less: Expenses
Fixed manufacturing costs 640,000 630,000
Selling fixed under absorbed 540,000 (1,180,000) 540,000 (1,170,000)
__469,000 __576,000
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S T U D Y T E X T
c) Reconciliation
Karamoja plc
Reconciliation statement
Period 1 Period 2
Shs Shs
Marginal profit 469,000 576,000
Add: Over absorption of profits 14,000
Less: under absorption (35,000) ______
Absorption profits 434,000 590,000
d)
The arguments for marginal and absorption costing are discussed in the topic.
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Marginal Cost is the cost of a unit of a product or service which would be avoided if that unit or
service was not produced or provided.
Contribution is the difference between sales value and the marginal cost of sales.
A comparison between marginal and absorption costing can be summarized as
Marginal costing
Absorption costing
(sometimes referred to as full costing0
0 Closing stocks are valued at marginal
production cost, that is, the variable
production costs only.
0 Closing stocks are valued at full
production cost, and including a share
of fixed production and include a share
of fixed production costs
0 Fixed costs are charged in full against
the profit of the period in which they are
incurred. They are treated as period
costs.
0 Fixed costs are treated as product
costs**. They are only expensed when
stock is sold.
Marginal costing and absorption costing are different techniques for assessing profit in a period.
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 4 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
If there are any changes in stocks during a period, marginal costing and absorption costing give
different results for profit obtained:
§ If stock levels increase absorption costing will report the higher profit because some
of the fixed production overhead incurred during the period will be carried forward
in closing stock (which reduces cost of sales) to be set against sales revenue in the
following period instead of being written off in full against profit in the period concerned
(as in the example above),
§ If stock levels decrease, absorption costing will report the lower profit because as well
as the fixed overhead incurred, fixed production overhead which had been brought
forward in opening stock is released and is included in cost of sales.
If the opening and closing stock volumes and values are the same, marginal costing and
absorption costing will give the same profit figure.
In the long run, total profit for a company will be the same whether marginal costing or absorption
costing is used because in the long run, total costs will be the same by either method of accounting.
Different accounting conventions merely affect the profit of individual accounting periods.
Cost is determined by various factors which include:
• Material prices, wage rates and overhead costs may all change because of the impact
of inflation
• Material usage may change where scrap is expected to fall because of improved
methods, better trained workers or better material quality
• Labour efficiency may change where improved training programs or a reduction in
labour turn over is expected to occur
• Internal efficiency and the productivity of the factors of production; Overhead expenses
may fall due to more efficient placement of order with suppliers who offer best terms
• Product Volume of production or Size of batches
• Product mix may change either as part of overall company strategy or due to increased
competition
• Methods of production and technology
• Size of plant
Assumptions of CVP analysis include
• Volume is the only factor affecting sales and expenses The changes in the level of
various revenue and costs arise only because of the changes in the volume of output
245
S T U D Y T E X T
produced and sold, e.g., bales of flour produced by Unga Ltd. The number of output
(units) to be sold is the only revenue and cost driver.
• Total costs can be divided into fixed and variable components. Variable component will
vary directly with level of output. Direct materials, direct labour and direct chargeable
expenses form the direct variable costs while variable part of factory overheads,
administration overheads and selling and distribution overheads form the variable
overheads.
• There is linear relationship between revenue and cost.
• The behavior of both sales revenue and expenses is linear throughout the entire relevant
range of activity. Graphically, it assumes a linear equation of the form Y=mX + C
• The unit selling price, unit variable costs and fixed costs are constant.
• The theory of CVP is based upon the production of a single product. However, of late,
management accountants are functioning to give a theoretical and a practical approach
to multi-product CVP analysis.
• There is only one product or service or a constant Sales Mix. The analysis either covers
a single product or assumes that the sales mix sold in case of multiple products will
remain constant as the level of total units sold changes.
• All revenue and cost can be added and compared without taking into account the time
value of money.
• The theory of CVP is based on the technology that remains constant.
• The theory of price elasticity is not taken into consideration.
• Inventories do not change significantly from period to period
Break-even point is the volume of sales where there is neither profit nor loss. At this point
revenues and total costs are equal.
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Define break-even point.
2. List down two limitations of CVP analysis.
3. Highlight the objectives of CVP analysis
4. Write down the equation used to calcualte break-even point (units).
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 4 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
ANSWERS TO CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Break-even point is the volume of sales where there is neither profit nor loss. At this
point revenues and total costs are equal
2.
a. It is assumed that the production facilities anticipated for the purpose of cost-volumeprofit
analysis do not undergo any change. Such analysis gives misleading results if
expansion or reduction of capacity takes place, which in most cases does.
b. In case a variety of products with varying margins of profit are manufactured, it is difficult
to forecast with reasonable accuracy the volume of sales mix which would optimize the
profit.
c. It assumes that input price and selling price remain fairly constant which in reality is not
the case. Thus, if cost or selling price changes, the relationship between cost and profit
will not be accurately depicted.
d. It assumes that variable costs are perfectly and completely variable at all levels of
activity and fixed cost remains constant throughout the relevant range. However, this
situation is not a practical one.
e. It is assumed that inventories do not change significantly from period to period. However,
in reality, opening inventory and closing inventory are never the same and in most
cases they vary significantly
3.
a. In order to forecast profits accurately, it is essential to ascertain the relationship between
cost and profit on one hand and volume on the other.
b. Cost-volume-profit analysis is helpful in setting up flexible budget which indicates cost
at various levels of activities.
c. Cost-volume-profit analysis assists in evaluating performance for the purpose of control
thus enabling management to take corrective actions where necessary and in good
time.
d. Such analysis may assist management in formulating pricing policies by projecting the
effect of different price structures on cost and profit.
4.
Break-even point (units) = Fixed Costs
Contribution margin
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S T U D Y T E X T
PAST PAPER ANALYSIS
Questions in this chapter have been tested in the following exam sittings.
06/ 07 Q1; 06/ 07 Q6; 12/06 Q(b); 12/06 Q2; 05/06 Q2; 05/06 Q6(c); 12/05 Q3; 05/ 05 Q1; 11 04
Q1; 11 04 Q3; 11 04 Q6; 06/ 04 Q6(b,d); 12/03 Q2; 06/ 03 Q3; 12/02 Q7; 05/ 02 Q1; 05/ 02 Q2;
05/ 02 Q3; 12/01 Q4; 05/ 01 Q5; 05/ 01 Q7(a); 12/00 Q2; 06/ 00 Q1; 05/ 00 Q3;
EXAM QUESTIONS
Question one
Oathall Limited, which manufactures a single product, is considering whether to use marginal or
absorption costing to report its budgeted profit in its management accounts.
The following information is available:
Shs/unit
Direct materials 4
Direct labour 15
19
Selling price 50
Fixed production overheads are budgeted to be Shs300,000 per month and are absorbed on an
activity level of 100,000 units per month. For the month in question, sales are expected to be
100,000 units although production units will be 120,000 units. Fixed selling costs of Shs150,000
per month will need to be included in the budget as will the variable selling costs of Shs2 per unit.
There are no opening stocks.
Required:
a) Prepare the budgeted profit and loss account for a month for Oathall Limited using
absorption costing. Clearly show the valuation of any stock figures
b) Prepare the budgeted profit and loss account for a month for Oathall Limited using
marginal costing. Clearly show the valuation of any stock figures
(20 marks)
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 4 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Question two
KNL produces and sells two products, K and L. The products pass through two departments,
Firing and Finishing. The following budgeted data for the coming financial year are available:
Department Firing Finishing
Allocated and apportioned fixed overhead costs Shs.120,000 Shs.103,125
Direct labour minutes per unit:
– Product K 45 31.25
– Product L 60 43.75
Budgeted production is 7,500 units of product X and 9,375 units of product Y.
Fixed overhead costs are to be absorbed on a direct labour hour basis.
Required:
Calculate the budgeted fixed overhead cost per unit for product Y. (20 marks)
Question three
Langdale Ltd is a small company manufacturing and selling two different products – the Lang
and the Dale. Each product passes through two separate production cost centers – a machining
department, where all the work is carried out on the same general purpose machinery, and a
finishing section. There is a general service cost centre providing facilities for all employees in
the factory.
The company operates an absorption costing system using budgeted overhead absorption rates.
The management accountant has calculated the machine hour absorption rate for the machining
department as Shs3·10 but a direct labour hour absorption rate for the finishing section has yet
to be calculated. The following data have been extracted from the budget for the coming year:
Product L D
Sales (units) 6,000 9,000
Production (units) 7,200 10,400
Direct material cost per unit Shs52 Shs44
Direct labour cost per unit:
– machining department (Shs8 per hour) Shs72 Shs40
– finishing section (Shs6 per hour) Shs42 Shs36
Machining department – machine hours per unit 5 3
Fixed production overhead costs: Shs Shs
– machining department 183 120
– finishing section 241,320
– General service cost centre 82,800
Number of employees:
– machining department 14
– finishing section 32
– General service cost centre 4
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S T U D Y T E X T
Service cost centre costs are reapportioned to production cost centers.
Required:
(a) Calculate the direct labour hour absorption rate for the finishing section. (5 marks)
(b) Calculate the budgeted total cost for one unit of product Dale only, showing each main
cost element separately (5 marks)
(c) The company is considering a change over to marginal costing. State with reasons,
whether the total profit for the coming year calculated using marginal costing would be
higher or lower than the profit calculated using absorption costing. No calculations are
required. (10 marks)
Question four
The data below relates to operations of XYZ Ltd, a manufacturing company that employs normal
job costing. All jobs pass through the company’s two departments, preparation and finishing.
PREPARATION
DEPARTMENT
FINISHING
DEPARTMENT
Direct Materials 600,000 60,000
Direct labour 480,000 120,000
Factory overheads 240,000 180,000
Direct labour hours 120,000 45,000
Machine hours 60,000 30,000
The following information relates to job No. 31 undertaken by the company during the
year:
PREPARATION
DEPARTMENT
FINISHING
DEPARTMENT
Direct Materials 60,000 120,000
Labour (Direct) 24,000 18,000
Factory overheads 240,000 180,000
Direct labour hours 25,000 1,600
Machine hours 20,000 2,000
The company employs the same overhead absorption method in the two departments.
Required:
a) Using the direct labour hours and machine hours as the overhead absorption basis in
each of the two departments, compute the cost for the job. Comment on your results
(16 marks)
b) What basic criteria guides the choice of an appropriate overhead absorption method in
job costing? (4 marks)
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 5 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Question five
A company manufactures small assemblies to order and has the following budgeted overheads
for the year, based on normal activity levels:
Department Budgeted overheads Overhead Absorption Base
Blanking 8,000 1,500 labour hours
Machining 23,000 2,500 machine hours
Welding 10,000 1,800 labour hours
Assembly 5,000 1,000 labour hours
Selling and administrative overheads are 20% of factory cost. An order for 250 assemblies type
3RR made as Batch B3RR incurred the following costs:
Materials: Shs 3,107.
Labour: 128 hours at the blanking shop at Shs 2.25 per hour.
452 hours at the Machining shop at Shs 2.50 per hour.
90 hours at the Welding shop at Shs 2.25 per hour.
175 hours at the Assembly shop at Shs 1.80 per hour.
Shs.525 was paid for the hire of a special equipment for testing the batch items. After the direct
labour time in the machining department, the batch spent an extra 191 hours in the department
undergoing special treatment, which incurred overheads at the normal rate.
Required:
Compute the batch cost and profit as well as the unit cost and profit (20 marks)
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S T U D Y T E X T
CASE STUDY
“It is now fairly and widely accepted that conventional cost accounting, distorts management’s
view of business through unrepresentative overhead allocation and inappropriate product costing.
This is because the traditional approach usually absorbs overhead costs across products solely
on the basis of the direct labour involved in their manufacture. As direct labour cost expressed as
a proportion of total manufacturing cost continues to fall, it leads to more an more distortion and
misrepresentation of the impact of particular products on total overhead costs” (from Financial
Times)
Management accountants have adopted various approaches to overcome the above criticism.
Traditionally, the basis of overhead absorption was the number of labour hours expected within
the budget period and this was then used to calculate an absorption rate per labour hour. This
was then used to attribute costs to the cost units on the basis of the number of labour hours used
to produce the cost unit.
Alternative bases of apportioning exist such as the number of machine hours or the percentage of
particular elements of prime costs incurred in respect of cost units. If the method of manufacture
is machine intensive for example, it is more realistic to absorb the overhead cost on the basis of
the number of machine hours instead of the number of labour hours.
A further development is to divide the overheads into those costs, which are labour related, and
those, which are machine hour, related and apply a separate absorption rate to each part of the
overhead cost. This is the use of multiple rates similar to the principle of activity bases costing
(ABC).
ABC is based on the principle that activities cause costs and therefore the use of activities should
be the basis of attributing costs to cost units. Costs are identified with particular activities and the
performance of those activities is linked with products.
Traditional budgeting systems are incremental in nature and tend to focus on cost centers.
Activity based budgeting (ABB) links strategic planning to the overall performance measurement
aimed at continuous improvement.
MARGINAL AND ABSORPTION COSTING
2 5 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
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S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER NINE
COSTING SYSTEMS
S TSUTDUYD YT ETXETX T
2 5 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
255
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER NINE
COSTING SYSTEMS
OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• Explain the features of the various costing methods and the environment under which
the various product costing methods are applicable
• Compute unit cost in the systems analyzed hereafter and distinguish between the
various systems
• Calculate unit cost given batch costing and process costing systems and prepare cost
reports
• Calculate nominal profits in a given contract given contacts at various stages of
completion
• Calculate the cost of finished goods in a process costing system given normal losses,
abnormal losses and abnormal gain situations; calculate equivalent unit of production
• Account for process losses using various approaches
• Allocate joint costs where a process’ end products are more than one item, which may
or may not need further processing. Account for by-products and joint products
• Identify the importance of unit costs
INTRODUCTION
This chapter aims at defining and explaining the features of the various costing methods,
explaining the environment under which the various product costing methods are applicable and
performing various computations.
The chapter will focus on various costing systems namely:
• Specific order costing
• Process costing and
• Uniform costing
2 5 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Progress payments: these are interim payments made by the client to the contractor throughout
the course of the work.
Architects certificate: this is a certificate that provides confirmation that work done up to a
certain value has been completed.
Retention money: this is a proportion of value of work certified withheld by the customer for a
specified period during which the customer must make good all contractual defects.
Cost of Work certified; this includes the portion of all total costs that relate to the work
certified.
The Notional Profit: this is the difference between the value of work certified to date and cost of
work certified to date less a provision for any anticipated unforeseen eventualities.
Profit not taken refers to the part of the notional profit that is not recognized in the current
period.
A batch: is defined as a cost unit consisting of a group of identical items in particular
characteristics
Equivalent units: This is a notional quantity of completed goods in the production process
Scrap: Material held after a productive process, which are irrecoverable or have no recoverable
value.
Joint products: two or more products of relatively high value emerge simultaneously from
a single process, each of which has significant value relative to the others up to the point of
separation
By products: This is an incidental or secondary product from a process, which has an insignificant
value compared to the main product.
EXAM CONTEXT
The examiner may set theory and calculation questions. Calculation questions are more frequently
set.
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S T U D Y T E X T
INDUSTRY CONTEXT
The chapter is applicable in real life situation especially in coming up with the cost of an
assignment, product or process.
SPECIFIC ORDER COSTING
Fast forward;
Specific job costing involves determining the cost and price of a specific identifiable item, batch
or contract.
This is a broad costing system, which is applicable where work jobs consist of separate jobs,
batches or contracts. Each job, batch or contract is a cost unit and in most cases, it is different
from another. Each order made can be identified separately and the system is designed to find
the cost of each order. Specific order costing is subdivided into:
a) Job costing
b) Batch costing
c) Contract costing
Job Costing
This is a costing method which is applied when a job/cost unit is relatively of small size, is
undertaken to fit the customer’s specifications and is of comparatively short duration: Each job
moves through the operations continuously as an identifiable unit. The method is usually adopted
by businesses, which receives orders for work peculiar to the needs of individual customers.
Features of Job costing
Product is against the customer’s order and specifications and not on job stocks. Each job has
its own characteristics and requires special attention and skills.
Job order accumulates manufacturing costs for each job separately through the use of subsidiary
ledger t-accounts or cost statements.
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 5 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Procedures of Job Costing
The application of job costing method begins when a customer’s order is received. After accepting
an order, an individual work/job order number is assigned to each job for or separate order
identification. Production order is then made giving authority for the job to start. A job cost account
for each job is then opened. In this account, all costs relating to that particular job are recorded
and this account closed only when the job is complete. After completion of the job, an invoice is
prepared and served to the customer.
Materials for each job are made using material requisition forms. Material costs are estimated
based on the material schedule available or purchase price where materials have to be specifically
purchased for the job. Where materials are stock items, replacement cost may be used as the
basis of determining the cost. For instance, if it costs Shs.500 to buy a bag of cement and the
company has 200 bags in stock, the total cost of cement in store based on replacement cost is
Shs.100,000.
Labour is charged on the basis of the amount of time used to complete that particular job as
recorded in time-keeping records. Past experience in similar jobs is used to predict labour cost.
This takes into account the basic wage, overtime paid and any bonuses.
Overheads are charged on the basis of an predetermined overhead absorption rate.
Applied Overhead absorption rate = Budgeted Overheads
(Basis of Absorption)
Where the denominator value refers to units of some specified overhead absorption base
e.g. machine hours, direct labour hours. (Refer to Cost Accumulation Topic – Absorption of
overheads)
Job order costing system is used in manufacturing and service industries. In manufacturing
industry, it is used in those situations where many unique products or jobs are being produced in
each financial period (heterogeneous production). For instance, in furniture industry, the carpenter
makes furniture based on customers’ specifications, which are occasionally similar. In the service
industry, most of the instances are unique in that the quality and value attached to each service is
normally different. For instance, hospitals will give treatment based on the illness of first patient,
which is not necessarily the same as that of the second patient.
Accounting for Job Order Costing
The production process of any job starts with the transfer of raw materials from the stores to
the production line. The raw materials include both direct and indirect raw materials. The issue
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S T U D Y T E X T
of raw materials from the stores is facilitated by presentation of a requisition form. This is a
detailed document that gives the specifications of the materials to be issued and the job to which
the materials are being charged. Entries into the accounting records are made based on the
requisition form. Where a company frequently manufactures a specific product, any requisition
of materials will be based on a bill of materials prepared for the product; this is a control sheet
that shows the quantity and type of each item of material going into a completed unit. Example
of a materials requisition form is as shown below:
Department: ________________________ No MR617
Job number:________________________ Date: ____/_____/_______
Item Code Description Quantity Cost per unit Total Cost
Authorized by:________________________________
Signature: ________________________________
Materials requisition form
The following journal entries relate to material procurement and issue from the store to the
production process.
1. (a) Direct materials purchase
Dr Stores ledger control A/c X
Cr Cash A/c X
To record cash purchases
Dr Stores ledger control A/ c X
Cr Creditors A/ c - for credit purchasers X
To record credit purchases
(b) Return of materials to suppliers
Dr Cash A/ c or creditors control A/ c X
Cr Stores ledger control A/ c X
To record return of materials to suppliers
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 6 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(c) Issue of materials from the store
Dr W.I.P. Control A/c X
Cr stores ledger control A/c for direct materials. X
To record issue of direct materials from the store
Dr Factory overheads control A/ c X
Cr Stores ledger control A/ c X
To record issue of indirect materials from the store
Labour cost is measured and accumulated in the same way as material cost. It includes both
direct and indirect labour. Direct labour can be traced directly to the individual job where as
indirect labour cannot or if it has to be traced, it can only be done with expenditure of great effort.
Labour costs are accumulated based on the time tickets prepared by workers. The worker needs
to indicate the duration of time he/she spent on a specific job or, when not assigned to a specific
job, what type of indirect labour task he was assigned to and the amount of time expended on
the task. Total labour costs are calculated based on the time sheets submitted at the end of the
day by all the workers. An example of a time ticket is shown below:
Department: ______________________
__
Ticket
No. 617
Employee:________________________
Date: ____/_____/____
___
Started Ended
Time
Completed Rate Amount
Job No. or
Description
Totals xx xx
Signature of Employee: ____________________________
____
Supervisor :___________________________
_____
Signature: ____________________________
____
Time ticket
Below are the journal entries passed to record direct and indirect labour.
2. (a) Direct Labor
Dr W.I.P. Control A/e X
Cr Cash a/c X
To record direct labour Paid in cash
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S T U D Y T E X T
(b) Accrued Direct Wages
Dr W.I.P. Control Ale X
Cr Wages Control Ale X
To record direct wages to be paid (accruing at a specific)
(c) Indirect Wages
Dr Factory overheads control AI c X
Cr Wages Control Alc X
To record indirect wages (labour cost) incurred
Production overheads go along with direct materials and direct labour in determining the cost
per unit or in batch processing or the cost of a particular job. However, it is difficult to assign
manufacturing overheads because they cannot be traced directly to a particular job and it consists
of many unlike items with the variable and fixed cost components with fixed cost constituting a
large part of manufacturing overheads. Overheads are, therefore, assigned to units of production
through an allocation process.
The following journal entries are passed to record production overheads allocated for a
job.
3. Production Overheads
(i) (Not yet paid) Dr Factory overhead control A/ c X
Cr Expenses/Creditor control A/c X
To record unpaid production overheads
(ii) (When paid) Dr Expense / creditors Ale X
Cr Cash A/c X
To record payment of production overheads
After the allocation of manufacturing overheads, total cost for a job can then be determined and
summarized in a job Cost Sheet or job cost account. Examples of the above are shown below;
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 6 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Department:______________________
__ Job No. 617
Date Started: ___/_____/____
__
Description: ______________________
Date completed: ____/____/__
__
Units of output: ___________________
Direct Materials Direct labour Manufacturing overheads
Item
Code
Total
Cost Ticket
Labour
hrs
Total
Cost Base Rate Total
Totals xx xx xx
Cost Summary:
Shs.
Direct materials XX
Direct Labour XX
Manufacturing Overheads XX
Total Cost for the job XX
An example of a job cost sheet
Other transactions
4. Finished goods transferred to the store:
Dr Finished goods stock control A/c
Cr W.I.P Control A/c
To record transfer of finished goods to the store
5. Sale delivery of finished goods to customers:
(i) On Credit: Dr Debtors control A/c
Cr Sales A/c
To record credit sales
(ii) In Cash: Dr Bank/Cash A/c
Cr (Sales A/c
To record cash sales
6. Cost of goods sold to customers:
Dr Cost of sales A/c
Cr Finished goods control A/c
To record cost of goods sold to customers
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S T U D Y T E X T
7. (i) When there is over absorption of production overheads:
Dr Factory overheads control A/c
Cr P & L A/c
To record over absorption of production overheads
(ii) When there is under absorption of production overheads:
Dr P& L A/c
Cr Factory overheads control A/c
To record under absorption of production overheads
8. When there are non-manufacturing overheads:
Dr P & L A/c
Cr Non-manufacturing overheads control A/c or
Non-manufacturing overheads/expenses are regarded as period costs & are therefore
not changed To W.I.P control A/c.
Note: Overheads entries apply when there is an interlocking accounting system.
JOB Cost Account
Shs Shs
Direct materials issued from stock x Materials returned to the store x
Direct Wages x Materials transferred to other jobs x
Production overheads absorbed x Jobs transferred to finished goods a/c x
Materials transferred from other jobs x Balance c/d x
x x
Once the units being processed are completed, they are transferred to the stores. The cost of
those goods is transferred from work in progress account to finished goods account. The journal
entry passed to effect the same is;
4. Finished goods transferred to the store:
Dr Finished goods stock control AI c
Cr W.I.P Control AI c
To record the transfer of finished goods to the store
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 6 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
>>> Illustration
The following transactions were made by Z limited in the month of December
§ Direct Materials Shs.8,000 was bought on credit, out of these, materials worth Shs.5,000
were returned to the suppliers. Shs.50,000 was issued from the store
§ Indirect materials issued amounted to Shs.5,000.
§ Direct wages allocated to production amounted to Shs.20,000.
§ Goods worth Shs.200,000 were sold.
§ Finished goods worth Shs.100,000 were transferred to the store.
§ The cost of goods sold was Shs.140,000.
§ Unpaid indirect expenses were Shs.32,000.
§ Indirect wages allocated amounted to Shs.15,000.
§ Non-manufacturing overheads incurred amounted to Shs.20,000.
§ Overhead expenses charged to the jobs Shs. 60,000.
Required:
a) Prepare the stores ledger control a/c
b) Factory overhead control a/c
c) W.I.P a/c
d) Costing P & L a/c
Solution
Stores ledger control account
Shs Shs
Balance b/f xx Creditor control 5,000
Creditors (material) 8000 Work in Progress 50,000
Factory Overheads 5,000
Balance c/f xx
xx xx
265
S T U D Y T E X T
Factory Overhead cost account
Shs Shs
Indirect materials 5,000 Work in progress 60,000
Creditors 32,000
Indirect wages 15,000
Under absorption 8,000
60,000 60,000
Work in Progress account
Shs Shs
Balance of WIP b/f xx Finished goods a/c (transfers) 100,000
Stores ledger (Materials) 50,000
Creditors (Wages) 20,000 Balance of WIP c/f xx
Overhead expenses 60,000
xx xx
Costing profit and loss a/c
Shs Shs
Finished goods a/c (Cost of sales) 140,000 Sales 200,000
Non manufacturing overheads 20,000 Factory overhead absorption 8,000
Costing Profit c/f 48,000
208,000 208,000
>>> Illustration
At the start of the year, no jobs were in process. During the year, job no 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 were
started; materials were purchased at a cost of Shs.100,000. Materials worth Shs.75,000 were
used of which Shs.70,000 were direct. (Shs.10,000 on job 2.1, Shs.40,000 on job 2.2 and the
balance on job no.2.3). Labour costs worth Shs.250,000 were incurred of which Shs.220,000
was direct labour (Shs.80,000 on job 2.1, Shs.75,000 on job 2.2 and the balance on job 2.3).
Other manufacturing overhead costs of Shs.72,800 were incurred; manufacturing overhead is
applied to production on the basis of direct labour costs. Estimated manufacturing overhead for
the year was Shs.100,000 and estimated direct labour cost for the year was Shs.200,000. Jobs
2.2 and 2.3 were completed with job 2.3 being sold for Shs.200,000
Required:
a) Pass the necessary journal entries to record the above transactions.
b) Prepare a costing profit and loss account for the period above.
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 6 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Solution
Description Dr Cr
1. Materials
Cash
To record purchase of materials
100,000
100,000
2. Work in Progress
Manufacturing overheads
Materials
To record issue of materials
70,000
5,000
75,000
3. Factory Labour
Cash
To record labour costs incurred
250,000
250,000
4. Work in progress
Manufacturing overheads
Factory labour
To record issue of materials
220,000
30,000
250,000
5. Manufacturing overheads
Cash
To record other manufacturing overheads
72,800
72,800
6. Work in Progress (see working below)
Applied manufacturing overhead
To record applied overheads
110,000
110,000
7 Finished goods; Job 2.2
Finished goods; job 2.3
Work in Progress
To record transfer of jobs to finished goods
152,500
117,500
270,000
8 Cash
Sales
To record sale of job 2.3
200,000
200,000
9. Cost of goods sold
Finished goods
To record transfer of job 2.3 to cost of sales
117,500
117,500
10. Applied manufacturing overheads
Manufacturing overheads
Cost of sales
To record over absorbed overheads
110,000
107,800
2,200
267
S T U D Y T E X T
Costing profit and loss account
Sales 200,000
Cost of goods sold
Opening stock of work in progress(WIP) -
Opening stock of raw materials -
Add: direct material cost 70,000
Direct labour cost 220,000
Applied overheads 110,000 400,000
400,000
Less: Closing Raw materials 0
Closing W.I.P (130,000)
Cost of goods manufactured 270,000
Add Opening Finished goods inventory ___0__
Goods available for sale 270,000
Less Closing Finished goods inventory (152,500)
Cost of goods sold (see note below) 117,500
Over applied overheads _(2,200)
Cost of goods sold 115,300
Profit for the period _82,500
Note: The cost of goods sold as computed above is the same as computed below when various
costs are accumulated as shown in the table.
Working
Overheads absorption rate = Estimated manufacturing overheads
Estimated direct labor cost
= Shs.100,000 x 100%
Shs.200,000
= 50%
Therefore, total manufacturing costs absorbed = 50% x total direct labour cost
= 50% x 220,000
= 110,000
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 6 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Accumulated costs of jobs;
Direct materials Direct labour Applied overheads Total Cost
Job no 2.1 10,000 80,000 40,000 130,000
Job no 2.2 40,000 75,000 37,500 152,500
Job no 2.3 20,000 65,000 32,500 117,500
CASE STUDY
Fulcrum Lighting and Power Solutions
Fulcrum Lighting Ltd specialize in the creative design and implementation of lighting and power
systems for applications ranging from live events, exhibitions and themed environments to retail
outlets, bars, restaurants, leisure developments and private homes.
It is a client-focused company, which strives to exceed clients’ expectations in the quality of
service that it provides. The aim is to build a long-term relationship with customers, to offer
personal service, and to develop and extend the effective use of lighting and power within client
projects.
Fulcrum is an independent solution provider, with the ability to tap in to a global network of
partnering equipment suppliers and reputable designers, project managers and engineers, to
deliver innovative solutions with creative flair and technical expertise. All members of the creative
team at Fulcrum bring a diverse design background to their work, including extensive theatrical,
architectural, event and exhibition applications. A knowledgeable technical group, with many
years experience in transforming design into reality, supports the design process with on site
implementation.
Services include - Creative Lighting Design and Consultancy; Project Management, Co-ordination
and Logistics; Specifying and Sourcing Equipment; Installation, Focusing and Programming,
and Technical Liaison, Drawings and Support. The customer base extends to several blue chip
organizations and the innovative approach that the company has is always in demand.
Richard Cross (MD) said, “It is very difficult to find software that can cope with the full business
process – planning and estimating, job purchasing, cost collection and subsequent customer
invoicing. The exordia software impressed me so much that I felt it had been written specifically
for our industry.”
The typical job cycle at Fulcrum starts with a request for quotation, which the engineers develop
using Exordia Job Costing; in many cases deploying previously designed templates (which are
simply edited) to speed the job planning and estimating process. When the customer accepts
269
S T U D Y T E X T
the quotation, it is converted to a job and purchase orders are raised within the program for
the procurement of bought in materials and services. Costs are collected, mainly from supplier
invoices, and logged against the job. Finally, Exordia Job Costing is used to invoice the work
to the customer and the details are automatically transferred to the customer files in the Sage
accounting program.
“The main benefits we see are in planning and monitoring job costs,” commented Richard “we
were attracted to the program by its front end and ease of use, its simplicity and affordability. We
have had a multi user version in use for some time now and we are delighted with the results.”
BATCH COSTING
This is a type of job costing that is used when production consists of limited repetitive work and
definite number of item manufactured in one batch. A batch is defined as a cost unit consisting of
a group of identical items in particular sizes and colors of shoes, toys, spare parts, e.t.c.. The total
cost incurred in production is spread on the number of units made when the batch is completed.
Batch costing is not any different from job costing. The only distinction comes in when calculating
unit cost. In job costing, the cost of a unit is the total cost incurred while unit cost in batch costing
is equal to the total cost incurred divided by the number of units in the batch.
a) Procedures:
§ Allocation of batch number
§ Production order is made
§ Creation of batch costs account
§ Completion of the work and closure of the batch cost account
§ Allocation of costs to individual units in the batch
§ Determination of selling price/batch and unit.
>>> Illustrations
The budgeted variable overheads of Githurai Ltd for the year 2001 are given as below:
Department Overhead (Shs) Absorption base
A 150,000 15,000 direct labour hours
B 200,000 25,000 direct labour hours
C 120,000 20,000 direct labour hours
D 300,000 30,000 machine labour hours
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 7 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Additional Information
§ Selling and administering overheads are charged at 10% of total production costs while
the profit mark up is 25% of total costs:
§ An order for 2,000 units was received from a customer. The batch number of this order
is 510. The following additional information in respect of this batch is provided below:
◊ Direct materials - 87,000/ =
◊ Direct Labor - Dept A (150 direct labor hrs) @ Shs.12. per hour.
- Dept B (40 direct labor hrs) @ Shs.15 per hr
- Dept C (60 direct labor hrs) @ Shs.20 per hr
- Dept D (100 direct labor hrs) @ Shs.10 per hr
◊ A total of 50 machine hours were used in this job
Required: Calculate:
a) Total cost of the batch
b) Cost/Unit
c) Selling Price of the batch
d) Selling Price unit
271
S T U D Y T E X T
Solution
Using the Job Cost sheet approach, one can compute the total cost of the batch as follows
Department: ___________n__________ Batch No. 510
Date Started: _n_/__n__/_n_
Description: ___________n__________ Date completed: __n_/_n__/_n_
Units of output: ________2000 ______
Direct Materials Direct labour Manufacturing overheads
Item
Code
Total
Cost Ticket Labour hrs
Total
Cost
Base of
absorption
Rate
Per
hr Total
N 87,000 Dept A 150 @Sh12 1800 Direct labour hr 10 1500
Dept B 40 @Sh15 600 Direct labour hr 8 320
Dept B 60 @Sh20 1200 Direct labour hr 6 360
Dept C 100 @Sh10 1000 50 Machine hr 10 500
Totals 87,000 4,600 2,680
Cost Summary:
Shs.
Direct materials 87,000
Direct Labour 4,600
Manufacturing Overheads 2,680
Total Production Cost 94,280
Selling and admin costs
(10%) 9,428
Total cost of Batch 103,708
(a) Total cost of the batch Shs.103,708
(b) Cost per unit
= Total cost of the batch = Sh.103,708 = Shs.51.86 per unit
Total no of units 2,000 Units
(c) Selling price of the batch; Cost plus 25% markup
Cost of the Batch Shs 103,708
Mark up @ 25% Shs25,927
Selling Price of the Batch Shs.129,635
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 7 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(d) Selling price per unit
= Selling Price of the Batch = Sh.129,635 = Shs.64.82 per unit
Total no of units 2,000 Units
CONTRACT COSTING
This is a form of specific order costing that is applied to relatively large cost units, which normally
take a considerable length of time to complete e.g. building or construction works. Contract jobs
are undertaken in accordance with specific requirements of contractee/customer. Contracts may
be distinguished from job orders by the following features:
§ The money value of a contract is much larger than that of a job order.
§ A contract consumes significantly larger amount of resources than a job order.
§ For a contract, special progress reports are usually made while in job costing, reports
are made after the completion of the job.
§ For a contract, indirect costs are relatively smaller in relation to direct costs but the vice
versa is time for job order.
To second the progress of contract works, a special account known as a contract account is
maintained.
Contract Accounts
This is a separate account that is opened and maintained for each contract undertaken for the
purpose of accumulating costs. Each contract is given a number and all costs relating to that
particular contract are recorded in this account. A typical contract account is as shown below:
Contract No. XYZ Account
Materials b/f x Materials returned to store x
Materials purchased x Materials c/ d x
Direct wages x Machinery c/ d x
Indirect wages x Balance c/d: Cost of work done x
Subcontractors fees x
Cost of special plant x
Machinery/Plant b/f x
x x
Cost of work done b/d x Value of work certified x
Notional Profit x Cost of work done but not certified x
x x
273
S T U D Y T E X T
Contract Costing Terminology
Progress payments: these are interim payments made by the client to the contractor throughout
the course of the work. This is mainly on expensive contracts or contracts that take a long time
to complete. The basis of these payments is an architect’s certificate of work satisfactorily done.
The progress payment will consist of the sales value of the work carried and certified net off the
retention money and payments due to date.
Architects certificate: this is a certificate that provides confirmation that work done up to a
certain value has been completed. It is the basis on which the progress payments made are
based.
Retention money: this is a proportion of value of work certified withheld by the customer for a
specified period during which the customer must make good all contractual defects. The retention
money is calculated as a percentage of the value of work certified. This amount is released after
satisfactory performance under the contract.
Cost of work certified: this includes the portion of all total costs that relate to the work certified.
It is also referred to as cost of sales. It is derived by determining the cost of work not certified and
the balances of inputs charged to the income statement and then deducting them from the sum
of the current costs and previous period costs b/f, if any, that were incurred.
It is important to determine the profit attributable to each accounting period due to the considerable
time taken to complete a contract. The approach slightly contravenes the normal accounting
revenue recognition principle, which requires revenue recognition at the time of sale, time of
receipt of cash or on completion of production. In here, the revenue recognition on completion of
production will not be appropriate especially when the contracts are long term. This is because
for the year that the contract was incomplete, the profit and loss statement will not reflect a fair
view of the company’s profitability. It will only show the results of contracts completed before the
end of the period.
The Notional Profit: this is the difference between the value of work certified to date and cost of
work certified to date less a provision for any anticipated unforeseen eventualities.
Profit not taken: refers to the part of the notional profit that is not recognized in the current
period. It is profit carried forward to be recognized in the years that follow.
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 7 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Principles of profit income recognition in contracts
The concept of prudence should be applied when determining the profits or losses to be to be
taken up on accounts.
(i) If the contract is in its early stages, no profits should be taken until when the outcome
can be measured with reasonable certainty
(ii) Where a loss has occurred, it must be recognized in the period it has occurred regardless
of the stage of maturity of the project or the timing.
(iii) When substantial costs have been incurred on the contract but the contract is not near
completion, the notional profit is apportioned using the formula in order to determine the
notional profit taken.
Profit taken = Notional profit x 2/3 x cash received
work certified
(iv) When the contract is near completion, the profit taken is calculated as:
Profit taken = Estimated profit x cash received
contract price
Where Estimated profit = Contract price – Estimated total cost and
Estimated total cost = Costs incurred to date + estimated future costs.
>>> Illustration
Sasumwa Construction limited has been awarded a contract to build a house. This is a contract
No 45 for the company and the contract price is Shs.2.65 million. At the end of the company’s
financial year, the contract was 85% complete and hence regarded as being near completion. You
are also provided with the following information about the contract:
Particulars Shs.
Materials purchased and delivered 580,000
Materials issued from store 60,000
Materials returned to stores 9,000
Site expenses 300,000
Site wages 200,000
Plant sent to site 100,000
Architect’s fees 30,000
Plant returned from site 10,000
Subcontractor’s fees 105,000
Head Office overheads absorbed 60,000
Valuation at the year ending disclosed the following: Shs
Materials: 19,500
Plant on site 50,000
Work done but not yet certified 60,000
275
S T U D Y T E X T
Additional information
a) The portion of the work which was completed during the year and certified by the architect
was assessed as representing 75% of the whole contract price. The contractee made
payments to this extent less 10% retention money.
b) The management of the company decided for the purpose of preparing the company’s
annual accounts to make a provision of a third of the notional profit against the possibility
of defects and other contingencies arising later in respect of the work already certified
for payment.
Required:
- Prepare the contract account
- Compute the amount of profit or loss to be taken to the main profit and loss account of
the company.
- Compute the value of work in progress.
Contract No 45 A/ c
Materials Purchased: 580,000 Materials returned to store 7,000
Materials issued from stores 60,000 Plant returned form site 10,000
Site expenses 300,000 Materials c/ d 19,500
Site wages 200,000 Plant on site 50,000
Plant set to site 100,000
Architects fees 30,000 Cost of work done 1,346,500
Sub-contractors 105,000
Head office overheads 60,000
1,435,000 1,435,000
Cost of work done b/d 1,346,500 Value of work certified 1,987,500
Profit taken 473,175 Value of work done but not certified 60,000
Profit in suspense 227,825
2,047,500 2,047,500
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 7 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
WORKINGS
a)
1.9875 million
Value of work certified 75% x 2.65 million
=
=
b)
Shs.701,000
1,987,500 60,000 - 1,346,500
value of work certified value of work done but not certified - Cost of work done
Notional Profit Value of work Done less Cost of work done
=
= +
= +
=
c)
Cash received = value of work certified less retention money
= 90% x 1.9875 Million
= Shs.1,788,750
d)
Shs.473,175
2,650,000
1,788,750
Shs.701,000 x
Contract Price
Cash received
Profit taken Notional Profit x
=
=
=
(Contract near completion thus we use the 2nd formula)
e) Profit in Suspense = Shs(701,000 – 473,175) = Shs.227,825
f) Value of work in Progress
Cost of work certified 1,346,500
Add: Profit taken _473,175
1,819,675
Less cash received (1,788,750)
Work in Progress valuation ___30,925
277
S T U D Y T E X T
PROCESS COSTING
Fast forward;
Process costing is applied where there are standard operations with continuous production of
homogeneous and identical units.
This is a costing method that is applied where there are standard operations with continuous
production of homogeneous and identical units. Products are produced in the same manner and
consume the same amount of material and labour. The output is the final product of a sequence of
operations. In this type of costing, costs are accumulated on the basis of process, and individual
units of output are thus assigned the average cost per unit. The cost per unit is arrived at by
dividing the total process costs by the number of input of the next process and further materials
can be added at each stage production. Therefore, cost per unit for the second and subsequent
processes is a cumulative cost. For example, the cost per unit for the output transferred from
process 2 is the cost of production for both process 1 and 2 and not for process 2 above.
Production moves from one department (or production process) to the next until the final product
is obtained. The output of department I becomes the input of department II and the output of
department II the input of department III and so on until the completion of production in the last
department where the output is transferred to finished goods. The fact that the output for the
first process becomes the input for the next process means that the process costing procedure
strives to maintain the cost of each process product and charge that with the first process. The
aim is to transfer the cost accumulated in the first process to the next process. Cost accumulation
procedure follows the production flow where control accounts are maintained for each production
department or process and costs assigned to each department or process. Costs are transferred
with production as the latter moves from process to process. This is illustrated below:
Process I
Shs Shs
Direct materials 1,000 Transferred to process 2 3,000
Direct labour 500
Overheads 1,500
3,000 3,000
Process ii
Shs Shs
Transfer from Process I 3,000 Transfer to finished goods 6,000
Direct materials 1,500
Direct labour 1,000
Overheads 500
6,000 6,000
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 7 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
A process costing system is used in those industries where masses of similar products or services
are produced or where individual jobs undertaken are passed through a number of departments
or worked on in one location with materials, labour and other requirements brought to that
location. Cost accumulation and analysis should be tailored to ensure that effective controls are
procedures in operation, which are suited to the nature of an industry.
Process Costing Procedure
The production factory is divided into a number of processes.
0 An account is opened and maintained for each process.
0 Each process account is debited with materials, labor, direct expenses and overheads
apportioned to the process.
0 The good output of a process is transferred as input to the next process. At the end
of the period, the products will include various items. These are normal loss, abnormal
loss, finished goods (or output to the next process) and work in progress.
0 The finished output of the last process is transferred to the finished goods account.
VALUATION OF WORK IN PROGRESS
The concept of equivalent units
This is a notional quantity of completed goods in the production process. It is a collection of work
application (direct materials, direct labor and overheads) necessary to produce one complete
unit of output. They are the number of units that would have been produced during a period if all
the departments’ efforts had resulted into completed units.
The concept is used for purposes of translating the partially completed production into its
completed unit equivalent. This enables cost accountants to value the work-in-progress in an
objective, consistent, reliable manner.
Equivalent units are a number of fully completed units considered to be equivalent to a greater
number of partially completed units. The equivalent unit cost of manufacturing an item equals the
total cost divided by the equivalent units
279
S T U D Y T E X T
>>> Illustration 1
Suppose there are 4,000 units of a product in ending inventory out of which 60% are fully complete,
whereas the remaining are 70% complete. What are the equivalent units of the product?
Solution:
60% x 4,000 = 2,400 units fully complete
40% x 4,000 = 1,600 units partially completed. The equivalent units are calculated as;
1,600 x 70% =1,120 units –Equivalent units.
Total equivalent units = 2,400 + 1,120 = 3,520 units
Assume we had total process costs of Shs.7,040, then each unit would cost Shs.7,040/
3,520=Shs.2
>>> Illustration 2
Material A is added at the beginning of a production process. Labor and overheads are added
continuously during the production process. At the end of the process, 10,000 units were complete
and 2,000 units were 60% complete as per labor and overheads. The cost of raw materials used
during the period amounted to Shs.220,000, labor Shs.150,000 and overheads Shs.74,000.
There was no opening inventory.
Required:
Determine the cost per unit of both the completed units, and the units in the ending inventory.
Solution:
Physical
Units
Materials Conversion
Completed 10,000 10,000 10,000
Ending Inventory _2,000 2,000 1,200
12,000 _____ _____
Equivalent Units 12,000 11,200
Cost per period 220,000 224,000
Cost per equivalent unit =Shs.20
In the above illustrations, there is no opening work in process. When it exists, we need to adopt
a method of valuing it and incorporating it into the process accounts.
COSTING SYSTEMS
= Cost per period
Equivalent units
= 220,000 = Shs.18.33
12,000
Equivalent units
= 224,000 = Shs.20
11,200
Equivalent units
2 8 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The two main methods used for purposes of valuing the opening work in progress have:
(a) Weighted Average Method
(b) First In First Out (FIFO) Method.
Using these methods enables the cost of the opening work in progress to be appropriately
assigned to the finished goods and the closing work in process.
a) Weighted Average Method (WAM)
When this method is used, all costs of production are considered in assigning costs to inventory.
The method puts together opening work in process inventory costs and cost of production. It
mixes the costs of previous period with those of current period in determining costs per unit.
Under this method, equivalent units are calculated as follows:
0 Equivalent Units = Units completed and Transferred + Ending WIP inventory: (%
completion)
0 Total Costs considered = Previous Period costs + Current period costs
0 Cost per equivalent = Previous period costs + Current period costs
Units completed and transfered + (Ending WIP x % Completion)
Under WAM approach, we do not distinguish the “units started and completed in the current
period” from the ‘units completed and transferred’ and the ‘Ending working period’
b) First In First Out (FIFO)
This method considers only those costs incurred during the current period. Equivalent units are
calculated as follows:
- Equivalent Units = Units completed and transferred + (Units in ending W.I.P x % of
completion Units in beginning)
- Total Costs considered = Previous Period costs + Current period costs
- Cost per equivalent unit = Current period costs
Units completed and transfered + (Ending WIP x % Completion
Starting WIP)
281
S T U D Y T E X T
Carefully note that FIFO distinguishes the “units started and completed in the current period”
from the units completed and transferred. This is done by subtracting the “beginning W.I.P.” from
the “units completed and transferred” and “the ending work in process”.
>>> Illustration
The following work in progress account relates to the blending department of ABC Limited, a softdrinks
company for the month of January 1999. Raw materials were introduced at the start of the
work while labour and overheads were incurred through-out the blending process.
Blending Department: W.I.P A/ C
Particulars Litres Shs Particulars Litres Shs
Balance b/f (4/5) 5,000 65,000
Direct materials 30,000 125,000
Competed and Transferred
out
29,000 ?
Direct labour added 145,000 Ending WIP (2/3) 6,000 ?
Overheads 201,000
536,000 536,000
Additional Information
1. Beginning W.I.P. consists of the following:
(a) Raw materials 15,000
(b) Direct labour 20,000
(c) Factory overheads 30,000
Required
Calculate cost/equivalent units using:
a) Weighted Average Method (WAM)
b) First in First out (FIFO) method
Solution
WAM
(i) Summary of the flow of units
Total physical units Materials Conversion
Transferred out 29,000 29,000 29,000
Work in progress 6,000 6,000 (2/3 x 6,000) = 4,000
35,000 35,000 33,000
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 8 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(ii)
Process costs
In the beginning inventory 15,000 50,000
Current costs 125,000 346,000
140,000 396,000
(iii)
Cost per equivalent unit
(iv) Total cost per equivalent unit = Shs(4 + 12) per unit
FIFO
(i) Summary of the flow of units
Total physical
units
Materials Conversion
Beginning WIP inventory 5,000 - (1/5 x 5,000) = 1,000
Started and completed in the
current period
24,000 24,000 24,000
Ending WIP 6,000 6,000 (2/3 x 6,000) = 4,000
Equivalent units 35,000 30,000 29,000
(ii)
Process costs
Current costs 125,000 346,000
(only current costs are considered)
(iii)
Cost per equivalent unit
Shs.140,000 = Shs.4
35,000 Units per unit
Shs.396,000 = Shs.12
33,000 Units per unit
Shs.125,000 = Shs.4
30,000 Units per unit
Shs.346,000 = Shs.11.9310
29,000 Units per unit
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S T U D Y T E X T
COSTING SYSTEMS
(iv) Total cost per equivalent unit = Shs(4.00 + 11.9310) per unit
= Shs 15.931
PROCESS COST REPORT
Set of three schedules that help managers track and analyze costs in a process costing system;
it consists of the schedule of equivalent production, the unit cost analysis schedule, and the cost
summary schedule. This statement traces the flow of units produced and costs incurred in the
production process. The report is prepared for each process and it provides a reconciliation of
the physical flow of units and the total costs for the period. Assuming no spoilage or losses, the
following relationships will always hold:
1. Physical Units:
Beginning W.LP + Units started - Units to account for the period.
= Units completed and transferred + Ending work in progress - Units accounted for.
2. Costs:
Cost of Beginning W.I.P. + Current costs incurred - Costs to account for = Costs of units
completed and transferred
Steps in preparing process costing statement
(1) FIFO Method
(a) Physical flow of units; this identifies the units to be accounted for (units in beginning
WIP inventory plus the units started during the period) and the units accounted for (the
units completed during the current period plus the units in the ending WIP)
(b) Equivalent units of production: the common denominator for completed units and
partially completed units are computed by multiplying the units accounted for by their
percentage of completion by each category of costs i.e. material cost (100%), labour
cost, e.t.c. (75%).
(c) Costs to be accounted for: total costs to be accounted for (the cost of units in the
beginning WIP plus the costs added to production during the current period) are
identified for each category of costs.
(d) Cost per equivalent unit of production: these are computed by dividing the costs to
be accounted for by the total equivalent units of production.
(e) Costs accounted for (Cost allocation): total costs to be accounted for are allocated
for each category of costs to the units accounted for by multiplying the equivalent units
of production by the cost per equivalent unit of production.
2 8 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
1) Weighted Average Method (WAM)
(a) Physical flow of units; the WAM does not keep the beginning inventory units separate
from the units that were started and completed during the period
(b) Equivalent units of production: in computing equivalent units of production, the WAM
does not keep the percentage of completion performed in the prior period separate from
the percentage of completion performed in the current period.
(c) Costs to be accounted for: in identifying costs to be accounted for, the WAM does not
keep the costs of the units in the beginning inventory at the start of the current period
separate from the costs added to the production during the current period
(d) Cost per equivalent unit of production: these are computed by dividing the costs to
be accounted for by the total equivalent units of production
(e) Costs accounted for (Cost allocation): total costs to be accounted are allocated for
each category of costs to the units accounted for by multiplying the equivalent units of
production by the cost per equivalent unit of production. The WAM does not keep the
cost of the units in beginning WIP separate from the costs added to production during
the current period.
>>> Example
Assume that the beginning work in progress in Maendeleo Company Ltd in the month of
November was 1,000 units which were 100% complete in terms of materials and 75% complete
as to conversion. Raw materials costs relating to beginning work in progress amounted to
shs.3,000 and conversion was Shs.1,000. Some 10,000 units were completed during the period
and transferred to finished goods stock a/c. Some 2,000 units were still in process and were
100% complete in relation to materials and 50% complete in relation to conversion costs. Costs
incurred during the period for raw materials Shs.33,000, conversion Shs.43,000;
Required
Use both weighted average and FIFO methods, to determine cost per equivalent unit and value
of ending inventory. Prepare the process cost report.
MAENDELEO COMPANY LIMITED.
PROCESS COST REPORT
WAM
1. Physical flow of units
Units in beginning work in process 1,000
Units started during the period 11,000
Units to account for 12,000
Units completed and transferred out 10,000
Units in ending work in process _2,000
Units accounted for 12,000
285
S T U D Y T E X T
Note that the totals are the same. There are no units lost as normal loss or abnormal
losses.
2. Computation of equivalent units
Total Materials Conversion
Units completed and transferred out 10,000 10,000 10,000
Units in the ending work in process 2,000 2,000 1,000
Equivalent units 12,000 12,000 11,000
3. Summary of flow of costs (costs to be accounted for)
Total Materials Conversion
Costs relating to beginning WIP b/f 4,000 3,000 1,000
Current costs 33,000 43,000
36,000 44,000
4. Equivalent cost per unit Total Materials Conversion
Shs.7 Shs.36,000 Shs.44,000
12,000 Units 11,000 Unis
= Shs 3 per eq.unit = Shs 4 per eq.unit
5. Cost Summary Schedule
Total Materials Conversion
Units started and completed 70,000 30000 40000
Units in the ending work in process 10,000 6,000 4,000
FIFO method
1. Summary of flow of physical units
Beginning work in process 1,000
Units started and completed 9,000
Ending WIP _2,000
Total units 12,000
2. Computation of equivalent units
Total Materials Conversion
Beginning WIP 1,000 0 250
Started and completed
(current period) 9,000 9,000 9,000
Ending WIP 2,000 2,000 1,000
12,000
Equivalent units 11,000 10,250
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 8 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
3. Summary of flow of costs
Total Materials Conversion
Current costs only 76,000 33,000 43,000
4. Equivalent cost per unit Total Materials Conversion
Shs.33,000 Shs.43,000
11,000 Units 10,250 Units
= Shs.3 per eq.unit = Shs.4.195 per eq. unit
5. Cost summary schedule
Total Materials Conversion
Units completed and transferred out
Beginning WIP (completed) 1,048.75 0 1,048.75
Started and completed 64,755.00 27,000 37,755.00
Ending WIP 10195 6000 4195
75998 33.000 42998
Opening WIP-previous cost 4000
PROCESS LOSSES
Fast forward:
The amount input in a process is not always equivalent to the output. Ordinarily, it may vary due
to process losses such as evaporation, spoilage and by products.
Most manufacturing processes result in some portion of the raw materials used not being
converted into a reliable half hence losses. These losses may take the form of waste, scrap,
rework, and spoilt units.
§ Waste: are materials lost in the process, which are irrecoverable or have no recoverable
value. The term also refers to discarded substances having no value and is disposed
off
§ Scrap: Material held after a productive process, which are irrecoverable or have no
recoverable value. The term also refers to discarded materials, which have some
recoverable value which is usually either disposed off without further treatment, or
reintroduced into the production process in place of the raw materials. Scrap are process
losses that can be sold for some small value.
§ Rework: These are finished goods that do not meet quality standards but which with
some additional work can be sold.
287
S T U D Y T E X T
§ Loss: Refers to finished or partially finished units, which cannot be reworked or used
for their intended purpose. They may be discarded or sold for minimal value. There are
two types of spoilage;
i. Normal Loss: is loss expected and unavoidable even under the most efficient systems
of production. Normal spoilage cost is normally included in product cost.
ii. Abnormal Spoilage: This is loss that is avoidable with efficient operating conditions.
The cost is regarded as controllable and can be eradicated if due diligence and supervision are
exercised. The cost is normally treated as a loss and charged to profit and loss account.
ACCOUNTING TREATMENT OF SPOILAGE COSTS
Normal Spoilage Costs:
Normal losses are unavoidable costs that are expected to occur under efficient operating
conditions. They are inherent in the production process and cannot be eliminated or controlled.
The level of normal loss selected as being the standard for the period under review is based
on various factors such as past experience, quality control records from the past periods and
industry norms. These costs are assigned to the good output using two approaches;
(a) Recognition and Re-Assignment Approach In this approach, the normal spoilage
is included in the equivalent units computation; further, the normally spoilt units will be
assigned costs just like any other unit. The spoilage costs will then be reallocated to
these good units that have passed the inspection point. The steps to follow under this
method are:
i) Compute equivalent units including normal spoilage.
ii) Assign costs to all units including normal spoilage.
iii) Reassign normal spoilage costs to good output.
>>> Illustration
ABC plc produces and sells a certain type of insecticide, YMX. In the year just ended, ABC
material input into production process I was 2000 units at Shs.10 per unit. Labour costs incurred
amounted to Shs.30,000 while overhead costs absorbed amounted to 20,000. The normal loss
in the process is 5%. Compute the cost of spoilage and the cost per unit of output transferred to
process II after reassigning the normal loss costs.
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 8 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Solution
(The process I account will help us solve the problem)
Process I Account
Materials 2,000 20,000 Transferred to process II 1,900 66,500
Labour cost 30,000 Normal loss (5%) 100 3,500
Overhead cost 20,000
70,000 70,000
Cost per unit = Shs.70,000/2,000 units = Shs.35 per unit
Reassigning of costs to the good units
= 3500/1900 per good unit = Shs.1.84 (2.d.p)
Therefore, cost per good unit shall be Shs (35 + 1.84) = Shs.36.84
(b) Omission Approach: Under this approach, the normally spoilt units are not included in
the calculation of equivalent units. This means that the cost of the normally spoilt units
will automatically be distributed to the good output. By excluding the normal spoilage
in the computation to the good output, a lower figure will be derived. This is the most
commonly used method of accounting for normal losses. The weaknesses of this
method are;
i) The cost of normal spoilage is spread equally into the finished goods and the ending
W.I.P regardless of whether the ending W.I.P. has passed the inspection stage or not.
ii) It does not allow the manager to see the costs of spoilage because these costs are not
computed.
Using the illustration above
Solution
The process I account will appear as follows
Process I Account
Units Shs Units Shs
Materials 2,000 20,000 Normal loss (5%) 100 -
Labour cost 30,000 Transferred to process II 1,900 70,000
Overhead cost 20,000
70,000 70,000
289
S T U D Y T E X T
The cost per unit of the good units shall be computed using the formula given below
Cost per unit = Total accumulated cost
Expected output
Expected output = Total input (units) – Normal loss (Units)
Thus the cost per unit of production transferred shall be
= Cost per unit = Shs.70,000 = Shs.36.84
95% x 20,000 units
The situation above exists where normal loss with no scrap value exists. There are instances
where the normal loss will have a scrap value. For instance, in the Jua Kali industry, the metal
scraps may be used to mend patches or be sold out for some other use. In this case, the revenue
obtained from the sale of scrap is offset against costs incurred in the production process to
arrive at the total costs to be allocated to each unit. In accounting terms, the cashbook is debited
with the amount received from the sale of scrap and the process account is credited with the
equivalent.
>>> Illustration
Assume that the normal loss output of process I could be sold as manure at Shs.5 per unit.
Calculate the new cost per unit of production transferred to Process II.
Solution:
Using approach (b) the process I account would appear as follows.
Process I Account
Units Shs Units Shs
Materials 2,000 20,000 Normal loss (5%) 100 500
Labour cost 30,000 Transferred to process II 1,900 69500
Overhead cost 20,000
70,000 70,000
Cost per unit = Total accumulated cost - Scrap value of normal loss
Expected output
The modified formula used to incorporate the above will be
Cost per unit tranfered = Shs (70,000 - 500) = Shs.36.48
(2,000 - 100) Units
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 9 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
ABNORMAL SPOILAGE COSTS
These costs do not add any production benefit to the company and are treated as accounting
losses. They are controllable losses which are not expected to occur under efficient operating
conditions e.g. improper mixing of ingredients, omission of some important chemical in the
manufacture of a product, e.t.c.. Abnormal losses are considered to result from production
inefficiencies that should be eliminated and are not an inherent part of the production process.
The cost of abnormal spoilage not included in the process cost nor included in inventory valuation
but reported separately as abnormal is written off directly as losses for the period in which it
occur.
Abnormal losses, just as normal losses, may or may not have a scrap value. Abnormal loss with or
without scrap value is treated in a similar way in the process account. The sales revenue received
from sale of abnormal loss units is offset against the cost of abnormal loss in the abnormal loss
account to arrive at the net abnormal loss that shall be charged to the profit and loss account in
the period in which it arises.
>>> Illustration
Maybud Ltd operates Process X which creates two Product A. There is no work in progress. The
following information relates to Process X for last month:
(i) 80,000 litres of raw materials with a total cost of Shs158,800 were input into the process
and conversion costs were Shs133,000.
(ii) A normal process loss of 5% of the input was expected. An actual loss of 5,500 litres
was identified at the end of the process.
Required:
(a) Prepare the Process X account for last month showing the amount of abnormal loss.
(b) Assuming that losses have a realizable value of Shs.1 per unit, calculate the loss to be
charged to the Profit and loss account in the period. Show the process account as it
would appear.
Solution
(a)
Step 1: Physical flow of units
Units in beginning WIP 0
Started during the period 80,000
Units to be accounted for 80,000
Units in ending WIP 0
Normal loss (5%) 4,000
Abnormal loss 1,500
Units transferred out 74,500
Units accounted for 80,000
291
S T U D Y T E X T
Step 2: Calculation of Cost per unit
Cost per unit = Total accumulated cost
Expected output
= Shs.291,800 = Shs.291,800 = Shs.3.84
95% x 80,000 76,000 units
Step 3: Process Account
Department 2 Process Account
Raw materials 80,000 158,800 Normal loss 4,000 0
Conversion cost 133,000 Abnormal loss @Shs3.84 1,500 5,759
Units transferred out 74,500 286,041
291,800 291,800
(b)
Abnormal loss to be charged to the Profit and loss account shall be net of the revenue received.
However, the cost per unit transferred shall change because the normal loss at this point has a
value which shall be offset against the total costs in computing the unit cost.
Cost per unit = Total accumulated cost - Scrap value of normal loss
Expected output
= Shs.291,800 - 4000 = Shs.287,800 = Shs.3.79 (Actual cost = Shs3.786842)
95% x 80,000 = 76,000 unit
Abnormal loss shall be Shs.3.7868 x 1500 units =Shs5,680
Amount charged to the P&L Account = Shs(5,680 – 1500 x 1) = Shs4,180
The Process account will appear as follows
Department 2 Process Account
Raw materials 80,000 158,800 Normal loss @ Shs1 4,000 4,000
Conversion cost 133,000 Abnormal loss @Shs3.79 1,500 5,680
Units transferred out 74,500 282,120
291,800 291,800
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 9 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
>>> Illustration
Mombasa Limited manufactures a product through two departments. The following is the data in
respect of department 2 for the month of January:
Beginning W.I.P. (25% complete as to conversion): 10,000 units
Costs for beginning W.I.P
Transferred in Shs.82,900
Conversion costs Shs.42,000
Units started in the current period. 70,000 units
Current costs: Transferred in Shs.645,100
Conversion Shs.612,500
Additional Materials* s Shs651,000
Units completed and transferred: 50,000 units
Units in ending W.I.P (95% complete as to conversion) 20,000 Units
Spoilt Units 10,000 Units
Additional Information
(a) Normal spoilage is 10% of all good units that pass inspection
(b) Inspection occurs when production is 80% complete.
(c) Conversion costs are incurred evenly through-out the process.
(d) Additional materials* are added after units pass the inspection point
Required
Prepare a process cost report using
Weighted Average (Omission Method)
Apply both the recognition and re-assignment and the omission approach in dealing with the
spoilage.
293
S T U D Y T E X T
Solution
Mombasa Limited
Process Cost Report for department 2
Weighted average Approach (Omission Method)
Physical flow of units
Beginning WIP (units) 10,000
Units started during the period 70,000
Units to account for 80,000
Units completed during the period 50,000
Ending WIP (units) 20,000
Normal loss 7,000
Abnormal loss _3,000
Units accounted for 80,000
Calculation of equivalent units
Total Transferred Materials Conversion
Units completed and transferred 50,000 50,000 50,000 50,000
Units in Ending WIP 20,000 20,000 20,000 19,000
Abnormal loss (80% Conversion) _3,000 _3,000 ____0 2,400
Equivalent units 73,000 73,000 70,000 71,400
Summary flow of costs
Total Transferred Materials Conversion
Costs b/f Beginning WIP 124,900 82,900 0 42,000
Current costs 1,908,600 645,100 651,000 612,500
Equivalent units 2,033,500 728,000 651,000 654,500
Equivalent cost per unit
Total Transferred Materials Conversion
Equivalent Cost per unit
Cost assignment
Total Transferred Materials Conversion
Finished goods 1,421,850 498,500 465,000 458,350
Ending WIP
Transferred 199,400 199,400
Materials 186,000 186,000
Conversion 174,173 ______ _______ 174,173
559,573 199,400 _186,000 174,173
Abnormal spoilage
Transferred 29,910 29,910
Materials 0 0
Conversion 22,001 _____ ____ 22,001
51,911 29,910 ___0 22,001
Total costs accounted for 2,033,334 727,810 651000 654524
COSTING SYSTEMS
Shs.728,000
73,000 Units
= Shs.9.97
Shs.651,000
70,000 Units
= Shs.9.30
Shs.654,500
71,400 Units
= Shs.9.167
2 9 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
SHRINKAGE
This refers to a loss or disappearance of material inputs used during the production process. It
occurs mainly through the evaporation. This is unlike spoilage in which the units are still existing
only that they will be of a lower value than the good units. Shrinking is common in chemical
mixtures, which produce or use liquid gases as material inputs. The problem associated with
shrinking is the reconciliation of the beginning and ending inventory. This problem is
resolved by expressing the various layers of production in terms of what its weights or volume
would be either at the beginning or end of the process.
>>> Illustration
Assume that a chemical company, which is processing one of its products through one of its
processes, must start with 100kg of a certain chemical for its 80kg of finished products. Assume
that all the chemical is added at the beginning of the process and 20% of the evaporation takes
place gradually through-out the process. The actual weights through measurement were as
follows:
Units
Beginning W.I.P Inventory (75%complete) 21,250kg
Units started 110,000kg
Finished Goods Transferred 80,000kg
Ending W.LP (25%) 33,250kg
Costs: Shs
Beginning W.I.P: 100,000
Current Conversion Costs: 252,000
Current Material Costs: 220,000
Prepare cost report:
(a) Using the FIFO method
(b) Using ending weight
(c) Using beginning weights
Solution
For beginning W.I.P: actual weight - 21250kg, only 20%x75%=15% evaporation will have
occurred. Therefore, beginning weight (without evaporation).
= 21,250 x 100
85
= 25,000kg
The 21,250kg of beginning WIP are equivalent to 85% of the input and 5% above the expected
output. The actual output expected is 80% of the input (units). However, the units are only 75%
295
S T U D Y T E X T
complete. Therefore, 20% evaporation on the 75% complete units in beginning inventory has
already occurred. The remaining 20% on the 25% to be processed is yet to evaporate.
Thus evaporation should be 25,000kg (75%complete) at 20% evaporation.
=25,000kg x 75% x 20% = 3,750 kg
For ending W.LP., we have 33,250kg actual weight (25% complete).
By 25% completion, 20% (25%) = 5% evaporation will have occurred. Therefore, the ending
Weight without evaporation = 33,250 x 100% = 35,000 kg
95%
Thus evaporation should be: 35,00kg (25% complete) at 20% evaporation.
Process cost report
FIFO Method:
Assuming beginning weights
Physical units Materials Conversion
Beginning WIP 25,000 0 0
Units started 110,000
Units to account for 135,000
Beginning WIP (to complete) 25,000 (25%) 6,250
Units Started & completed 75,000 75,000 75,000
Ending WIP 35,000 35,000 (25%) 8,750
135,000 110,000 90,000
Cost statement
Total cost Materials Conversion
Beginning WIP 100,000
Current costs 472,000 220,000 252,000
Costs to account for 572,000 220,000 252,000
Cost per equivalent unit 4.80 Shs2.00 Shs2.80
Cost assignment
Units started and completed 75,000 x shs4.80 360,000
Ending WIP
Materials 35,000 x Shs2.00 70,000
Conversion 8,750 x Shs2.80 24,500 94,500
Beginning WIP Process cost b/f 100,000
Conversion 6,250 x Shs.2.80 _17,500 117,500
Costs accounted for 572,000
Using ending weights
Start End
Beginning WIP 25,000 80% 20,000
Units Started 110,000 80% 88,000
Finished goods 100,000 80% 80,000
Closing WIP 35,000 80% 28,000
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 9 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Physical units Materials Conversion
Beginning WIP 21,250 x 80% 20,000
0.85
Units started (110,000 x 80%) 88,000
Units to account for 108,000
Finished goods 80,000 80,000 80,000
Ending WIP 28,000 28,000 (25% x 28,000) 7,000
108,000
Equivalent units 108,000 87,000
Less work done previously (75% of Beginning WIP) 20,000 15,000
88,000 72,000
Summary of costs
Total cost Materials Conversion
Beginning WIP 100,000
Current cost 472,000 220,000 252,000
572,000 220,000 252,000
Cost per equivalent unit Shs.220,000 Shs.252,000
88,000 72,000
= Shs.2.50 Shs.3.50
CASES OF ABNORMAL GAINS
In some instances, the actual output may be greater than expected or, put in other words, actual
loss less than normal or expected. In such circumstances, abnormal gains are considered to
have arisen.
The main objective of preparing the process account is to determine the cost per unit of expected
output (Normal output).
In a case where abnormal gains have no scrap value, (i.e. where if scrapped would not have a
value) the cost per expected output
= Input cost
Expected output
( (
297
S T U D Y T E X T
>>> Illustration
BNY produces and sells an insecticide X. The following data relates to process II for the period
just ended;
Units Shs
Beginning WIP 0 0
Transferred in from Process I 14,500 500,000
Additional Materials 5,000 100,000
Conversion Costs 200,000
Transferred to process III 9,900
Normal loss in process II is usually 5% of the input
Required:
(a) Determine the cost per unit of unit transferred to department III
(b) Prepare the process account as it would appear clearly showing the abnormal loss or
gain, if any
(c) Assuming that the spoilt units can be sold to a farmer at Shs.10 per unit, prepare the
process account as it would appear in the books of BNY
Solution
(a) Cost per unit of transferred units = Input cost = 800,000 = Shs.56.103
Expected output 95% x 15,000
(b)
Process 2 Account
Units Shs Units Shs
Transferred from Process I 10,000 500,000 Normal loss 750 0
Raw materials 5,000 100,000
Conversion cost 200,000 Units transferred out 14,500 814,035
Abnormal gain 250 14,035
814,035 814,035
(c) Assuming a scrap value of Shs10 per spoilt unit
Cost per unit of trasnfered units = Input cost - Scrap value of Normal loss
Expected output
= 800,000 - (10 x 5% x15,000)
95% x 15,000
= Shs.55.61404
COSTING SYSTEMS
2 9 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Process 2 Account
Units Shs Units Shs
Transferred from
Process I
10,000 500,000 Normal loss @ Shs10 750 7,500
Raw materials 5,000 100,000
Conversion cost 200,000
Units transferred out
@55.61404
14,500 806,404
Abnormal gain
@ 55.61404
250 13,904
813,904 813,904
ALLOCATION OF JOINT COSTS
When two or more products of relatively high value emerge simultaneously from a single process,
each of which has significant value relative to the others up to the point of separation, they are
called Joint products e.g. milk products and oil products. The process that gives rise to these
products is called a joint process and the costs involved are referred to as joint product costs.
Joint costs are production costs incurred by the firm when two or more outputs are jointly
produced. Joint costs and joint production can arise from either an interdependent production
process or the presence of allocatable fixed factors. Any costs beyond the split off point are
referred to as Separable costs. Examples include milk products (cheese, butter, fat free milk
e.t.c.) and oil products (gas, petrol, diesel, kerosene, paraffin and tar)
Problems in accounting for joint costs
Joint products are not separately identifiable as individual products until their split off point.
Split-off point is the point at which joint products become separate entities or are individually
identifiable.
Costs incurred prior to the separation or split off point are common costs thus the problems are:
(i) How common costs should be apportioned between products in order to value closing
stock and to cost the product cost for sale and determination of profits.
(ii) Whether it is more profitable to sell a joint product at one stage of processing or to
process the product further and sell it at a later stage.
To deal with the above problems, various methods are used to allocate the joint costs. Allocation
of joint costs involves assigning the costs of the joint process to the products emerging at the
split off point.
299
S T U D Y T E X T
Methods Used to Allocate Joint Costs
(a) Physical/Unit Measure
(b) Constant gross margin rate
(c) Net realizable value.
1) Physical Measure/Unit
Joint costs are allocated to the joint products based on their relative physical measure (such as
volume, weight, e.t.c.)
>>> Illustration
AMC plc incurred joint costs of Shs.2,400 in manufacturing Product A and Product B to the split-off
point; Product A weighed 700 kg and had a sales value at the split-off point of Shs1,800; Product
B weighed 300kg and had a sales value at the split-off point of Shs.1,200 Cost Allocation:
Required: Using the physical measure /unit approach, calculate the cost allocated to products A
and B. Prepare the income statement for the period
Product A = 700 / (700 + 300) x 2,400 1,680
Product B = 300 / 1,000 x 2,400 _720
2,400
Income Statement:
Product A Product B Total
Sales 1,800 1,200 3,000
Cost of Goods Sold (1,680) (720) (2,400)
Gross Margin __120 __480 __600
Gross Margin %:
Product A = 120 / 1,800 = 7%
Product B = 480 / 1,200 = 40%
Total = 600 / 3,000 = 20%
2) Constant Gross Margin Rate
This method assumes that each product contributes an equal percentage of gross profit for every
shilling of sales. It works back from gross margin to the joint costs allocation. Joint costs are
allocated to the joint products in a way that results in the same gross margin percentage for each
joint product. It involves the following steps:
COSTING SYSTEMS
3 0 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(i) Total Gross Margin Percentage--the gross margin percentage for all of the joint
products is computed by dividing the excess of the sales value of all the joint products
at the first point at which the products can be sold over the sum of the joint costs and
the processing costs that must be incurred after the split-off point up to the first point
at which the products can be sold by the sales value of all the joint products at the first
point at which the products can be sold
(ii) Cost of Goods Sold - the cost of goods sold for each joint product is computed by
multiplying the sales value for each joint product by one minus the total gross margin
percentage for all the joint products (1 – Margin).
(iii) Joint Cost Allocation - the joint costs allocated to each joint product is computed by
subtracting the processing costs incurred after the split-off point for each joint product
from its cost of goods sold
>>> Illustration
KY ltd incurred joint costs of Shs.2,400 in manufacturing Product A and Product B to the splitoff
point; Product A weighed 700kg and had a sales value of Shs3,600 after incurring additional
processing costs of Shs675; Product B weighed 300 kg and had a sales value of Shs1,400 after
incurring additional processing costs of Shs425
Constant Gross Margin Percentage:
Total Cost of Goods Sold = 2,400 + 675 + 425 = 3,500
Total sales = 3,600 + 1,400 = 5,000
Total Gross Margin = 5,000 – 3,500 = 1,500
Total Gross Margin Percentage = 1,500 = 30%
5,000
Cost of Goods Sold:
Product A = (1 – 30%) x 3,600 2,520
Product B = 70% x 1,400 980
Cost Allocation:
Product A = 2,520 - 675 1,845
Product B = 980 - 425 _555
2,400
Income Statement:
Product A Product B Total
Sales 3,600 1,400 5,000
Cost of Goods Sold 2,520 _980 3,500
Gross Margin 1,080 _420 1,500
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Gross Margin %:
Product A = 1,080 = 30%
3,600
Product B = 420 = 30%
1,400
Total (overall)= 1,500 = 30%
5,000
3) Net Realizable Value
If the sales value at the split-off point is known, joint costs are allocated to the joint products
based on their relative sales value at the split-off point
Net Realizable Value = Ultimate Sales Value - Separable Costs.
>>> Illustration
BM Corporation incurred joint costs of Shs2,400 in manufacturing Product A and Product B to the
split-off point; Product A weighed 700 kg and had a sales value at the split-off point of Shs.1,800;
Product B weighed 300kg and had a sales value at the split-off point of Shs.1,200.
Cost Allocation: Product A = 1,800 / (1,800 + 1,200) x 2,400 1,440
Product B = 1,200 / 3,000 x 2,400 _960
2,400
Income Statement:
Product A Product B Total
Sales 1,800 1,200 3,000
Cost of Goods Sold (1,440) _(960) (2,400)
Gross Margin __360 _240 _600
Gross Margin %:
Product A = 360 / 1,800 = 20%
Product B = 240 / 1,200 = 20%
Total = 600 / 3,000 = 20%
Suppose BM Corporation incurred additional processing costs of Shs.675 to process product A
and Shs.425 to process product B. What is the new cost allocation?
Net realizable value A = (Shs.1800 – 675) =Shs1,125
B = (Shs1,200 – 425) =Shs775
Cost allocation A Shs1,125/(1,125+775) x 2400 = Shs1,421
B Shs775/(1,125 + 775) x 2400 = Shs979
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S T U D Y T E X T
>>> Illustration on the three approaches
A company produces three products, Y1, Y2, and Y3 in the same process. The data below
reflects average monthly results:
Y1 Y2 Y3
Monthly output(kg) 40,000 20,000 20,000
Sales value at split off point (Shs) 0 30,000 105,000
Sales value after split off 45,000 100,000 155,000
Costs on further processing 20,000 40,000 65,00
The joint costs were Shs.100,000
Required
Allocate the joint cost using the three methods used to allocate joint costs.
Solution
(i) Physical/measurement/Unit method
Y1 Y2 Y3 Total
Physical output (kg) 40,000 20,000 20,000 80,000
Proportion 50% 25% 25% 100%
Joint costs allocated 50,000 25,000 25,000 100,000
(ii) Constant Gross Margin rate
Shs Shs
Total sales value at split off: Y1 45,000
Y2 100,000
Y3 155,000
300,000
Less: Total costs
Joint costs 100,000
Further processing costs:Y1 20,000
Y2 40,000
Y3 65,000 (225,000)
__75,000
Costs allocated to Y1 Y2 Y3 Total
Sales value 45,000 100,000 155,000
Less gross margin (11,250) (25,000) (38,750)
Total costs 33,750 75,000 116,250
Less separate costs (20,000) (40,000) (65,000)
Joint costs allocated 13,750 35,000 51,250
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(iii) Net realizable value method
Net realizable value = Ultimate sales value – Separable costs
Y1 Y2 Y3 Total
Ultimate sales value 45,000 100,000 155,000
Less separable costs (20,000) (40,000) (65,000)
Net realizable value 25,000 60,000 90,000 175,000
Proportion on net realizable value 14% 34% 52%
Allocation of joint cost 14,000 34,000 52,000 100,000
Importance of Unit cost
Companies need to allocate total product costs to units for the following reasons:
(i) The company may manufacture thousands or millions of units of products in a given
period of time
(ii) Products are manufactured in large quantities, but may be sold in small quantities
sometimes at one time or in dozens or bulk.
(iii) It is important to determine with accuracy the cost of goods sold as it is needed,
especially at the point of transfer from finished goods to cost of sales. This calls for
a correct and accurate accounting for product cost per unit in order to properly match
costs against related sales revenue. This also helps managers to maintain cost control
over the manufacturing process.
(iv) A small change in unit cost can represent a significant change in overall profitability,
when selling millions of units of a product. Managers thus need to keep track of per unit
cost on daily basis through the production process while at the same time dealing with
materials and output in large quantities
(v) Materials in the production process might need to be given a value, process costing
allows for this through the determination of equivalent units and cost per equivalent unit
of production.
By-product
This is an incidental or secondary product from a process, which has an insignificant value
compared to the main product.
Accounting for the by product
When the product has some commercial value, the accounting treatment of the income is as
follows:
COSTING SYSTEMS
3 0 4 COST ACCOUNTING
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(i) Income (less any separation cost) from the sale of the by-product may be added to the
sales of the main product thereby increasing the sales turnover for the period.
(ii) The sales income of the by product may be deducted from the cost of production or the
cost of sales of the main product
(iii) The sales of the by-product may be treated as a separate incidental source of income
against which are set only post separation costs (if any) of the by-product. The revenue
is then recorded in the income statement as other income.
(iv) The net realizable value (sales value less any further processing cost) of the product
may be deducted from the cost of the main product;
Examples of by-products; wax, hides, molasses, saw dust and coffee husks
UNIFORM COSTING
This is a common system using agreed concepts, principles and standard accounting practices
adopted by different entities in the same industry to ensure that they all deal with accounting
information in a similar manner so as to facilitate inter-firm comparison.
The objectives of uniform costing are:
(a) To promote uniformity of costing methods, so that valid costs comparisons can be made
between similar organizations.
(b) To eliminate inefficiencies and promote good practice revealed by the cost
comparison.
(c) Serve as a basis for government subsidies or grants which need similar costing systems
to ensure equitable distribution.
(d) Serve as a basis for competitive bidding.
Requirements of Uniform Costing
Uniform costing systems should have the following features:
(i) Cost statements and reports should be organized and laid out in a similar format so that
each element of cost and revenue can be compared quite easily.
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(ii) Accounting periods must be the same in all firms in the industry.
(iii) The methods of valuing stocks and work in progress must be the same.
(iv) The basis of valuing fixed assets must be the same.
(v) The method and actual rates of depreciation for each type of asset must be the same.
(vi) The basis of cost or overhead apportionment and absorption must be similar.
(vii) Cost classification systems must be the same in all the firms in the industry so that
similar items are classified in the same names.
Advantages of Uniform Costing
(a) It enables costs to be compared easily
(b) It makes it easier to computerize the accounting system of various organizations in the
industry.
(c) It leads to easier cost transferability between organizations.
Disadvantages
(a) It may not be appropriate or suitable to an individual organization in the industry if there
is a difference in size and structure.
(b) It is slow to adapt to changing conditions and demands.
Other Costing Methods
(a) Unit Costing
(b) Service Costing
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3 0 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
SERVICE COSTING
Service costing is no longer an elective pursuit, it is a compulsory exercise. It ensures that tariffs
represent prices for customers and competitors. Economic, accounting and engineering costs all
play a role in determining service costs. Engineering costs measure technological relationship
between inputs, outputs, Accounting costs record, analyze historic costs according to industry
rules, Economic costs apply the theories of resource allocation to forward looking costs
Examples of operating costs include repair and maintenance, labour, site rental, utilities, license,
regulatory fees and taxes and depreciation.
Service costing can use either of the methods highlighted below:
• Activity based costing; ABC assigns costs based on the activities required to deliver a
service and the resources these activities absorb. ABC might bring more transparency
in the calculation of transferred cost, making the current costing practice look redundant.
Nevertheless, ABC hides potential inefficiencies of the service provider. Even if an
element or asset is underutilized, its cost is completely shared by the services that use
it and there is no incentive for the provider to improve its efficiency
• Fully distributed cost; in here, the total cost of a service, both direct and indirect
costs, are distributed among the services sold. FDC comes from historic/embedded
cost. It relates prices to information available in accounting, billing systems. However,
it requires judgment in allocating indirect costs devising methodology.
• Long run average incremental cost (LRAIC): this constitutes cost of production of
an additional unit plus an allocated share of common costs. Forward-looking costs
are used to approximate costs in a competitive market, not historical costs which
typically reflect inefficiencies and investment in outdated technologies. LRAIC mimics
the competitive marketplace and encourages economic efficiencies. However, it is
difficult to calculate or model the incremental costs, lacks transparency and negotiation
skills and specialized expertise on inputs required. Additionally, an amalgamation of
embedded and forward looking costs, blended together and computed on an average
cost basis should not be called incremental cost.
• Marginal cost: this measures the change in total output resulting from a small change
in the level of activity. The marginal cost in this case is the cost of adding a service to
an existing portfolio of products or services.
Fully Distributed Cost (FDC) and Long Run Average Incremental Cost (LRAIC) are the common
ones in literature and in practice. FDC may be “easier” to calculate, but LRAIC promotes operator
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efficiency. Efforts should be made to encourage operators to use ABC especially in apportioning
the indirect costs. All cost regimes require policy decisions and negotiation. The goal is finding
costs that are just, reasonable, and practical to calculate and apply.
CHAPTER SUMMARY
In job costing, overheads are charged on the basis of a predetermined overhead absorption
rate.
Applied Overhead absorption rate = Budgeted Overheads
Machine hrs, direct labour hrs etc
Procedure in job costing are as follows
§ Allocation of batch number
§ Production order is made
§ Creation of batch costs account
§ Completion of the work and closure of the batch cost account
§ Allocation of costs to individual units in the batch
§ Determination of selling price/batch and unit.
Contracts may be distinguished from job orders by the following features:
§ The money value of a contract is much larger than that of a job order.
§ A contract consumes significantly larger amounts of resources than a job order.
§ For a contract, special progress reports are usually made while in job costing, reports
are made after the completion of the job.
§ For a contract, indirect costs are relatively smaller in relation to direct costs but the vice
versa is time for job order.
COSTING SYSTEMS
3 0 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Progress payments: these are interim payments made by the client to the contractor throughout
the course of the work.
Architects certificate: this is a certificate that provides confirmation that work done up to a
certain value has been completed
Retention money: this is a proportion of value of work certified withheld by the customer for a
specified period during which the customer must make good all contractual defects.
Cost of Work certified: this includes the portion of all total costs that relate to the work
certified
The Notional Profit: this is the difference between the value of work certified to date and cost of
work certified to date less a provision for any anticipated unforeseen eventualities.
Profit not taken: refers to the part of the notional profit that is not recognized in the current
period. It is profit carried forward to be recognized in the years that follow.
Principles of profit recognition under contracts
The concept of prudence should be applied when determining the profits or losses to be taken
up on accounts.
(i) If the contract is in its early stages, no profits should be taken until when the outcome
can be measured with reasonable certainty
(ii) Where a loss has occurred, it must be recognized in the period it has occurred regardless
of the stage of maturity of the project or the timing.
(iii) When substantial costs have been incurred on the contract but the contract is not near
completion, the notional profit is apportioned using the formula in order to determine the
notional profit taken.
Profit taken = Notional profit x 2 x Cash received
3 Work certified
(iv) When the contract is near completion the profit taken is calculated as:
Profit taken = Estimated profit x Cash received
Contract price
Where Estimated profit = Contract price – Estimated total cost and
Estimated total cost = Costs incurred to date + Estimated future
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Equivalent units :This is a notional quantity of completed goods in the production process
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Define equivalent units
2. Highlight the various methods of allocating joint costs
3. List two methods used in accounting for normal spoilage
4. How do you account for by products?
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3 1 0 COST ACCOUNTING
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ANSWERS TO CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Equivalent units is a notional quantity of completed goods in the production process
2. Methods of allocating joint costs
(a) Physical/Unit Measure
(b) Constant gross margin rate
(c) Net realizable value.
3. Two methods of accounting for normal spoilage
• Recognition and reassignment approach
• Omission approach
4. Accounting for the by product
• When the product has some commercial value, the accounting treatment of the income
is as follows:
• Income (less any separation cost) from the sale of the by-product may be added to the
sales of the main product thereby increasing the sales turnover for the period.
• The sales income of the by product may be deducted from the cost of production or the
cost of sales of the main product
• The sales of the by-product may be treated as a separate incidental source of income
against which are set only post separation costs (if any) of the by-product. The revenue
is then recorded in the income statement as other income.
• The net realizable value (sales value less any further processing cost) of the product
may be deducted from the cost of the main product;
PAST PAPER ANALYSIS
06/ 07 Q3; 12/06/ Q3; 12/05 Q5; 05/ 05 Q6; 11 04 Q5; 06/ 04 Q5; 06/ 04 Q6(a); 06/ 04 Q7(b);
12/03 Q4; 06/ 03 Q7; 12/02 Q2; 12/01 Q3; 05/ 01 Q1; 05/ 01 Q3; 05/ 01 Q4; 12/00 Q3; 06/ 00
Q3;
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EXAM QUESTIONS
Question one
Process ii Account
Mutha Ltd uses process costing and the FIFO method of valuation. The following information for
last month relates to Process II, where all the material is added at the beginning of the process:
Opening work-in-progress: 2,000kg (30% complete in respect of conversion costs) valued in
total at Shs24,600 (Shs16,500 for direct materials; Shs8,100 for
conversion).
Costs incurred:
Direct materials Shs99,600 for 12,500 kg of input
Conversion Shs155,250
Normal loss: 8% of input in the period. All losses, which are incurred evenly
throughout the process, can be sold for Shs3 per litre.
Actual output: 10,000 kg were transferred from Process G to the finished goods
warehouse.
Closing work-in-progress: 3,000 kg (45% complete in respect of conversion costs).
Required:
Prepare the Process II Account for last month in Shs and kg. (10 marks)
Question two
Timau Ltd produces a detergent which passes through two processes, namely, mixing and refining
to completion. The following data relate to the refining process for the month of June 2000.
Cost of opening stock: Shs.
Materials 100,000
Labour 25,000
Overheads 60,000
During the month, 20,000 units were passed from the mixing to the refining process. Costs
incurred during the month were:
Shs.
Labour 125,000
Overheads 108,100
Other materials 45,300
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At the end of the month 21,000 units had been completed and passed to finished goods while
4,000 were still in process having reached the following stages:
Materials 100%
Labour 40%
Overheads 60%
Required:
Refining Process Account. (14 marks)
Question three
With reference to accounting for overheads in the cost centers of an organization, explain the
relevance of Activity Based Costing (ABC) in allocating costs to products.
Question four
a) In your opinion, is it acceptable to declare profit on uncompleted contracts? Support
your opinion. (2 marks)
b) On May 2nd 2001, Mugoya Construction Company was contracted by Alliance Hotels to
construct a new accommodation unit at their Mombasa Beach Hotel at a total contract
price of Shs. 950,000,000 .
Work commenced on the contract on 28th July 2001. Retention money was agreed at 10% of the
work certified. At the end of the first year, no profit was declared as the contract was considered
to be in its infancy.
The following information relates to the contract for the year ended 31st December 2002:
Shs. ‘000
Balance brought forward on 1st January 2002:
Materials on site: 4,500
Plant (cost): 150,000
Cost of work done: 158,200
Work certified to 31st December 2001 160,000
Transaction during the year:
Material delivered to site: from stores 14,600
From other suppliers 128,400
Additional Plant (cost) 120,000
Subcontractors’ fees 18,450
Consultancy fees 49,130
Inspection fees 500
Salaries and Wages 160,000
Head Office expenses 1,200
Materials transferred out 15,000
Materials sold (cost 19,800) 22 22
Plant hiring charges 250
Direct Expenses 2,600
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Additional Information:
i) The company policy is to take the current year’s profit and loss account the whole of the
profit realized.
ii) Plant is depreciated at 12% per annum on cost. It is a practice of the company
accountants to reflect only the plant values changed and carried forward in the contract
account.
iii) Alliance Hotels had paid Shs580 million to Mugoya Construction Company by 31st
December 2002.
iv) The work certified in the year 2002 was for Shs.660 million.
v) These was work done in the year but not yet certified costing Shs.42,000.
vi) At the year ended, accrued wages were for Shs.1.550 million while the balances of
materials on the site were valued at Shs.51 million.
REQUIRED:
i) Contract Account for the year to 31st December 2002, showing clearly the profits or
losses on the contract for the work done to date. (10 marks)
ii) Valuation of the work in progress (4 marks)
iii) The contractee’s account, (4 marks)
Question five
In a joint product situation, explain the following:
i) Reasons why it is important to allocate joint cost to products. (4 marks)
ii) Any four methods of allocating joint cost to products. (8 marks)
iii) What factors should be considered in selecting the most appropriate method of allocating
joint costs?
(Cpa 11/02)
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3 1 4 COST ACCOUNTING
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CASE STUDY
This case study describes a simple mass balance that leads to an initial scrap cost estimation.
An automobile manufacturer makes the plastic interiors of cars in an injection molding facility.
In one year the facility buys 21,600,000 pounds of polycarbonate plastic for $1.39 per pound.
The polycarbonate is molded into: 1,360,000 mainframe parts totaling 18,300,000 pounds and
1,360,000 add-on parts totaling 2,720,000 pounds. The balance of the polycarbonate is scrap.
Questions:
a) Approximately how much material is scrapped?
b) What percent of the total purchased plastic does this represent?
c) What is the cost of scrap?
Answers:
a) Pounds of Scrap: 21,600,000 – 18,300,000 – 2,720,000 = 580,000lbs
b) Percent Scrap: 580,000/21,600,000 = 3%
c) 580,000 lbs * $1.39/lb ~ $806,000
CASE STUDY
This case study describes a simple mass balance that leads to an initial scrap cost
estimation
An automobile manufacturer makes the plastic interiors of cars in an injection molding
facility. In one year the facility buys 21,600,000 pounds of polycarbonate plastic for
$1.39 per pound. The polycarbonate is molded into: 1,360,000 mainframe parts totaling
18,300,000 pounds and 1,360,000 add-on parts totaling 2,720,000 pounds. The balance
of the polycarbonate is scrap.
Questions:
a) Approximately how much material is scrapped?
b) What percent of the total purchased plastic does this represent?
c) What is the cost of scrap?
Answers:
a) Pounds of Scrap: 21,600,000 – 18,300,000 – 2,720,000 = 580,000lbs
b) Percent Scrap: 580,000/21,600,000 = 3%
c) 580,000 lbs * $1.39/lb ~ $806,000
Plastic in Add-on parts
Mainframe parts
Scrap
Molding
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CHAPTER TEN
BUDGETING AND
BUDGETARY CONTROL
S TSUTDUYD YT ETXETX T
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CHAPTER TEN
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
OBJECTIVES
By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:
• Define budgets and explain the nature and purpose of budgets and explain the objectives
of budgeting.
• Explain the administration of budgets and organization of budgetary control
• Prepare the various types of budgets and distinguish production budgets from nonproduction
budgets.
• Explain the behavioral aspects of budgeting.
• Distinguish fixed budgets from flexible budgets. Outline the advantages and
disadvantages of both.
• Understand the various bases of budgeting.
INTRODUCTION
This lesson explores Budgetary Planning and Control Techniques looking at the purpose,
preparation, application and interpretation of budgets as well as their behavioral aspects.
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
A budget is a detailed plan outlining the acquisition and use of financial and other resources over
some period of time in the future.
A budget center is a section of the organization created for the purpose of budgetary control.
Budget bias (budgetary slack) occurs when managers aim to give themselves easier budget
targets by understating budgeted sales revenue or overstating budgeted costs.
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S T U D Y T E X T
Flexible budget is a budget that is designed to change in accordance with the level of activity
attained.
Fixed budget is a budget prepared for a specific level of output.
A budget manual is a document, which sets out the responsibilities of the persons engaged in
the routine of, and the forms and records required for budgeting control.
Master budget is the overall quantifications of the budgeting plan.
Exam context
The examiner may set discussion questions, calculation questions or both. The need to understand
the relationship between the various budgets is crucial. Additionally, the examiner may set a
question examining on standard costing, budgeting and variance analysis. This calls for the need
to understand the interrelationships between the various topics.
Industry context
Budgeting is applicable in every organization as it is through budgetary planning and control that
organizations strive to achieve their standards. More so, budgeting relies heavily on standards,
which is the key to variance analysis.
NATURE AND PURPOSES OF BUDGETS
Fast forward:
Budgets are used as a forecast and also as a control tool to evaluate performance. They are
prepared for reasons such as coordination, communication, control and evaluation. The process
of budget preparation is procedural.
Budgeting refers to the process of quantifying the plans of an organization so as to enable it to
achieve its objectives in the defined period. The result of the process is budgets, which are used
for cost control, performance evaluation and future decision-making.
A budget is a detailed plan outlining the acquisition and use of financial and other resources
over some period of time in the future. Budgets may be prepared for departments, functions or
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financial and resource items. In fact, some people refer to budgeting as a means of coordinating
the combined intelligence of the entire organization into a plan of action.
Budgetary Planning and Control may be seen as short-term quantification and monitoring of
long-term strategic plans of the organizations. Strategic planning involves preparation of strategic
plans, which define the objectives to be pursued within the framework of corporate policy. It is by
budgeting that a long-term corporate plan is put into action.
Objectives of budgetary planning
1. Coordination
The budgetary process requires that visible detailed budgets are developed to cover each
activity, department or function in the organization. This is only possible when the effort of one
department’s budget is related to the budget of another department. In this way, coordination of
activities, function and department is achieved.
2. Communication
The full budgeting process involves liaison and discussion among all levels of management. Both
vertical and horizontal communication is necessary to ensure proper coordination of activities.
The budget itself may also act as a tool of communication of what is expected of the departments
and managers. High standards set calls for hard work and more input in terms of labour, time and
other resources.
3. Control
This is the process for comparing actual results with the budgeted results and reporting upon
variances. Budgets set a control gauge, which assists to accomplish the plans set within agreed
expenditure limits. The approach followed in the control process has five basic steps:
(i) Preparation of budgets based on the predetermined data on performance and prices.
(ii) Measurement of actual performance and recording the data.
(iii) Comparing the budget with the actual performance and recording the difference.
(iv) Ascertaining reasons for the differences through, including others, variance analysis.
(v) Taking corrective actions through administering of proper strategies and measures.
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4. Motivation
Budgets may be seen as a bargaining process in which managers compete with each other for
scarce resources. Budgets set targets, which have to be achieved. Where budgetary targets are
tightly set, some individuals will be positively motivated towards achieving them. Involvement of
managers in the preparation of budgets motivates them towards achieving the goals they have
set themselves. However, imposing budgets on managers will be discouraging as they may
perceive the targets as unattainable.
5. Clarification of Responsibility and Authority
Budgetary process necessitates the organization of a business into responsibility and budget
centers with clear lines of responsibilities of each manager. This reduces duplication of efforts.
Each manager manages those items directly under his or her control. To facilitate effective
responsibility accounting, authority and responsibility relationship must be balanced.
6. Planning
It is by Budgetary Planning that long-term plans are put into action. Planning involves determination
of objectives to be attained at a future predetermined time. When monetary values are attached
to plans they become budgets. Good planning without effective control is time wasted. Unless
plans are laid down in advance, there are no objectives towards which control can be affected.
Steps followed in the planning process
1. Identify the objectives
The formulators and implementers of the budget need to understand what the organization
is aiming to achieve. This is the first step towards effective budgetary planning and
control. Without identifying the objectives, optimal allocation of organizational resources
will not be achieved.
2. Identifying the alternative strategies available
In here, a range of possible courses of action, which might enable the company achieve
its aimed objectives are identified. Such courses of action are arrived at after carrying
out a SWOT analysis meant to determine the company’s financial and other positions.
SWOT analysis involves the understanding of the company’s strengths and weaknesses
and possible opportunities and threats. Strengths and weaknesses are from within the
organization while opportunities and threats are from without the organization.
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3. Evaluation of strategies available
In here, the options available are narrowed down for a detailed evaluation. There are
various basis of evaluating the alternative courses of action. The course of action
selected should be acceptable in terms of risk and profitability; feasible in that it can
be funded with resources available and should be the most suitable for the problem/
opportunity at hand and aimed at achieving the company’s objectives.
4. Selection of the best course of action
Among the courses of action evaluated above, the one that had the greatest potential
for achieving the company’s objectives is selected.
5. Implementation of the selected course of action
In here, the selected course of action is put in place. Budgets clearly indicate what is
expected to be achieved in the period they cover. They are developed within the context
of ongoing business and ruled by previous decisions in the planning process. They are
based on highly reviewed and revised proposals based on the information available
thus considered as an integral part of the planning process.
6. Control
The control process involves monitoring of actual outcomes and responding to any
diversion of actual from planned or budgeted outcome.
Stages in the budgeting process
(i) Communicating details of the budget policy and guidelines to people responsible
for preparation of budgets. Policies to be communicated will include changes in the
sales mix, expansion or contraction of the organization’s activities, while important
guidelines in budget preparation will include allowances to be made for salary and
wages increment, expected changes in productivity, expected changes in industry
demand and output. It is essential to communicate policies of top management to all
managers on order to establish common guidelines to implement the long-term plan in
the current year’s budget.
(ii) Determining the limiting factor. Limiting factor is that factor in an organization, which
restricts performance in a given period. It may be the production capacity or sales
demand. The limiting factor gives the starting point of the budgeting process.
(iii) Preparation of the sales budget; this is the most difficult to plan as it is very much
influenced by external factors, which are beyond management’s control. Such factors
include customers’ tastes and preferences, state of the economy, competition and
availability of substitutes to the company’s product in the market. The sales budget is
most important when sales demand is the limiting factor as all other budgets will be
based on it.
(iv) Initial preparation of other budgets. Budgets for other areas of the organization are
prepared at this stage. Each manager prepares a budget for his responsibility center,
which in turn are refined and coordinated at higher levels of management.
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 2 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Involving managers in the budgeting process motivates them as they strive to achieve
what they set for themselves. It also increases the probability that they’ll accept the
budget. The managers use historical data to prepare budgets for their sections. However,
such data must be adjusted for changes expected to occur in the future in order to be
meaningful.
(v) Negotiation of budgets: at this level, the lower level managers submit the budgets
they have prepared to their superiors for approval. Each superior then incorporates
the budgets for his responsibility centers in which he will be in charge and forwards it
for approval to his senior. The budgets are consolidated starting at the lowest level of
management towards the highest. At each stage the new budget (consolidated one)
will be negotiated between the budgetees and (persons consolidating the budgets) and
their superiors.
Negotiation is of vital importance in the budgeting process and can be used to determine
whether the budget is serving as an effective management tool or just as a clerical
device. Managers must establish trust and confidence with their subordinates for
negotiation to produce a meaningful improvement.
(vi) Coordination and review of the budget. At this stage, various budgets are modified
in order to strike a balance among all the budgets and ensure compatibility. This takes
place as negotiation moves up the organizational hierarchy. Any modifications of the
budgets should be made by relevant managers and may require that the budgeting
process be started all over again. This can be done as many times as possible until all
the budgets are coordinated and accepted by all. Budgeted financial statements are
prepared at this level to ensure that all the parts combine to produce an acceptable
whole.
(vii) Final acceptance of the budget: at this stage, all the budgets, which are in harmony with
each other, are consolidated into a master budget. In addition, the financial statements
prepared are included. Upon approval of the master budget, various departmental
budgets are forwarded to the managers of those departments. Those budgets act as
authority to carry out the plans contained therein.
(viii) Budget review; this is a control process meant to check on adherence of the various
responsibility centers to the budgets. In here, periodic comparison of actual and budgeted
results is done and a report prepared, which is forwarded to the appropriate budgetees
early enough to have a maximum motivational impact. In case of any deviation of actual
from budgeted calls for investigations, management should take corrective action for
the differences that are within their control in order to avoid similar inefficiencies in the
future.
Limitations of Budgeting
§ Budgets are based on estimates: they are based on forecasts and forecasting is not
accurate. The strength or weaknesses of the budgetary control system depends to a
large extent on the accuracy at which estimates are made. Thus when using the system,
the fact that the budget is based on estimates must be taken into consideration
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S T U D Y T E X T
§ Danger of rigidity: a budget program must be dynamic and continuously adjusted to
changing business environments. Budgets lose much of their usefulness if they acquire
rigidity and are not revised with the changing circumstances in the environment.
§ Budgeting is only a tool of management: budgeting cannot take the place of
management. It is only a tool of management. Execution of a budget will not occur
automatically. It is necessary that the entire organization participate in the program in
order to realize the budgeting goals.
§ It is an expensive technique: the installation and operation of a budget control system
is costly as it requires the employment of specialized staff and involves other expenses.
Note that it is essential that the cost of introducing and operating a budgetary control
system should not exceed the benefits derived from running it.
§ Difficult to set levels of attainment: high levels of attainment may result into too tight
budgets that cause loss of morale. In addition, antagonism may arise where budgets
exert undue pressure.
§ Budgeting control is a terminate exercise and, therefore, variances may be of little use
to the current operations.
ORGANIZATION OF BUDGETARY CONTROL
Budgetary control ideally involves the following steps:
1. The creation of budget centers
A budget center is a section of the organization created for the purpose of budgetary
control. Budget centers must be clearly defined because a separate budget has to be
set for each center.
2. The introduction of adequate accounting records
The accounting system should be designed in such a way that it is able to record and
analyze the information required. The budget procedures must also employ the same
classification of revenue and expenses as the accounting department for comparison
purposes.
3. The preparation of organization charts.
They define the hierarchy and responsibilities of officers of the company. This is helpful
in identifying the officers to include in the budget committee.
4. The establishment of a budget committee: It will consist of operating and financial
managers, who will be required to review, discuss and co-ordinate business activities.
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 2 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Its major task is to ensure that budgets are realistically established and are well
coordinated.
The main functions of this committee involve:
§ To issue instructions to departments regarding budget requirements, deadline dates for
the receipt of budgets, e.t.c.
§ Draw up the budget preparation timetable. It takes the form of network analysis whereby
some activities are preceded by some others.
§ To define the general policies of management in relation to the budget.
§ Checking initial draft and problems considered. Limiting factors are usually
considered.
§ Ensuring that the budgets are synchronized within the boundaries of available
resources.
§ To analyze comparison of budgets and actual results and to recommend corrective
action where necessary.
§ Review of budgets.
§ Prepare the master budget after functional budgets have been prepared.
§ The preparation of a budget manual.
Budget manual
A budget manual contains the purpose of, procedure for and responsibility of the people involved
in budgeting. It is a statement of budget policies and lays down the details of the organizational
set up with duties and responsibilities of the executives including the budget committee and the
budget director and the procedure and programmes to be followed for developing budgets for
various activities.
The contents of the budget manual are:
i. Description of the budget system and its objectives
ii. Procedures and forms to be used by budget committee and the director
iii. The responsibilities of operating executives, budget committee and the director
iv. The budget calendar specifying special dates for the completion of each part of the
budget submission of the reports
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S T U D Y T E X T
v. Method of accounting and the accounts code in use
vi. Procedure to be adopted in operating the system
vii. The follow-up activities
Budget bias
Budget bias (budgetary slack) occurs when managers aim to give themselves easier budget
targets by understating budgeted sales revenue or overstating budgeted costs.
Cost control using budgets is achieved by comparing actual costs for a budget period with
budgeted or planned costs. Significant differences between planned and actual costs can then
be investigated and corrective action taken where appropriate.
Budget bias will lead to more favorable results when actual and budgeted costs are compared.
Corrective action may not be taken in cases where costs could have been reduced and in
consequence inefficiency will be perpetuated and overall profitability reduced.
Managers may incur unnecessary expenditure in order to protect existing budget bias with the
aim of making their jobs easier in future periods, since if the bias were detected and removed,
future budget targets would be more difficult to achieve. Unnecessary costs will reduce the
effectiveness of cost control in supporting the achievement of financial objectives such as value
for money or profitability.
Where budget bias exists, managers will be less motivated to look for ways of reducing costs and
inefficiency in those parts of the organization for which they bear responsibility. The organization’s
costs will consequently be higher than necessary for the level of performance being budgeted
for.
The Master Budget Framework and the Various Types of Budgets
The Master budget is the overall quantifications of the budgeting plan. In it, functional budgets
are incorporated. A functional budget is a budget of income and/or expenditure for a particular
function. The master budget therefore combines all the budgets of the various departments in
an organization. It is useful in ensuring that all the individual budgets are consistent with one
another and also presents a ‘unit’ picture of the entire organization.
All these budgets translate into the projected profit and loss a/ c and the budgeted Balance
Sheet. The relationship between all these budgets is summarized in the next page.
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 2 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Production budgets
Sales budget: this is a detailed schedule showing the expected sales in the period to come. It
essentially forecasts what the company can reasonably expect to sell to the customer during the
budget period. It is expressed in both units and shillings. The sales budget is the key to the entire
budgeting process thus must be prepared accurately. It is key in the sense that all the constituent
parts of the master budget are dependent on the sales budget. For instance, the production
estimate for the period will be based on the demand in the market and the stocks available. If the
sales forecast is not correct, then the production estimate for the period under consideration will
not be correct.
Various factors are normally considered in coming up with the sales forecast and sales budget.
They include the actual sales in the previous periods, reports from salesmen, market research
information and level of orders obtained in advance, among others.
Format
Item Quantity (Units) Revenue (Shs)
A xx xx
B xx xx
C xx xx
Total xx xx
Production budget: it summarizes the production requirements for the forthcoming period to
match the forecasted sales above. Budgeting of ending inventory is crucial as it ensures that
economic stock levels are maintained i.e. no excess stocks are carried thus minimizing on holding
costs and avoiding tying of capital and that there is adequate level inventory in to avoid shortage
costs and unnecessary ordering costs. The production budget is expressed as units of each type
of product. Various factors considered while preparing the production budget include available
production capacity, the sales forecast, finished goods stock level policy, among others.
The cycle for the preparation of the production budget usually is determined by the budget
committee. It follows the following steps:
§ Determine the production capacity available.
§ Consider the possible ways in which the available production capacity may be expanded
if required.
§ Linkage of production capacity available to the stock level
§ Determine the detailed budgets within the production budget.
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S T U D Y T E X T
The general format of the production budget is as follows:
A (Units) B (Units) C (Units)
Required ending stock xx xx xx
Add: Sales during the year xx xx xx
Total requirement xx xx xx
Less: Estimated opening Stock xx xx xx
Production requirement (units) xx xx xx
Direct Materials budget: this shows the estimated quantities and costs of all the raw materials
and components needed for the output demand by the production budget. Sufficient raw materials
must be available to meet the production process and, in addition, provide ending raw materials
working inventory for the period under consideration. Direct raw materials budget is expressed
in units. It consists of
§ Direct Materials Usage Budget: it shows the estimated quantities of materials required
for budgeted production.
Format
Product
units of
product
Units of X
req. Per unit
of product
Material
X
(Total
Units)
Units of
Y req. Per
unit of
product
Material
Y
(Total
Units)
A xx k xx k Xx
B xx k xx k xx
C xx k xx k xx
Total direct materials xx xx
§ Direct Materials Purchases Budget: It ensures that materials are within the planned
materials stock levels i.e. after considering both usage and material stocks required.
Format
Material
X
Units
Material Y
Units
Required ending Inventory xx Xx
Add: Current usage xx Xx
Total material requirement xx Xx
Less: Opening Stock xx xx
Materials to be purchased (Units) xx xx
Cost per unit Shs.Y Shs.Y
Material purchase budget (Shs) xx xx
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 2 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Total purchases budget shall be equal to the summation of the totals for each material. In our
case above, the total material budget shall be cost of material X and material Y.
Direct Labour budget: this is crucial as it forecasts the number of labour hours required and
thus helps the company to know whether sufficient labour time is available to meet production
needs in the budget period. It is based on production budget estimate. This budget helps the
company know whether it will need additional labour force in the future and how much it will incur
as labour costs.
Format
Product Units
Hrs req. per
unit
Total No. of
hours
A xx k xx
B xx k xx
C xx k xx
Total No. of hrs xx
Standard wage per hr ShsY
Direct labour cost budget (Shs) xx
The budgeted direct labour cost is therefore determined by multiplying direct labour hours with
the wage rates for every category of labour.
Factory Overhead Budget:
This budget presents the forecasts of all the production, fixed, variable and semi-variable
overheads to be incurred during the budget period. i.e. gives a summary of all costs other than
direct costs.
Format
Department A Department B
Budgeted overheads (Excluding depreciation) xx xx
Add: Depreciation
Existing plant xx xx
New Plant (apportioned per period) xx xx
Total budgeted overheads (a) xx xx
Absorption base (b) b b
Overhead absorption rate (a)/(b) Shsx Shsx
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S T U D Y T E X T
The summation of budgeted costs of production for the budget period makes up Production Cost
Budget. It includes:
§ Budgeted Materials Cost
§ Budgeted Labour Cost
§ Budgeted Overhead Cost
Non-Production Budgets
Selling and Distribution Cost Budget: It is the forecast of all costs incurred in selling and
distributing the company’s product during the budget period. It is closely concerned with the
sales budget in that it is mainly based on the volume of sales projected for the period. Expenses
included are selling office costs, salesmen salaries and commission, advertising expenses,
e.t.c.
Administration Costs Budget: It represents the costs of all administration expenses.
Each department or budget centre will be responsible for the preparation of its own budget.
Management, Secretarial, Accounting and Administration costs, which cannot be directly related
to the production are included here. The budget will be mainly incremental i.e. previous year’s
figure will tend to apply for its next budget with an allowance for inflation.
Research and Development Cost Budget: These are costs, which are discretional in nature
i.e. they are determined on need basis by the managers concerned. Research cost is the cost
of original investigation undertaken in order to gain new scientific or technical knowledge and
directed towards a specific practical aim objective.
Development cost is the cost of using scientific or technical knowledge in order to produce new
or substantially improved materials, devices, products, processes systems or services prior to
the commencement of commercial production.
Capital Expenditure Budget: It represents the expenditure on all fixed assets during the
budget period. Addition intended to benefit future accounting periods, or expenditure which
increases the production capacity, efficiency lifespan or economy of existing fixed assets are
also incorporated.
Cash Budget; It records the cash inflows and outflows, which are expected to take place in
respect of each functional budget. It may be prepared for a period span of one week, month or
quarter of the budget period. It has the following benefits/advantages:
§ It ensures that sufficient cash is available when required.
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 3 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
§ It shows whether capital expenditure projects can be financed internally.
§ It indicates the cash needed for current operating activities.
§ It indicates the effect the position of each seasonal requirements, large stocks, unusual
receipts and laxity in collecting account receivable.
§ It indicates the availability of cash for taking advantage of discounts.
§ It reveals the availability of excess cash so that short-term investments may be
considered.
§ It serves as a basis for evaluating the actual cash management performance of
responsible managers.
>>> Illustration of a cash budget
The management of Beck plc have been informed that the union representing the direct production
workers at one of their factories, where a standard product is produced, intends to call a strike.
The accountant has been asked to advise the management of the effect the strike will have on
cash flow.
The following data has been made available:
Week 1 Week 2 Week 3
Budgeted sales 400 units 500 units 400 units
Budgeted production 600 units 400 units Nil
The strike will commence at the beginning of week 3 and it should be assumed that it will continue
for at least four weeks. Sales at 400 units per week will continue to be made during the period of
the strike until stocks of finished goods are exhausted. Production will stop at the end of week 2.
The current stock level of finished goods is 600 units. Stocks of work in progress are not carried.
The selling price of the product of Shs60 and the budgeted manufacturing cost is made up as
follows:
Shs
Direct materials 15
Direct wages 7
Variable overheads 8
Fixed overheads 18
Direct wages are regarded as a variable cost. The company operates a full absorption costing
system and the fixed overhead absorption rate is based upon a budgeted fixed overhead of
Shs9000 per week. Included in the total overheads is Shs.700 per week for depreciation of
equipment. During the period of the strike, direct wages and variable overheads would not be
incurred and the cash expended on fixed overheads would be reduced by Shs1500 per week.
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S T U D Y T E X T
The current stock of raw materials are worth Shs7500; it is intended that these stocks should
increase to Shs11000 by the end of week 1 and then remain at this level during the period of
the strike. All direct materials are paid for one week after they have been received. Direct wages
are paid one week in arrears. It should be assumed that all relevant overheads are paid for
immediately the expense is incurred. All sales are on credit, 70% of the sales value is received
in cash from the debtors at the end of the first week after the sales have been made and the
balance at the end of the second week.
The current amount outstanding to material suppliers is Shs.8000 and direct wage accruals
amount to Shs.3200. Both of these will be paid for in week 1. The Current balance owing from
debtors is Sh.s31200, of which Shs.24000 will be received during week 1 and the remainder
during week 2. The current balance of cash in hand and at bank is Shs.1000.
Required:
Prepare a cash budget for weeks 1 to 6 showing the balance of cash at the end of each week,
together with a suitable analysis of the receipts and payments during the week
Comment upon any matters arising from the cash budget, which you consider should be brought
to the management’s attention
(Management and Cost accounting, Colin Drury)
Solution
Cash budget for weeks 1 to 6
Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6
Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs
Payments from debtors 24,000 24000 28200 25800 19800 5400
Payments
To material suppliers 8000 12500 6000 nil nil nil
To direct workers 3200 4200 2800 nil nil nil
For variable overheads 4800 3200 nil nil nil nil
For fixed overheads 8300 8300 6800 6800 6800 6800
Total payments 24300 28200 15600 6800 6800 6800
Net movement (300) (4200) 12600 19000 13000 (1400)
Opening balance week 1 1000 700 (3500) 9100 28100 41100
Closing balance 700 (3500) 9100 28100 41100 39700
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 3 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Workings
Collection from debtors
Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6
Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs Shs
Units sold 400 500 400 300 0 0
Sales (@Shs60) 24000 30000 24000 18000 0 0
Cash received (70%) 16800 21000 16800 12600 0
(30%) 7200 9000 7200 5400
Given 24000 7200
Total receipts 24000 24000 28200 25800 19800 5400
Payments to creditors
Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6
Shs. Shs. Shs. Shs. Shs. Shs.
Materials consumed at Shs15 9000 6000
Increase in stocks _3500 ___0
Materials purchased 12500 6000
Payment to suppliers 8000 12500 6000 nil nil nil
Wages
Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6
Shs. Shs. Shs. Shs. Shs. Shs.
Wages consumed at Shs7 4200 2800 nil nil nil nil
Wages paid 3200 4200 2800 0 0 0
Comment:
(i) Finance will be required to meet the deficit in week 2, but a lowering of the budgeted
material stocks at the end of week 1 would reduce the amount of cash to be borrowed
at the end of week 2.
(ii) The surplus cash at the end of week 2 should be invested on a short-term basis.
(iii) After week 6, there will be no cash receipts but cash outflows will be Shs.6800 per
week. The closing balance of Shs.39700 at the end of week 6 will be sufficient to
finance outflows for a further 5 or 6 weeks.
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S T U D Y T E X T
OTHER TYPES OF BUDGETS
Annual budgets: this is a budget covering a period of 12 months. Under this approach, planning
horizon decreases as the year progresses.
Continuous budgets: this budget covers a period of 12 months but constantly adds a new
month on the end as the current month is completed. It keeps the management planning and
thinking 12 months ahead and thus stabilizing the planning horizon.
>>> Illustration
Venus Plc produces two products N and A. the budget for next year to 31 Dec xx is to be
prepared. Expectations for the forthcoming year include:
Venus Plc
Balance sheet as at 1 Jan xx
Fixed assets Shs Shs Shs
Land and buildings 45,000
Plant and equipment (NBV) 112,000
157,000
Current assets 7,650
Raw materials 23,615
Finished goods 19,500
Debtors 4,300
Cash 55,065
Current liabilities
Creditors 6,800
Taxation 24,500 31,300 23,765
180,765
Financed by
150,000 ordinary shares of Shs.1 each 150,000
Retained profits _30,765
180,765
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 3 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Finished products
The sales director has estimated the following
N A
Demand for Company’s products 4500 4000
Expected selling price per unit Shs.32 Shs.44
Closing stock @ 31 March 2008 is required to be 400 units 1200 units
Opening stock at 01 April 2007 900 units 200 units
Unit cost of this opening stock will be Shs.20 Shs.28
The amount of plant capacity required for each product is;
Machining: 15 min 24 min
Assembling 12 min 18 min
The raw materials content per unit is
Material A 1.5 kg 0.5 kg
Material B 2.0 kg 4.0 kg
Direct labour hours required per unit of each product is 6 hrs 9 hrs
Finished goods are valued at FIFO basis at full factory cost
Raw materials Material X Material Y
Closing stock requirements kilos at 31 March 2008 600 1000
Opening stock at 1 April 2007 kilos 1100 6000
Budgeted cost of raw materials per kilo Shs1.50 Shs1.00
Actual cost per kilo of opening stocks are as budgeted cost for the incoming year
Direct labour
The standard wage rate of direct labour id Shs1.60 per hr
Factory overhead
Factory overhead is absorbed on the basis of machining hours with separate absorption rates
for each department.
The following are expected overheads in the production cost center budgets
Machining deport Assembly deport
Shs Shs
Supervisors salary 10,000 9,150
Power 2,400 2,000
Maintenance and running costs 2,100 2,000
Consumables 3,400 500
General expenses 19,600 5,000
39,500 18,650
Depreciation is taken at 5% straight-line on plant and machinery equipment. A machine costing
the company Shs20,000 is due to be installed on 1 October 2007 in the machining department,
which already has machinery installed to the value of Shs.l00,000 at cost.
Selling and distribution expenses Shs
Sales commission and salaries 14,300
Traveling distribution 3,500
Office salaries 10,100
General administration expenses _2,500
30,400
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S T U D Y T E X T
There is no opening or closing work in progress and inflation should be ignored.
Required
Prepare the following budgets for the year ended 31 March 2008 for Venus PLC.
(i) Sales budget
(ii) Production budget (units)
(iii) Plant utilization budget
(iv) Direct materials utilization budget
(v) Direct labour budget
(vi) Factory overhead budget
(vii) Direct materials purchases budget
(viii) Cost of goods sold budget
(ix) Budgeted profit and loss account
Solution
Venus Plc
(i) Sales Budget
Quantity Revenue
N 4,500 144,000
A 4,000 176000
Total 320,000
(ii) Production Budget (units)
N (Units) A (Units)
Required ending stock 400 1,200
Add: Sales during the year 4,500 4,000
Total requirement 4,900 5,200
Less: Estimated opening Stock (900) (200)
Production requirement (units) 4000 5,000
(iii) Plant utilization budget
Machinery Assembly
N*3 1000 hrs 800 hrs
A*4 2,000hrs 1,500hrs
Total Plant utilization 3,000 hrs 2,300hrs
*3 4000 x 15/60 = 1000 4000 x 12/60 = 800
*4 5000 x 24/60 = 2000 500 x 18/60 = 1,500
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 3 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(iv) Direct materials usage budget
Product
Units of
product
Units of X req.
Per unit of
product
Material X
(Total Units)
Units of Y req.
Per unit of
product
Material Y
(Total Units)
N 4,000 1.50 6,000 2.0 8,000
A 5,000 0.50 2,500 4.0 20,000
Totals 8,500 28,000
(v) Direct materials Purchases Budget
Material X Units Material Y Units
Required ending inventory 600 1,000
Add: Current usage 8,500 28,000
Total material requirement 9,100 29,000
Less: Opening Stock (1,100) (6,000)
Materials to be purchased (Units) 8,000 23,000
Cost per unit Shs.1.50 Shs.1.00
Material purchase budget (Shs) 12,000 23,000
Total Materials purchases Budget Shs.35,000
(vi) Direct labour budget
Product Units Hrs req. per unit Total No. of hours
A 4,000 6 24,000
B 5,000 9 45,000
Total No. of hrs 69,000
Standard wage per hr Shs1.60
Direct labour cost budget (Shs) 110,400
(vii) Factory overhead budget
Machining Assembly
Budgeted overheads (Excluding depreciation) 39,500 18,650
Add: depreciation
Existing plant*5 5,000 4,350
New Plant (apportioned per period) *6 500 0
Total budgeted overheads (a) 45,000 23,000
Absorption base (machine hrs)(b) 3,000 2,300
Overhead absorption rate (a)/(b) *7 Shs15/mh Sh10/mh
*5 100,000 x 5% 87000 x 5%
*6 20,000 x 5% x 6/12
*7 4,500 /3000 23,000/2,300
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S T U D Y T E X T
(viii) Cost of goods sold budget
N (Shs) A (Shs)
Opening Stock 18,000 5,600
Add: Production 78,400 140,750
Less: Closing stock 7,840 33,780
Cost of goods sold 88,560 112,570
Workings
a. Opening stock
N 900 x 20 18,000
A 200 x 28 5,600
b. Production cost per unit of finished products
N A
Materials A 1.5 x 1.5 2.25 0.5 x 0.5 0.75
B 2.0 x 1.0 2.0 4.0 x 1.0 4.0
Labour: 6 hrs x 1.6 9.6 9hrs x 1.6 14.40
Overheads
Machining 15 x 15/60 3.75 15 x 24/60 6.00
Assembly 10 x 12/60 ____2.0 10 x 18/60 __3.00
Total production per unit Shs19.60 Shs28.15
Production in units 4,000 5,000
Valuation 78,400 140,750
c. Closing inventory
N A
Closing stock units 400 1,200
Unit cost _19.6 _28.15
Stock units 7,840 33,780
(ix) BUDGETED PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT
For the period ending 31 March 2008
N(Shs) A (Shs) Total(Shs)
Sales 144,000 176,000 320,000
Cost of good sold 88,560 112,570 201,130
Gross profit 55,440 63,430 118,870
Less: Selling and administration costs (30,400)
Net profit _88,470
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 3 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
FIXED BUDGETS
Fast forward:
Unlike a flexible budget, a fixed budget is geared towards only one level of activity and is not
adjusted to reflect the actual level of activity when change occurs.
The budgets that we have studied so far are essentially fixed in nature, for example, the master
budget.
A fixed budget has two characteristics
i) It is geared towards only one level of activity. It is thus defined by only one level of
activity
ii) It is not adjusted to reflect actual activity level when change occurs. Actual results are
always compared against budgeted costs at the original level of activity and not against
the adjusted budget.
Fixed budget has the following limitations:
§ It provides little assistance at the planning stage. It does not give implications of various
alternative strategies which management may wish to consider.
§ It fails to provide relevant and reliable base against which to measure actual performance
where actual activity differs from the budget; for instance, if the actual output differs
significantly from the budgeted, the base of comparison and evaluation of performance
of managers shall not be reliable.
§ Little motivation to management to use the budgeting control system as a control aid.
Fixed budgets are used as a production control tool in that they serve to ensure that
production goals in terms of output are met. It does not make any sense to compare
costs at different levels of activities thus does not serve as a cost control tool.
Flexible budgets
Flexible budget is a budget that is designed to change in accordance with the level of activity
attained. It involves budgeting at various levels in anticipation of changes. In other words, it does
not confine itself to only one level of activity, but rather is geared toward a range of activity. The
original budget is adjusted (flexed) to reflect the actual conditions in which the performance was
done.
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S T U D Y T E X T
If actual costs are incurred at a different level of activity from what was originally planned, the
manager(s) construct a new budget on which the actual results shall be compared against.
A flexible budget is more useful than fixed budgeting because:
i) Planning: It provides a range of information at the planning stage, which will assist in
short term planning.
ii) Control: It provides control data when compared with actual performance. Various
budgets can be prepared at various levels of performance. It is geared toward all levels
of activity within the relevant range, rather than toward only one level of activity as in
fixed budgets. This enables the comparison between the budgeted and actual costs at
the same level of activity thus able to come up with realistic variances.
iii) Motivation: More likely to be acceptable to management to provide a positive
motivational stimulus because the control data is adjusted to conform to current activity
level. In addition manager’s performance is evaluated on both aspects of production
and cost control. Production data indicates whether production was met while cost data
shows how well cost was controlled for the actual output thus they strike a balance
between the two by ensuring that the production was met at the minimum cost.
How the flexible budgets work
To flex any budget, one needs to understand the cost behavior patterns. There are various steps
that should be followed while preparing a flexible budget. These are:
(i) Determining the relevant range over which the activity is expected to fluctuate during
the period under consideration.
(ii) Analyzing costs that will be incurred over the relevant range in terms of determining
cost behavior patterns. A cost can either be variable, fixed or mixed.
(iii) Separation of costs by behavior patterns, determining the formula for variable and
mixed costs. You may use any cost determination method such as linear regression to
separate mixed costs into variable and fixed elements.
(iv) Using the formula for the variable portion of costs, prepare a budget showing what
costs will be incurred at the various points throughout the relevant range.
The most appropriate flexing basis should be considered in that it assists in the comparison of
alternative budget data at the planning stage and for the comparison of budget and actual data
at the control stage.
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 4 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Different organizations use different flexing bases but the following are most commonly
used:
§ Machine hours
§ Direct labour hours
§ Input to a cost centre
§ Output from a cost centre
For the above flexing bases to be used, a number of requirements must be fulfilled:
(i) The flexing bases should be correlated with the way in which costs vary e.g. does the
number of miles traveled by distribution vehicles affect the repairs and maintenance
expenses?
(ii) The flexible bases should be easily understood by the management and not subject to
manipulation.
(iii) The flexible bases should be readily obtainable.
(iv) It should be independent of other factors.
>>> Illustration
Mini Bakeries Ltd. has budgeted to produce and sell 100,000 units of cakes during the next
period. The selling price per cake is Shs20 and variable cost per cake is Shs.12. Fixed overheads
are budgeted to at Shs.6,000,000.
Additional information
1. Fixed costs will increase to Shs.700,000 where activity is in excess of 110,000 units;
Fixed costs will fall to Shs.480,000 where activity level is less than 90,000 units.
2. Variable costs will fall by 5% per unit (cake) of all units where activity is in excess of
100,000 cakes because of the economies of scale.
The actual results of the period in which 115,000 units (cakes) were produced and sold were:
(i) Sales revenue Shs.2,242,500
(ii) Variable costs Shs.1,320,000
(iii) Fixed costs Shs.67,000
Required
(i) Prepare a summary, which shows the budgeted results for activity levels from 80,000 to
120,000 cakes using the above information.
(ii) Prepare a control statement comparing budgeted with actual results where a fixed
budget system is used based on 100,000 units.
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Solution
Flexible budget summary
Units 80,000 90,000 100,000 110,000 120,000
Sales Revenue 1,600,000 1,800,000 2,000,000 2,200,000 2,400,000
Variable cost 960,000 1,080,000 1,200,000 1,254,000 1,368,000
Contribution 640,000 720,000 800,000 946,000 1,032,000
Fixed Costs 480,000 600,000 600,000 600,000 700,000
Net Profit 160.000 120,000 200,000 346,000 332,000
Control Statement (Fixed Budget)
Budget Actual Variance
Units 100,000 115,000 15,000(F)
Sales revenue 2,000,000 2,242,500 242,500(F)
Variable costs 1,200,000 1,320,000 120,000(A)
Contribution 800,000 922,500 122,500(F)
Fixed costs 600,000 670,000 70,000(A)
Net profit 200,000 252,500 52,500(F)
Advantages of flexible budgets
(i) A flexible budget is used to find well in advance the cost of layoff pay, idle time e.t.c.. if
the output falls short of the budget.
(ii) It is used when deciding on whether it would be possible to find alternative uses for
spare capacity if output falls short of the budget.
(iii) It is used in estimating the costs of overtime, subcontracting work or extra machine hire
if sales volume exceeds the fixed budget estimates and finding out if there is a limiting
factor, which would prevent high volume of output and sales to be achieved.
BASES OF BUDGETING
Activity based budgeting
In ordinary/conventional budgeting, budget expenses for the current activities are normally based
on previous year budget adjusted for price changes and anticipated future changes. Such costs
are considered to be fixed in relation to the activity level. Activity based budgeting manages
costs more effectively by authorizing the supply of only those resources required to perform
activities directed towards meeting the budget. Activity-based costing is the reverse of Activity
based costing in that it starts with the output to determine the level of activity, which in turn is
used to estimate the resources required to meet the output. The following steps are followed in
coming up with an activity-based budget
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 4 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(i) Estimation of production and sales volume by individual products and customers.
(ii) Estimation of demand for organizational activities
(iii) Determination of the resources required to perform organizational activities
(iv) Estimation of quantity for each resource that must be supplied to meet the demand
(v) Taking appropriate action to adjust capacity of resources.
Zero Based Budgeting
It is also referred to as Priority based budgeting. It is a cost benefit approach budgeting where
it assumes that the cost allowance is Zero for any item until the manager responsible justifies its
existence in terms of costs and benefits. It ignores all previous budgets and assumes that items
in the budget are no longer required
CIMA definition: A method of budgeting whereby all activities are re-evaluated each time the
budget is set.
It takes away the implied right of existing activities to continue receiving resources unless they
can be shown to be the best use of such resources.
It is concerned with alternative means that established activities have been compared with
alternative uses of the same resources. It works from the premise that projected expenditure for
existing programmes should start from base zero with each year’s budget being compiled as if
the programmes were being launched for the first time. It seeks to overcome the deficiencies of
incremental budgeting, which include perpetuation of past inefficiencies and waste inherent in
the past way of doing things.
Perpetuation of inefficiencies arise because indirect costs and support activities are prepared
on an incremental basis i.e. the budget for the current period is prepared based on the previous
period’s operations but adjusted for changes expected to occur in the current period. In this way,
majority of expenditure associated with the base level of activity remain unchanged.
Stages of Implementation
(i) Definition of decision package: This is the comprehensive description of the organization’s
functions or activities.
(ii) Evaluation and ranking of packages: This is on benefit basis.
(iii) Resource allocation according to priorities
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S T U D Y T E X T
Advantages
(i) More efficient allocation of resources
(ii) Focus attention on values for money and makes clear relationship between input and
output.
(iii) Develops a questioning attitude and makes it easier to identify obsolete, inefficient and
less cost effective operations.
(iv) Leads to greater staff and management knowledge of operations
Disadvantages
1. Time consuming.
2. High skills required.
3. May encourage wrong impression that all decisions must be made through budgets.
4. Short-term benefits may be emphasized to the detriment of long-term benefits.
OTHER BASES OF BUDGETING
Incremental or traditional budgeting: this involves taking the previous period’s budget as the
starting point and adjusting it for any changes. This may result in efficiency and ineffective use
of resources.
Rolling budgeting: this is an approach to budgeting where a whole year’s budget is considered,
then divided into quarters. After every quarter, the budget is reviewed and another quarter
budgeted for i.e. there is always a full years budget.
Program planning budget system: it is applied in the budgeting for non-profit organizations
which have no profit objective and in most cases have difficulties in measuring their performance.
Budgeting is done on the basis of the programs going on and those anticipated.
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 4 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER SUMMARY
Objectives of budgeting
• Coordination
• Communication
• Control Motivation
• Clarification of Responsibility and Authority
• Planning
Steps followed in the planning process
• Identify the objectives
• Identifying the alternative strategies available
• Evaluation of strategies available
• Selection of the best course of action
• Implementation of the selected course of action
• Control
Stages in budgeting process
• Communicating details of the budget policy and guidelines to people responsible for
preparation of budgets
• Determining the limiting factor
• Preparation of the sales budget
• Initial preparation of other budgets
• Negotiation of budgets
• Coordination and review of the budget
• Final acceptance of the budget
• Budget review
Limitations of budgeting
• Budgets are based on estimate
• Danger of rigidity
• Budgeting is only a tool of management
• It is an expensive technique
• Difficult to set levels of attainment
• Budgeting control is a terminate exercise and therefore variances may be of little use to
the current operations.
Organization of budgetary control
• The creation of budget centres
• The introduction of adequate accounting records
• The preparation of organization charts
• The establishment of a budget committee
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S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Distinguish between budgeting and a budget
2. List the roles of a budget committee
3. Distinguish between a flexible budget and fixed budget
4. Highlight the limitations of a fixed budget
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
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S T U D Y T E X T
ANSWERS TO CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Budgeting refers to the process of quantifying the plans of an organization so as to
enable it achieve its objectives in the defined period. A budget is a detailed plan outlining
the acquisition and use of financial and other resources over some period of time in the
future.
2. Roles of a budget committee
a. To issue instructions to departments regarding budget requirements, deadline
dates for the receipt of budgets e.t.c..
b. Draw up the budget preparation timetable. It takes the form of network analysis
whereby some activities are preceded by some others.
c. To define the general policies of management in relation to the budget
d. Checking initial draft and problems considered. Limiting factors are usually
considered.
e. Ensuring that the budgets are synchronized within the boundaries of available
resources.
f. To analyze comparison of budgets and actual results and to recommend
corrective action where necessary
g. Review of budgets.
h. Prepare the master budget after functional budgets have been prepared.
i. The preparation of a budget manual
3. A fixed is a budget geared towards only one level of activity. It is thus defined by only
one level of activity. It is not adjusted to reflect actual activity level when change occurs.
Actual results are always compared against budgeted costs at the original level of
activity and not against the adjusted budget.
Flexible budget is a budget that is designed to change in accordance with the level of
activity attained. It involves budgeting at various levels in anticipation of changes
4. Fixed budget has the following limitations:
§ It provides little assistance at the planning stage.
§ It fails to provide relevant and reliable base against which to measure actual
performance where actual activity differs from the budget
§ Little motivation to management to use the budgeting control system as a control
aid.
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S T U D Y T E X T
PAST PAPER ANALYSIS
Questions from this chapter have been examined in the following exam sittings
06/ 07 Q2; 12/06 Q6; 05/ 06 Q3; 05/ 06 Q6(a); 12/05 Q1; 12/05 Q6; 05/ 05 Q4; 11 04 Q4; 12/03
Q1; 12/03 Q3(a); 12/02 Q3; 12/02 Q4; 05/ 02 Q4; 12/01 Q7(b); 12/00 Q7; 06/ 00 Q5; 06/ 00 Q7;
05/ 00 Q1; 05/ 00 Q2; 05/ 00 Q7;
EXAM QUESTIONS
QUESTION ONE
ABC limited manufactures three products A, B and C in two production departments D and E
each of which employs two grades of labour. The following data are available
Total A B C
(Units) (Units) (Units)
Finished stocks
Budgeted stocks are as follows
1 January 20X0 720 540 1800
31 December 20X0 600 570 1000
All Stocks are valued at expected cost per unit Shs24 Shs15 Shs20
Expected profit calculated as % of the SP 20% 25% 16 3
2
Shs’000 Shs’000 Shs’000 Shs’000
Budgeted sales Nakuru 6600 1200 1800 3600
Nanyuki 5100 1500 1200 2400
Kisumu 6380 1500 800 4030
18080 4200 3800 10080
Normal loss in production 10% 20% 5%
Expected labour times per unit and expected rates per hour
Rate Shs hrs/unit hrs/unit hrs/unit
Department E Grade I 1.80 1.0 1.50 0.50
Grade II 1.60 1.25 1.00 0.75
Department F Grade I 2.00 1.50 0.50 0.50
Grade II 1.80 1.00 0.75 1.75
Required:
Prepare the production budget in units for products A, B and C. (20 marks)
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 4 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Question two
Thorne Co values, advertises and sells residential property on behalf of its customers. The
company has been in business for only a short time and is preparing a cash budget for the first
four months of 2006. Expected sales of residential properties are as follows.
2005 2006 2006 2006 2006
Month December January February March April
Units sold 10 10 15 25 30
The average price of each property is Shs180,000 and Thorne Co charges a fee of 3% of the
value of each property sold. Thorne Co receives 1% in the month of sale and the remaining 2%
in the month after sale. The company has nine employees who are paid on a monthly basis. The
average salary per employee is Shs35,000 per year. If more than 20 properties are sold in a
given month, each employee is paid in that month a bonus of Shs140 for each additional property
sold.
Variable expenses are incurred at the rate of 0·5% of the value of each property sold and these
expenses are paid in the month of sale. Fixed overheads of Shs4,300 per month are paid in the
month in which they arise. Thorne Co pays interest every three months on a loan of Shs200,000
at a rate of 6% per year. The last interest payment in each year is paid in December.
An outstanding tax liability of Shs95,800 is due to be paid in April. In the same month Thorne Co
intends to dispose of surplus vehicles, with a net book value of Shs15,000, for Shs20,000. The
cash balance at the start of January 2006 is expected to be a deficit of Shs40,000.
Required:
(a) Prepare a monthly cash budget for the period from January to April 2006. Your budget
must clearly indicate each item of income and expenditure, and the opening and closing
monthly cash balances. (10 marks)
(b) Discuss the factors to be considered by Thorne Co when planning ways to invest any
cash surplus forecast by its cash budgets. (5 marks)
(c) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages to Thorne Co of using overdraft finance to
fund any cash shortages forecast by its cash budgets. (5 marks)
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S T U D Y T E X T
Question three
Acred Ltd manufactures a single product. It is preparing monthly budgets for the six months from
July to December 2004. The following standard revenue and cost data is available:
Selling price £12·00 per unit
Materials 2 kg per unit at £2·40 per kg
Labour £1·80 per unit
Direct expenses £1·20 per unit
Sales in June 2004 and July 2004 are forecast to be 10,000 units in each month. As a direct
result of marketing expenditure of £95,000 in August 2004, sales are expected to be 11,000 units
in August 2004 and to increase by 1,000 units in each month from September to December.
Sales after December 2004 are expected to remain at the December 2004 level.
Some 25% of sales are paid for when they occur and 75% of sales are paid for in the month
following the sale. Stocks of finished goods at the end of each month are required to be 20%
of the expected sales for the following month. Stocks of materials at the end of each month are
required to be 50% of the materials required for the following month’s production.
Materials are paid for in the month following the purchase. Labor and direct expenses are paid
for in the month in which they occur. Overheads for production, administration and distribution
will be £34,000 per month, including depreciation of £12,000 per month. These overheads are
payable in the month in which they occur. Acred Ltd has a £750,000 bank loan at 8% per annum
on which it pays interest twice per year, in March and September. The cash balance at the end
of June 2004 is expected to be £50,000.
Required:
(a) Prepare the following budgets for Acred Ltd on a month by month basis for the six
month period from July to December 2004:
(i) production budget (units);
(ii) Cash budget (13 marks)
(b) Critically discuss the relative merits of periodic budgeting and continuous budgeting.
(7 marks)
Question four
Mavuno Ltd. is a small-scale company that specializes in the production of farm tools.
The company uses budgets for planning and controlling its activities. Currently the management
are preparing budgets for the three months ending 31 March 2006.
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 5 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The projected balance sheet as at 31 December 2005 is shown below:
Cost Depreciation Net book value
Shs. Shs. Shs.
Fixed assets 2,000,000 200,000 1,800,000
Current assets:
Inventory 320,000
Trade debtors 630,000
Cash and bank balances 8,400
958,400
Current liabilities:
Trade debtors 28,000
Accrued expenses 20,000
Proposed dividend 4,000
Taxes payable 3,500 (55,500) 902,900
2,702,900
Financed by:
Ordinary share capital
100,000 ordinary shares of Sh. 10
each
1,000,000
Share premium 500,000
Retained profits 452,900
Long term liability:
Bank loan 750,000
2,702,900
The following information has been extracted from the company’s budget schedules:
Sales Rent Overheads Wages Material stocks
2005 Shs. Shs. Shs. Shs. Shs.
November 500,000 80,000 180,000 40,000 272,000
December 340,000 80,000 180,000 60,000 320,000
2006
January 400,000 80,000 190,000 60,000 480,000
February 600,000 80,000 200,000 80,000 464,000
March 580,000 80,000 200,000 74,000 464,000
April 580,000 80,000 200,000 70,000 500,000
Additional information:
1. The company sells the farm tools at a mark up of 25%.
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S T U D Y T E X T
2. Purchase of material stocks is on credit and it is paid for in the month of receipt by the
company.
3. Employees are paid wages at the end of every week with the earnings of the last week
of the month being settled in the following month. (Assume one month has 4 weeks)
4. Sales commission is paid one month in arrears at the rate of 1% of sales.
5. Overheads include a monthly depreciation charge of Sh. 25,000.
6. 25% of the sales are on cash basis. The other 75% is receivable two months after the
sale.
7. The company will receive a loan of Shs. 2, 500,000 in the month of March 2006 from
Wakulima Bank.
8. Old equipment will be sold for Shs. 250,000 in February 2006 and a new equipment will
be purchased at Sh. 1,200,000 to replace the old equipment sold. The new equipment
will be paid for in the month of March 2006.
9. Rent is paid for quarterly in advance in the months of January, April, July and October.
Required:
(a) Cash budget for the three months ending 31 March 2006. (6 marks)
(b) Budgeted trading profit and loss account for the three months ending 31 March 2006.
(6 marks)
(c) Budgeted balance sheet as at 31 March 2006. (8 marks)
(CPA 12/05)
Question five
Ideal Products Limited, manufactures two products A and B. For the financial year ended 30
June 2004, the following information was assembled for preparation of the budget:
Standard data per unit
Direct Materials
Standard Price per Kg;
Sh.
Product A
Kg
Product B
Kg
M1
M2
Direct
Labour
L1
L2
10
20
Standard rate
per hour
30
20
10
4
Product A
Hours
8
12
4
6
Product B
Hours
10
5
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 5 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The following additional information was available:
1) Fixed Production overhead costs were recovered on a direct labour basis.
2) Administration, selling and distribution costs were absorbed at the rate of 20% of
production cost.
3) Profit was estimated at the rate of 25% of cost of making and selling the products.
4)
Product A
Sh. ‘000’
Product B
Sh. ‘000’
Expected sales for the year 13,494 18,816
5) Finished goods stock valued at standard production cost was as follows:
Product A
Sh. ‘000’
Product B
Sh. ‘000’
1 July 2003
30 June 2004
1,730
1,038
1,176
1,568
6) Direct materials stock valued at standard prices was as follows:
Material M1
Sh. ‘000’
Material M2
Sh. ‘000’
1 July 2003
30 June 2004
640
360
600
800
7) For the year ended 30 June 2004, ‘fixed overheads had been budgeted at Sh. 5,760,000
and direct labour hours budgeted at 3,600,000 hours.
8) It is management’s expectations that there will be no opening or closing work-inprogress.
Required:
a) Production budget in units (8 Marks)
b) Direct Material cost budget. (3 Marks)
c) Purchases budget (6 Marks)
d) Direct labour cost budget. (3 Marks)
(CPA 11/04)
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CASE STUDY
In his study of “the impact of budgets on people” C Argyris reported the following comment by a
financial controller on the practice of participation in setting budgets in his company:
“We bring in the supervisors of budget areas, we tell them that we want their frank opinion, but
most of them just sit there and nod their heads. We know they are not coming out with exactly
what they feel. I guess budget scares them”.
Managers may be reluctant to participate fully in setting budgets, indicating the negative side
effects, which may arise from the imposition of budgets by senior management due to the
following reasons.
(i) The budget is seen as a pressure device, based by management to force ‘ lazy’
employees to work harder. The intention of such pressure is to improve performance,
the unfavorable reactions of subordinates against it seems to be at the core of the
budget problem.
(ii) The accounting department is usually responsible for recording actual achievement and
comparing this against budget. Accountants, therefore, are ‘budget man’ is the failure
of another manager and this failure causes loss of interest and declining performance.
The accountant, on the other hand, fearful of having his budget derailed by factory
management, obscures his budget and variance reporting and deliberately makes it
difficult to understand.
(iii) The budget usually sets targets for each department, achieving the departmental target
becomes of paramount importance regardless of the effect this may have on the other
departments and the overall company performance.
(iv) Budgets are used by managers to express their character and patterns of leadership on
subordinate; subordinates, resentful of their leadership style, blame the budget rather
than the leader thus it loses meaning.
Computer Games Ltd. (CGL) makes and sells three types of computer games for which the
following budget/standard and actual information is available for a week’s period:
Budget/standard Actual
Model Sales Selling price Variable cost Sales
(Units) Shs. Per unit Shs. Per unit (Units)
A 15,000 3,900 3,120 18,000
B 25,000 3,120 1,950 21,000
C 10,000 2,730 1,716 9,000
BUDGETING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL
3 5 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Required:
Prepare a summary of sales variances for quantity, mix and volume for each model and in total,
where individual product standard contribution per unit is used as the variance valuation base.
Prepare an alternative summary giving the same range of variances as in (a) above, but using
the budgeted weighPtreedp aarvee raang eadlt ecronnattriivbeu tsiounm pmear ruyn giti vains gth teh ev asraiamnec era vnagluea otifo vna briaasnec.es as in (a) above, but
using the budgeted weighted averaged contribution per unit as the variance valuation
base.
Model Actual Budgeted Sales Standard Sales Quantity
Units Units Units Variance (units Contribution (Shs) Variance (Shs)
A 18,000 15,000 3,000 (F) (3,900 – 3,120) = 780 2,340,000 (F)
B 21,000 25,000 4,000 (A) (3,120 – 1,950) = 1,170 4,680,000 (A)
C 9,000 10,000 1,000 (A) (2,730 – 1,716) = 1,014 1,014,000 (A)
48,000 50,000 2,000 (A) 3,354,000 (A)
Sales quantity variance in total is 2,000 units (A) with a cost of Kshs.3, 354,000 (A).
Weights Based on Budgeted units
Model Proportion Actual
Sales in
Budgeted
proportion
Budgeted
sales
In units
Sales
Quantity
Variance
Standard
Contribution
(Shs)
Sales
Quantity
Variance
(Shs)
A 3/10 14,400 15,000 600 (A) 780 468,000 (B ½ 24,000 25,000 1,000 (A) 1,170 1,170,000 (C 1/5 9,600 10,000 400 (A) 1,014 405,600 (48,000 50,000 2,000 (A)
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CHAPTER ELEVEN
STANDARD COSTING
S TSUTDUYD YT ETXETX T
3 5 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
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CHAPTER ELEVEN
STANDARD COSTING
OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• Define standard costing
• Understand how the various standards are set thus be able to set material standards,
direct labour standards, overhead standards and sales standards among others.
• Outline the various types of standards
• Explain the importance of standard costing
• Prepare a standard cost card
INTRODUCTION
This lesson describes how a standard cost is arrived at, the various types of standard costs
and the application of standard costing in budgeting. The critical part of the chapter is variance
analysis, the real life application of standard costing in budgeting and cost control. The behavioral
implications of standard costs emanating from them are also briefly outlined.
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
Standard cost is a yardstick that measures how well the organization has achieved its set
objectives.
EXAM CONTEXT
The examiner may set both theoretical and practical question. They may be application questions
but most of the times not. You are required to familiarize yourself with the content of this chapter
as it is the building block of budgeting and variance analysis, studied in the next chapter.
3 5 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
INDUSTRY CONTEXT
Standard costing is mainly applicable in the manufacturing industry. It is the basis on which
variance analysis is done. All planned productions are based on specific standards.
INTRODUCTION
Fast forward:
Standard costing is primarily used for control reasons.
This lesson describes how a standard cost is arrived at and the various types of standard costs
and the application of standard costing in budgeting. The critical part of the chapter is variance
analysis, the real life application of standard costing in budgeting and cost control. The behavioral
implications of standard costs emanating from them are also briefly outlined.
Tutorial note:
It is especially critical that you establish a link between standard costs and budgets. At this point,
you need to put it in your mind that standard costs are the “building blocks and cement” used to
“build” a budget. There are other ways of establishing a budget other than using the standard
costs, but the use of standard costs makes budgeting very easy and realistic!
What is Standard costing?
To effectively control the costs of a certain organization, we need a yardstick to measure the
actual performance against. Traditionally, most organizations are known to use the previous
period costs as the yardstick. But due to the fast changing business environment that businesses
operate in today, managers always find that the previous period’s performance is not an
appropriate yardstick to measure the next and future periods’ performance against. This is why
most organizations develop standard costs.
Standard cost is, therefore, a yardstick that measures how well the organization has achieved
its set objectives. This simple definition standard cost shows that a standard cost is developed
simply for performance evaluation and cost control purposes. A standard cost has, therefore, to
be developed in advance before the actual performance to be measured begins. For this reason,
a standard cost is a predetermined costs based on certain assumptions. One has to appreciate
the fact that a standard cost is a mere estimate of expected costs under certain conditions.
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S T U D Y T E X T
From the above discussion, a standard cost clearly comes out as a cost set before the actual
costs are actually incurred. Some scholars, therefore,· refer to it as the “cost level that should
be” under attainable, acceptable performance conditions. Others refer to standard costs as
carefully predetermined costs of production used as a basis for measurement and comparison.
It is one of the most important techniques used in management accounting. It basically tries to
establish a predetermined cost for products or services with which actual costs will be composed
to establish whether there are any variances. The predetermined cost is an estimated unit cost
built up of standards for each cost element (standard resource price and standard usage)
Standard costs establish the minimum desirable costs. When actual costs incurred exceed
or are below the standard costs, we then investigate the variances with an objective to take
appropriate corrective measures. Standard costing, on the other hand, is defined as the process
of establishing predetermined estimates of the costs of products and services and comparing this
with the actual cost when they are incurred. Thus, it is an exercise that determines the expected
cost levels under certain conditions (standard costs), then applies the standard costs to the
actual performance (performance analysis) so as to determine the difference (variance).
This difference can be good (favorable) or bad (unfavorable) depending on whether it is more or
less than the standard; it is the basis of taking corrective action (Control). The variance needs to
be further analyzed to determine how it came about. This is referred to as variance analysis and
it is important because it pinpoints the exact causes of favorable (F) or unfavorable (U) deviation.
Such causes can be corrected so as to achieve the desired performance.
Process of Setting Standards
Establishing a correct standard is very important because accuracy of the standards usually
determine the success of the standard cost system. It is more of an art than a science which
requires combined thinking and expertise of all the persons who have responsibility over prices
and quantities of input.
As we will see later, the standard cost system has very serious behavioral implications for
the staff whose performance will be measured against the standards. If the staff feel that the
standards are too high, (unachievable), they will be frustrated and will be greatly demotivated.
Also, if a disciplinary action is taken on an employee who fails to achieve the standards, but the
employees feel that it is unfair as the standard was inaccurate, this will bring about resentment,
sabotage and demotivation to the employees. On the other hand, if the standards are too low,
they will be easily achieved by employees and they will not be challenged to work harder.
In determining standard cost, each cost should be carefully analyzed to ensure all factors
affecting the cost level (in the period the costs are to be used) have been considered. In addition,
managers in charge of the departments responsible for meeting the standards should approve
the bases for the standards.
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S T U D Y T E X T
For the standard setting process and standards implementation to be successful, the employees
responsible for meeting the standards should have the opportunity to participate in the Standard
Setting Process. They are the best positioned in pinpointing inaccuracies in the set standards.
It is easier to enforce standards once their acceptance is solicited through participation in the
setting process.
The manager overseeing the setting of standards should also have an honest desire to set
achievable targets, and also to assist their lower managers and employees to achieve them.
Also, standards should only be set after there has been interaction between all the individuals
involved.
Last, and very important, the top management must fully support the standard costing process
from Standards Setting to standards implementation. This support gives the standards the
enforcement they need to be effected in the whole organization.
i. Setting standards for material costs
These are based on product specifications derived from an intensive study of the input quantity
necessary for each operation the. The material content of the product: raw material, sub
assemblies, piece parts, finishing materials, e.t.c. constitute the material quantity standards that
are usually recorded on a bill of materials.
The intensive study should establish most suitable material for each product and also the optimal
quantity that should be used after allowing for inevitable wastage or loss. The study is important
as savings and alternative materials and ways of using materials are usually discovered.
When it comes to standard price, the onus is on the purchasing department. They estimate direct
material cost per unit on the knowledge of the following
a) Purchasing contracts already agreed
b) Pricing discussions with regular suppliers
c) Forecast movement of prices in the market
d) Availability of bulk purchase discounts
e) Quality of material required
f) Carriage and packaging charges
The cost ought to include allowance for bulk discounts and it could be weighted average if
different suppliers are used.
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S T U D Y T E X T
ii. Setting standards for direct labor
To set labor standards, a time motion study has to be performed for an activity. This is in a bid to
establish, at efficiency level, how many labor hours will be needed to complete an activity having
removed all the unnecessary elements. Standard hour: amount of work achievable at standard
efficiency levels in an hour or minute. Unavoidable delays such as machine breakdowns and
routine maintenance are included in the standard time.
The standard wage rate will be set by reference to the payroll and to any agreements on pay
rises with trade union representatives of the employees.
The learning effect must be incorporated in setting the standard times. Learning effect is the
increase in efficiency with time of a worker in handling a specific task. For instance, a football
player will not perform as good on the first day as he will three months after exercising.
STANDARD HOURS PRODUCED EXPLAINED
It is not possible to measure output in terms of units produced for a department making several
different products or operations.
If a department produces 100 units of X, 200 of Y and 300 if Z, it is not possible to add their
production since they aren’t homogeneous.
What would solve this is the use of standard hours that can act as a common denominator for
adding together the production of unlike items.
That is, assume that the unit standard times are as follows
X - 5std hours
Y - 2std hours
Z - 3std hours
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S T U D Y T E X T
The production for the department will be calculated in standard hours as follows.
STD hrs/unit Actual output STD hrs produced
X 5 100 500
Y 2 200 400
Z 3 300 900
1800
From the illustration, we expect the output of 1800 standard hours to take 1800 direct labor hours
of input if the department works at the present level of efficiency.
iii. Setting standards for overheads
In setting standard overhead costs we apply what we have learnt in our earlier chapter (in
absorption costing). The predetermined overhead absorption rates become the standards for
overheads for each cost center using the budgeted standard labor hours as the activity base or
planned production volume.
Production volume will depend on two factors:
- production capacity (or volume capacity) measured in standard hours of output which
in turn reflects direct production labor hours
Efficiency of costing by labor or machines, allowing for rest times and contingency
allowances
Separate rates for fixed and variable overheads are essential.
Standard variable OAR = Budgeted Variable Overheads for cost center
Budgeted Standard labour hours for cost center
Standard variable OAR = Budgeted Fixed Overheads for cost center
Budgeted Standard labour hours for cost center
N.B: The level of activity adopted will be assumed as 100% capacity and for control purposes
and will be the base for the master budget.
>>> An Illustration on standard hours
A department has a workforce of 20 men working a 30-hour week making standard units. Each
unit has a standard time of 2 hours to make. The expected efficiency of the workforce is 125%.
a. Budgeted capacity of indirect labor hours = 20*30= 600 production hours per week
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b. Budgeted efficiency is 125%, so that the workforce would take only 1 hour of actual
production time to produce 1.25 standard hours of output
c. This means that budgeted output is 600*1.25=750 standard hours with each requiring
2 standard hours, the production activity or volume of 375 units per week.
iv. Setting standards for sales price and margin
Setting of product selling price is a top-level decision that is based on factors such as:
• anticipated market demand
• manufacturing costs
• competing products
• inflation estimates.
After much discussions and deliberation, a price for the product is set; this is the standard selling
price. The standard sales margin is the difference between the standard cost and the standard
selling price.
Recapitulation
A standard cost is a predetermined calculation of how much is expected to be incurred under
certain specified working conditions. It is a benchmark for measuring performance. In managerial
and cost accounting, standards relate to the quantity and cost of inputs used in manufacturing
goods and services. Quantity standards say how much of a specific input should be used in
manufacturing a unit of product or in providing a unit of service. Cost standards say what the cost
of the input should be.
It is not an average of past costs since these may contain mistakes of past inefficiencies and may
not incorporate changes in the business’ operating environment e.g. technological changes.
Standard costs are developed from a scientific study of the various production cost elements
involved in producing a certain good or service (These are usually specified in a product’s
technical specifications). To develop these costs, one needs to have a good idea or reliable
estimate of the materials, labour and other cost levels that will apply during a specified period.
Standard costs give a basis of cost control through variance analysis. It is one of the leases. It
is also the basis of budgeting. Standard costs are also applied in setting prices, valuing closing
stocks and performance evaluation
A standard costing system is most suited to an organization whose activities consist of repetitive
operations and the requirements per unit can be specified, for instance, in the manufacturing
STANDARD COSTING
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S T U D Y T E X T
sector where standardized output is produced. More so, it can be used in the manufacturing
industries where the organization produces different goods which undergo a series of common
operations. Note that standard costing cannot be applied to activities of a non-repetitive nature.
Types of Standard
The standard cost set could be basic, ideal, attainable or current.
(i) Basic Standards: These are long-term standards that would remain unchanged over the
years. Their sole use is to show trends over time for such items as material prices, labour
rates, efficiency, e.t.c.. They, therefore, cannot be used to highlight current efficiency or
inefficiency; for this reason, basic standards do not normally form part of the reporting
system and will, therefore, be used as a background for statistical analysis over time. Their
main advantage is that they provide a base for a comparison with actual cost through a
period of years with the same standard and establish efficiency trends over time.
(ii) Ideal Standards: These are standards, which can be achieved under the best
circumstances. They represent perfect performance. They are, therefore, based on the
best possible operating conditions. They allow for no work interruptions and call for a level
of effort that can only be attained by the most skilled worker working at 100% efficiency.
Normal production problems such as material spoilage, stoppages, idle time, machine
breakdowns, shrinkage, e.t.c. are not allowed in ideal standards.
They can be revised periodically to reflect changes in the organization’s operating
conditions, e.g. changes in technology. However, since the ideal standards assume perfect
operating conditions, they would be unattainable in real life, which has normal operating
problems such as idle time and machine breakdown, idle time and employee slowdown
due to fatigue.
These standards act as a motivational tool to the workers. Although workers know that
they will never stay within the standard set, it acts as a constant reminder that he/she is
not efficient enough and needs to improve. However, when these standards are set too
high, they tend to discourage even the most productive and diligent worker.
(iii) Attainable standards: these are practical standards, which are tight but attainable. They
can be attained through reasonable, though highly efficient, efforts by an average worker
at a task. They allow for normal machine breakdowns, employee rest times, idle time,
decline in efficiency and other inefficiencies that may arise in the production process.
They are used for product costing and pricing for stock valuation, for budgeting and for
cost control and performance evaluation. But to be meaningful, attainable standards need
to be revised regularly so as to affect the conditions expected to prevail during the period
in which the standards would be applied. Variances from attainable standards are very
useful to management as they represent deviations that fall outside the normal, recurring
inefficiencies and signal a need for management’s attention.
Of all the standards, attainable standards are likely to produce the highest level of
motivation especially when the employees are adequately involved in setting them. They
should provide a challenge to employees by giving them a tough but realistic target, thus
it motivates employees and management to achieve high levels of output.
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S T U D Y T E X T
(iv) Current Standards These are standards set for use over a short period of time, related
to current. Since basic standards cannot be used for analyzing current efficiency levels,
a current period standard can be developed for the basic standards. The current period
standard can then be used to analyze the current period performance.
Current standards are useful especially in inflationary conditions where current standards
could be set for a three-month period or on a monthly basis to reflect the changes in
prices.
Tutorial note
(i) The type of standard used (basic, ideal, attainable, current) directly affects the level
of the variances which can arise, and the meaning, which can be attached to the
variances. For example, negative (unfavorable) variance will be taken more seriously if
it is registered using a current and attainable standard than when it is registered using
basic or ideal standards.
(ii) Standards for the same cost can vary from organization to organization depending on
the level of efficiency desired by the management. Thus, standards are very subjective;
what is also a matter of management opinion.
(iii) The accuracy of the standards set depends on the accuracy of the forecasting prices,
activity level, and wage, e.t.c. of the team setting such standards. If the team is good in
forecasting skills, then the standards set are likely to be error free and vice versa.
(iv) The various types of standards have various impacts of human behavior:
Type Impact
Ideal - one school of thought says that they provide employees with incentive to
be more efficient even though they are unattainable
- others say that they are demotivation since the variance will always be
adverse and they see it as impossible and decide not to work so hard.
Attainable - they are motivating. Realistic but a challenging target to achieve
Current - they have no effect on motivation
Basic - may have an unfavorable impact on motivation. Over time they become
easily achievable; employees become bored and lose interest since they
have nothing to aim for
The Relationship Standards and Budgets
Standards and budgets are one and the same thing. The only distinction between the two is that
a standard is a unit amount and it applies to particular products, individual processes or single
operations while a budget is a total amount, which lays out the cost limits for functions and
departments and for the firm as a whole.
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S T U D Y T E X T
>>> Illustration
The standard cost for labour per unit of product is Shs500. If 10,000 units are to be produced
during the period then the budgeted cost of materials is Shs.5,000,000 (Shs.500 per unit x 10,000
units).
Importance of standard costing; Why set standards?
(Advantages of standards)
Standard costing systems provide cost information for various uses. These include:
(i) Setting of budgets
Standard costing systems assist in setting budgets and evaluating performance of the
managers. Standard costs are of particular importance for budgeting as they provide
reliable and convenient source of data to be used in the budgeting process. This, thus,
reduces the budgetary time because for instance, once the desired output units is
known, then the budgeted cost is simply derived by multiplying the budgeted cost per
unit and the desired output in units.
(ii) Act as control devices and simplifies performance evaluation
Standard costing systems act as control devices by highlighting those costs or items
that do not conform to the budget or plan and thus alerts managers to those situations
that need corrective action. It acts as a yardstick against which costs and other items
are measured to determine whether the variance is favorable or unfavorable.
Once the budgets are prepared and agreed upon, the employees’ performance can be
acceptably measured against the set standards to determine whether the performance
is acceptable or not. Appropriate corrective measures can then be taken by the
management.
(iii) Profit measurement and inventory valuation
Standard costing makes inventory valuation much easier as it simplifies the task of
tracing costs to products for inventory valuation and profit measurement purposes. If
the actual number of physical units in inventory is known then the value of inventory
is simply obtained by multiplying the standard cost per unit by the physical units. This
is because, profit measurement may be time consuming thus making it cumbersome
to allocate costs as per the period incurred. Variances are calculated later and written
off in the books of account as period costs. This enables the reflection of inventory at
actual cost while at the same time determining the correct profit figure.
(iv) Decision making
Standard costing provides a prediction of the future costs that can be used for decision367
S T U D Y T E X T
making purposes. Standard costs are preferable to estimates based on adjusted past
costs because the later may incorporate avoidable inefficiencies.
(v) Management by exception
Standard costing is an example of management exception. By studying the variances,
management’s attention is directed towards those items that are not proceeding as
per the plan. Most of management’s time is saved and can be directed to other value
adding activities. Management only concentrates on the few exceptions reported.
(vi) Motivation
A standard costing system provides a challenging target that individuals are motivated to
strive and achieve. Involving the management and employees at all levels of operation
in the setting of standards makes them feel as part of the system thus working to meet
the standards that they set for themselves.
(vii) Pricing
Standard costs act as a reliable base of calculating total cost of producing a good
or service to which a margin can be added to determine the selling price. (Cost plus
markup method of price determination)
(viii) Cost reduction
The process of setting, revising and monitoring standards encourages reappraisal of
methods materials and techniques thus leading to cost reductions. Analysis of variance
(Anova) directs cost analysis to factors that are causing unfavorable variances and thus
costs can be controlled, leading to cost reduction.
THE STANDARD COST CARD
This is a card record of the Standard or expected costs in producing a given output. It gives the
physical quantities of inputs as well as their monetary values. It also gives the quality required,
e.g. Grade A labour. The process of setting standards results in the establishment of the standard
cost for the product. The make up of the standard cost is recorded on a standard cost card.
>>> Illustration
SK’s ltd. produces a product B which consumes 2 types of materials, A56 and C91, and passes
through 3 departments X, Y and Z. The following information relates to the product B and its
production process;
STANDARD COSTING
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S T U D Y T E X T
Materials: A56: 5 kg each @ Shs.7.4: it is applied in department A
C91: 500 units @ Shs.7.50 per 100 units: It is applied in department B.
Labour for the period just ended:
4.8 hours @ Shs.2.5/hr in Department A
9.2 hours @ Shs.2.5/hr in Department B.
16.4 hours @ Shs.1.75/hr in Department C.
Absorption of Production overheads:
Machine overheads: based on direct labour hours. They are incurred as Shs.11/hr in
departments A and B.
Indirect labour: based on direct labour hours in Department C above at Shs.6/hr.
Required
Prepare a standard cost card for product B.
Solution:
SK’s Ltd
Standard cost card for product B
Revised :
By:
31.12.20XX
JKC
Cost type and Quantity
Standard rate
(Shs)
Dept A
(Shs)
Dept B
(Shs)
Dept C
(Shs)
Total
(Shs)
Direct materials
5 kg of A56 Shs7.4 37.0 -- -- 37.00
500 units of C91
Shs7.5 per
100units
-- 37.5 -- 37.50
74.50
Direct labour
Department A: 4.80 hrs 2.50 12 -- -- 12.00
Department B: 9.20 hrs 2.50 -- 23 -- 23.00
Department C: 16.4 hrs 1.75 -- -- 28.70 28.70
63.70
Production overheads
Machining 11 52.80 101.20 -- 154.00
Indirect labour 6 -- -- 98.40 _98.40
252.40
Standard cost Summary Shs
Direct materials 74.50
Direct Labour 63.70
Production overheads 252.40
Standard cost per unit 390.52
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CHAPTER SUMMARY
Standard cost is a yardstick that measures how well the organization has achieved its set
objectives.
The process of standard costing involves setting standards for:
• Material costs.
• Direct labor.
• Sales price and margin.
Types of standards include:
• Basic standards
• Ideal standards
• Attainable standards
• Current standards
Standard costing systems provide information for various uses. These include:
• Setting of budgets
• Acts as a control device and simplifies performance evaluation
• Facilitates profit measurement and inventory valuation
• Aids in decision making, motivation, pricing and cost reduction
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. List the major considerations made in determining the unit material cost.
2. What are the major types of standards?
3. Briefly distinguish standards and budgets.
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ANSWERS TO CHAPTER QUIZ
1. Major considerations made in determining the unit material cost.
a) Purchasing contracts already agreed
b) Pricing discussions with regular suppliers
c) Forecast movement of prices in the market
d) Availability of bulk purchase discounts
e) Quality of material required
f) Carriage and packaging charges
2. Types of standards:
(i) Basic Standards
(ii) Ideal Standards
(iii) Attainable standards
(iv) Current Standards
3. Standards and budgets are one and the same thing. The only distinction between the
two is that a standard is a unit amount and it applies to particular products, individual
processes or single operations while a budget is a total amount which lays out the cost
limits for functions and departments and for the firm as a whole.
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EXAM QUESTIONS
QUESTION ONE
(a) Distinguish between practical standards and ideal standards (10 marks)
(b) Explain how direct materials standards and labour standards are set (10 marks)
QUESTION TWO
(a) Enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of using standard costs (10 marks)
(b) Explain how a manager would determine whether a variance constituted an exception
that would require his or her attention. (10 marks)
QUESTION THREE
(a) Explain the importance of a standard cost card. (10 marks)
(b) Distinguish between standard costing and budgetary control (10 marks)
CASE STUDY
Introduction
BSI was the first national standards-making body in the world. It was founded in London in 1901
and is the UK’s National Standards Body. Today it is part of the BSI Group with offices throughout
the world. Businesses choose to conform to standards as they protect consumers, lead to new
developments and bring benefits to industry. Businesses that apply standards are recognized as
providers of quality and BSI works with a wide range of groups to decide on standards.
Research
Most new products are the result of research and the application of standards throughout the
research process. Standards increase the effectiveness of many goods and services, help to
lower costs and reduce the time it takes to develop a concept into a viable product. Each standard
has a number and description, which shows if it is a British (BS), European (EN) or International
(ISO) Standard. BSI identifies best practice and uses this to create standards that provide a
framework for research. Standards even help with new technology. For example, BSI supports
nanotechnology research. This involves making new products by controlling individual atoms.
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Development
BSI sets out guidelines for developers to follow which show best practice. By following best
practice, businesses can become more effective, more efficient and able to make more profit.
Standards provide a common framework for products that need to work together. For example,
all CDs are the same size so they fit into CD players around the world. A team of experts discuss
what factors are needed to make a product safe, reliable and of high quality. This panel creates
a list of rules and tests that a product or process needs to meet. Even services have standards,
for instance, the process for businesses to handle complaints from customers.
Testing
Testing is vital when bringing new products to the market. Products must be safe and fit for purpose
meant. This means they must do what customers expect of them. A product with a Kitemark is
BSI tested and businesses need a BSI license in order to use the Kitemark. Some standards are
compulsory. For instance, fire extinguishers must meet health and safety regulations, - without
this, they cannot legally be sold. The CE marking shows that a product meets the requirements
of European laws. Some products, like toys, must carry this mark.
Production and launch
BSI helps companies from research and development through to product launch and marketing.
During pre-production, trained assessors and inspectors check that processes and production
comply with the standards before products are considered ‘fit for sale’. On launch, a BSI certificate
gives customers confidence. Working to standards helps businesses because:
• It helps attract customers and encourages them to buy
• It demonstrates market leadership
• It creates competitive advantage
• It maintains best practice.
Conclusion
New products, processes and services are continually coming onto the market. Innovative
product developers research and develop new ideas. However, they need a framework in which
to work. BSI can support every stage of the process by creating standards, providing advice and
supporting research.
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CHAPTER TWELVE
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
S TSUTDUYD YT ETXETX T
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CHAPTER TWELVE
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• Understand the general model for variance analysis.
• Calculate various variances and give possible causes of the variance.
• Analyze fixed overhead volume variance into fixed overhead capacity and fixed overhead
efficiency variances.
• Distinguish between efficiency ratio and capacity ratio.
• Calculate sales variance and criticize sales margin variance.
• Calculate material mix and yield variances and highlight problems in using conventional
mix and yield variances.
INTRODUCTION
This section describes how material, labour and overhead variances are calculated and describes
what causes those variances. Students in most cases attempt to memorize the formulas for
calculation of variances which does not help them understand the concept and variables in
variance analysis.
We shall use a single product to in order to simplify the learning and understanding process.
However, note that in real life situation, many products will exist with different variances which
may be cumbersome to calculate and integrate without the use of computerized systems.
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
A variance is factually a deviation from the expected.
Price/rate variance measures the difference between the actual price (AP) paid and the standard
price (SP) that should have been paid.
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S T U D Y T E X T
Quantity/efficiency variance measures the difference between the actual quantity (materials or
labour hours) used and the standard quantity that should have been used
EXAM CONTEXT
The examiner will often set questions from this topic. The nature of questions set may differ from
time to time. Note that this topic is dependent on all the other topics preceding it. The examiner
may test for definitions, discussions and suggestions besides testing on calculations.
INDUSTRY CONTEXT
Mainly applicable in the manufacturing industry. it is aimed at establishing the deviations from the
expected and giving explanations as to why those deviations existed.
INTRODUCTION
Fast forward;
Variance analysis relies to a great extent on standard costing. Standard prices and quantities and
actual prices and quantities must be known in order to calculate variances. Variance analysis is
used as a control and evaluation tool.
This chapter covers variance analysis. In here we first discuss the various types of variances and
how they are calculated. We go further to establish the causes of those variances.
General model for variance analysis
Industry context
Mainly applicable in the manufacturing industry. it is aimed at establishing the deviations
from the expected and giving explanations as to why those deviations existed.
Introduction
Fast forward;
Variance analysis relies to a great extent on standard costing. Standard prices and
quantities and actual prices and quantities must be known in order to calculate
variances. Variance analysis is used as a control and evaluation tool.
This chapter covers variance analysis. In here we first discuss the various types of
variances and how they are calculated. We go further to establish the causes of those
variances.
General model for variance analysis
Price Variance Quantity Variance
Actual Quantity (AQ)
x
Actual Price (AP)
Actual Quantity (AQ)
x
Standard Price (SP)
Standard Quantity (SQ)
x
Standard Price (SP)
AQ (AP – SP) SP (AQ – SQ)
AQ = Actual quantity SP = Standard Price
AP = Actual Price SQ = Standard Quantity
Material Price variance Material usage variance
Labour rate variance Labour efficiency variance
Variable OH spending variance Variable OH efficiency variance
Note: Total variance = Price variance + Quantity variance
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VARIANCE ANALYSIS
The diagram on the previous page shows the general relationship between variables that are used
to compute the various variances. For instance, AQ will represent actual quantity of materials
used when calculating material price variance, actual labour hours worked when calculating
labour rate variance and actual units of the absorption base incurred.
Material variances
Material variances comprise both material price variance and material usage variance. Material
price variance deals with the price paid for the materials while material usage variance deals with
the quantity used in the production process. Thus material variance may arise if the quantity used
in the production process differs from the budgeted or if the actual price paid for the materials is
different from the standard.
Material price variance (MPV)
Material price variance measures the difference between the actual price (AP) paid for a given
quantity of materials and the standard price (SP) that should have been paid for the same quantity
of materials purchased (AQ). This variance arises in the purchasing department.
It can, therefore, be calculated as
Material Price variance = (Actual Price x Actual Quantity) – (Standard Price x Actual quantity)
MPV = (AP X AQ) - (SP x AQ)
MPV = (AP - SP) x AQ
The simplified formula above is the most widely used in calculating material price variance as it
is simple.
When calculating variances, the sign obtained does not tell the nature of the variance, i.e. whether
Favorable or Adverse. What matters is the interpretation. One needs to understand variance
analysis to correctly interpret the results obtained. For instance, MPV may also be calculated as
(SP – AP) x AQ. If one person uses the first formula and obtains a negative value and a second
person uses the second formula and obtains a positive value, assuming same data, then the two
will interpret the variances differently.
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S T U D Y T E X T
>>> Illustration I (MPV)
The following information relates to product XYZ for the period just ended.
§ The standard direct material cost for a product is Shs.50 per unit (12·5 kg at Shs.4 per
kg).
§ The actual amount paid for 45,600 kg of material purchased and used was
Shs.173,280
Required: Calculate the direct material price variance for the period just ended.
Solution
Material Price variance = (Actual Price x Actual Quantity) – (Standard Price x Actual quantity)
= Shs.173,280 – (Shs.4.00 x 45,600kg)
= Shs.173,280 – Shs.182,400
= Shs.9,120 (Favorable)
Note that the actual price paid for all the units has been given in total and thus we do not need to
calculate it i.e. Shs173,280 (Actual Price x Actual quantity)
>>> Illustration II (MPV)
A company has a budgeted material cost of Shs.62,500 for the production of 12,500 units per
month. Each unit is budgeted to use 2 kg of material. The standard cost of material is Shs2·50
per kg. Actual materials in the month cost Shs.68,000 for 13,500 units and 26,500 kg were
purchased and used.
What was the adverse material price variance?
Solution
Material price variance = (Actual Price x Actual Quantity) – (Standard Price x Actual quantity)
= Shs.68,000 – Shs.2.50 x 26,500
= Shs.1,750 (Unfavorable)
The variance is unfavorable since the price paid for the materials is above the standard price the
company should have paid.
379
S T U D Y T E X T
Possible causes of material price variance
§ Actual prices may change following a change in the market conditions that cause a
general price increase or decrease for the type of materials used. Thus the company
may end up paying more or less than the standard price.
§ Inferior quality materials, which are less expensive, may be bought thus translating to a
favorable material price variance. Buying of substitute materials due to unavailability of
the planned ones may translate to favorable or unfavorable material price variance.
§ A shortage in materials which calls for an urgent purchase at short notice may increase
the purchase costs where the company may be required to airlift the materials or pay for
other costs associated with that order. This will translate to unfavorable material price
variance.
§ Quantity discounts lost or gained by buying in smaller or larger quantities than planned
also translate to a material price variance.
Material Usage Variance (MUV)
Material Usage Variance measures the difference between the Actual Quantity of materials used
in production (AQ) and the standard quantity (SQ), which should have been used according to the
standard set, all valued at the standard purchase price. This variance arises due to the production
department using more or less than the expected or standard material input. However, there
are instances where the purchasing department may be held responsible for the unfavorable
material usage variance e.g. purchase of inferior goods. When calculating MUV, one uses the
actual quantity used and not the actual quantity purchased. This is because there are instances
where the actual quantity purchased is more than the actual quantity used thus leaving some
materials in stock.
Material Usage variance is calculated as follows:
Material Usage Variance = Standard quantity x Standard Price – Actual Quantity x Standard
Price
= (SQ x SP) - (AQ x SP)
= (SQ – AQ) x SP
>>> Illustration III (MUV)
A company has a budgeted material cost of Shs.125,000 for the production of 25,000 units per
month. Each unit is budgeted to use 2 kg of material. The standard cost of material is Shs2·50
per kg. Actual materials in the month cost Shs.136,000 for 27,000 units and 53,000 kg were
purchased and used.
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
3 8 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Required: calculate the material usage variance?
Solution
Standard cost = Budgeted material cost = Shs.125,000 = Shs.2.50 per kg
Budgeted material input 25,000 units x 2kg per unit
Actual quantity = 53,000 kg
Standard quantity = 27000 units x 2 kg per unit = 54,000
MUV = Actual Quantity x Standard Price – Standard quantity x Standard Price
= Shs2.5 x 53000 – Shs2.50 x 54,000
= Shs2,500 (Favorable)
= (AQ – SQ) x SP = (53,000 – 54,000) x Shs2.50 = 2,500 (F)
>>> Illustration IV (MUV)
The following information relates to product XYZ for the period just ended.
§ The standard direct material cost for a product is Shs50 per unit (12·5 kg at Shs4 per
kg).
§ The actual amount paid for 45,600 kg of material purchased and used was
Shs173,280
§ The direct material usage variance was Shs15,200 (Unfavorable)
Required: Calculate the actual production for the period just ended.
Solution
Material Usage variance = (Actual Quantity x Standard price) – (Standard quantity x Standard
Price)
15200 = (45600 x Shs4.00) – (SQ x Shs4.00)
Shs4.00 (SQ) = (45600 x Shs4.00) – Shs.15,200
= Shs(182,400-15,200)
= Shs167,200
SQ = Shs.167,200 = 41,800kg
Shs. 4 per unit
SQ = Actual output x Standard quantity per unit
Actual Output = SQ/Standard qty per unit
=
381
S T U D Y T E X T
41,800kg = 3,344 units
12.5kg per unit
Possible causes of material usage variance
§ Careless handling of materials by production personnel or working with untrained
workers who are poorly supervised OR extremely high quality labour than expected.
§ Inferior quality materials thus requiring more input than budgeted OR higher quality
materials than budgeted that reduces the quantity of material input below the
budgeted.
§ Faulty or inefficient machinery OR efficient machinery
§ Theft and pilferage
§ Changes in methods of production and quality control, greater or lower rate of scrap
than anticipated
Total material variance
Total material variance comprises of material price variance and material usage variance.
Material variance= Material Price variance + Material Usage variance
= [(AP x AQ) – (SP x AQ)] + [(AQ x SP) – (SQ x SP)]
= AP•AQ - SP•AQ +SP•AQ – SP•SQ
= AP•AQ -SP•SQ
Therefore, Material Variance shall be given by the difference between the actual quantity bought
and used at actual cost less standard Quantity that should have been bought and used at standard
price. However, when the materials purchased are more than materials used, the summation of
the MUV and MPV will not agree with the total material variance.
>>> Illustration
The total material variance for product XYZ (Illustrations I and IV) is equal to
MV = MPV + MUV
= 9120 (F) + 15,200 (A)
= 6,080 (A)
= AP•AQ -SP•SQ
= Shs.173,280 – (Shs.4 x 3,344 units x 12.5 kg per unit)
= Shs.6,080 (A)
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
3 8 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
LABOUR VARIANCES
The total labour variance comprises of labour rate variance and labour efficiency variance.
Labour rate variance occurs when there is a difference between the price (wages) paid out and
the standard wages, which should have been paid. It measures the deviation, if any, from the
standard of the average wages paid to direct labour hours. Labour efficiency occurs when there
is a difference between the actual number of hours taken and the standard hours that would have
been taken to complete and assignment. It measures the productivity of labour time.
Labour Rate Variance (LRV)
Labour rate variance measures the deviation from the standard of the average wages paid to
direct labour hours. It is calculated by comparing the standard price per hour with the actual price
paid per hour and multiplying the difference with actual hours taken.
In many organizations, LRV tends to be nonexistent since most of the rates paid to workers are
set by union contracts. This means that the actual wage rate paid equals the standard wage rate
paid. However, there are instances in which wage rate variance may arise. This, in most cases,
depends on the way labour is used. For instance, highly skilled workers are more expensive to
hire and if it demands that they be hired to take up an assignment, which was initially to be taken
up by semi-skilled workers, then the wage rate paid to them shall be higher than the standard set
initially. This will automatically translate to an adverse labour rate variance. The officers in charge
of effective utilization of labour time are held responsible in ensuring that labor rate variances are
kept under control.
Labor rate variance is calculated using the following formula;
Labor rate variance = Actual rate x Actual hours – Standard rate x Actual hours
= AR•AH - SR•AH
= (AR – SR) x AH
>>> Illustration V (LRV)
The following information relates to labour costs for the period just ended:
Budget Labour rate Shs.100 per hour
Actual Wages paid Shs.1,760,000
Production 5,500 units
Total hours worked 14,000 hours
There was no idle time.
Required: Calculate the labour rate variance?
383
S T U D Y T E X T
Solution
Labor rate variance = Actual rate x Actual hours–Standard rate x Actual hours
= Shs.1,760,000 – Shs.100 x 14000 hrs
= Shs.360,000 (A)
>>> Illustration VI (LRV)
A company operating a standard costing system has the following direct labour standards per
unit for one product AB611.
4 hours at Shs.12·50 per hour
In the period just ended, when 2,195 units of the product were manufactured, the actual direct
labour cost for the 9,200 hours worked was Shs.110,750.
Required: Calculate labour rate variance for the period
Solution
Labour rate variance = Actual rate x Actual hours–Standard rate x Actual hours
= Shs.110,750 – Shs.12.50 x 9200
= Shs.4,250 (F)
Possible causes of Labour Rate Variance
§ Negotiation of wages where the employee may demand a higher rate than the standard,
this may be considered as uncontrollable as the employer has very little, if any, control
on the wage rate. Higher wages than planned may be paid.
§ Unexpected overtime, which has an element of premium and bonus may also cause
this variance
§ Misallocation of workforce, allocating semi-skilled workers
Labor Efficiency variance (LEV)
Labour efficiency variance measures the productivity of labour. It is equivalent to material usage
variance. This variance is closely watched by management as increasing the productivity of
labour is the vital key to minimizing unit cost of production.
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
3 8 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Labor efficiency variance is calculated as follows:
Labor efficiency variance = Standard hours x Standard rate – Actual hours x Standard rate
= SH•SR - AH•SR
= (SH – AH) x SR
>>> Illustration VII (LEV)
The following information relates to labour costs for the past month:
Budget Labour rate 10 per hour
Production time 15,000 hours
Time per unit 3 hours
Production units 5,000 units
Actual Wages paid Shs176,000
Production 5,500 units
Total hours worked 14,000 hours
There was no idle time.
Required: calculate the labour efficiency variance?
Solution
Labour efficiency variance = Standard hours x Standard rate – Actual hours x Standard rate
= 5500 units x 3hrs x Shs.10 per hr – 14,000 hrs x Shs.10 per hr
= Shs.165,000 – Shs.140,000
= Shs.25,000 (F)
Causes of labour efficiency variance
§ Labour efficiency variance may be caused by various factors including
§ Use of poor quality materials and poorly trained workers or incorrect grade of workers
and poor supervision of workers, requiring more labour time in processing.
§ Use of incorrect materials or experiencing machine problems
§ Use of higher or better quality materials
§ Use of faulty equipment causing breakdowns and work interruptions.
385
S T U D Y T E X T
Total Labor Variance
Total labor variance, like total material variance, comprises two elements; labour rate variance
and labour efficiency variance:
Total labor variance = labour rate variance + labour efficiency variance
= AH(SR – AR) + SR(SH – AH)
= AH•SR - AH•AR + SR•SH - AH•SR
= SR•SH - AH•AR
>>> Illustration
Budget Labour rate Shs10 per hour
Production time 15,000 hours
Time per unit 3 hours
Production units 5,000 units
Actual Wages paid 176,000
Production 5,500 units
Total hours worked 14,000 hours
There was no idle time.
Required: Calculate total labour variance
Solution
Labor rate variance = Actual rate x Actual hours–Standard rate x Actual hours
= Shs.176,000 – Shs.10 x 14000 hrs
= Shs.36,000 (A)
Labor efficiency variance = Standard hours x Standard rate – Actual hours x Standard rate
= 5500 units x 3hrs x Shs.10 per hr – 14,000 hrs x Shs.10 per hr
= Shs.165,000 – Shs.140,000
= Shs.25,000 (F)
Total labor variance = Labour rate variance + Labour Efficiency Variance
= Shs.36,000 (A) + Shs.25,000 (F)
= Shs.11,000 (A)
OR
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
3 8 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Total labor variance = SR•SH - AH•AR
= Shs.10 x 5,500 units x 3 – Shs.176,000
= Shs.11,000 (A)
Overhead variances
Direct materials and direct labour vary directly with the output. However, total overheads do not.
This is because they can further be classified into variable and fixed components. The variable
overheads, which vary directly with output can be analyzed and controlled using the variance
formulas used to analyze direct materials and direct labour variances.
Tutorial notes:
1. Overheads refer to fixed overheads that cannot be traced directly to a particular product
or unit of production. Overheads are absorbed into costs by means of predetermined
overhead absorption rates (OAR), which are determined as follows:
OAR = Budgeted Overhead cost for the period
Budgeted Activity level
2. The activity level so budgeted could be expressed as units, weight, sales, e.t.c.; but the
most useful concept of the activity level is the standard hour.
Thus the total overhead absorbed = OAR x Standard hours of production.
3. Overhead variances can be analyzed into variable overhead variances and fixed
overheads variances.
Variable Overhead Variances (VOV)
Variable overhead variance comprises two elements; variable overhead expenditure variance
and variable overhead Efficiency variance.
Variable Overhead Expenditure Variance (VOXV)
Variable Overhead Expenditure variance (equivalent to material price variance or labour rate
variance) measures the deviation from the standard in amount spent for overhead input. It
measures the difference between the budgeted flexed variable overheads for the actual units of
the absorption base and the actual variable overhead costs incurred. The reason why we use the
same multiplier (the actual units of the absorption base) is to remove any element of inefficiency;
meaning that any difference arising is purely due to a difference in actual variable overhead
spending and standard variable overhead spending.
387
S T U D Y T E X T
The formula for the variable overhead Expenditure variance can be expressed as:
VOXV = Standard rate x Actual hours – Actual rate x Actual hours
= SR•AH –AR •AH
= (SR – AR) x AH
Possible causes of variable overhead expenditure variance
These include all factors that can cause a change in the standard overhead absorption rate; this
may include a change in the overheads to be absorbed or a decrease in the activity level which
is more than or less than proportionate increase in the overheads.
Variable Overhead Efficiency Variance (VOEV)
Variable overhead efficiency variance measures the difference between the actual activity of
a period and the standard activity allowed, multiplied by the variable part of predetermined
overhead rate. It is the difference between the allowed variable overheads and the absorbed
variable overheads.
Variable overhead efficiency variance formula can be expressed as;
Standard hrs of production Actual labour hrs
VOEV = x - x
V.O.A.R V.O.A.R
Where VOAR is the variable overhead absorption rate
= SH x VOAR – AH x VOAR
= (SH – AH) x VOAR
Possible causes of Variable Overhead Efficiency Variance
Variable overhead expenditure variance can be caused by any factor that causes a deviation of
actual hours of production from the standard hours of production. This may include inefficiencies
caused by use of faulty equipment thus increasing repair and maintenance and unskilled indirect
laborers.
In general, all factors that may cause labor efficiency variance can cause variable overhead
efficiency variance.
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
( ( ( (
3 8 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Fixed Overhead Variances (FOV)
Where marginal costing systems are in place, only variable overheads are absorbed into
production costs and thus only variances relating to variable overheads arise. However, where
full costing system is used, fixed overhead variances may arise. Fixed overheads are assumed
to remain unchanged in the short term in response to changes in the level of activity, but they
may change in response to changes in other factors.
Fixed overhead variances fall into two categories; fixed overhead expenditure variance and
fixed overhead volume variance. Fixed overhead volume variance comprises of fixed overhead
efficiency variance and fixed overhead capacity variance.
A diagrammatical illustration of fixed overhead variances
Fixed Overhead Expenditure Variance (FOEV)
Fixed overhead expenditure variance explains the difference between the budgeted fixed
overheads and the actual fixed overheads. It is the difference between the budgeted fixed
overheads and actual fixed overheads.
Fixed overhead expenditure variance = budgeted fixed overheads – Actual fixed overheads
>>> Illustration
A company operates a standard marginal costing system. Last month, its actual fixed overhead
expenditure was 10% above budget resulting in a fixed overhead expenditure variance of
Shs.36,000. What was the actual expenditure on fixed overheads last month?
Solution
Fixed overhead expenditure variance = budgeted fixed overheads – Actual fixed overheads
Possible causes of Variable Overhead Efficiency Variance
Variable overhead expenditure variance can be caused by any factor that causes a
deviation of actual hours of production from the standard hours of production. This may
include inefficiencies caused by use of faulty equipment thus increasing repair and
maintenance and unskilled indirect laborers.
In general, all factors that may cause labor efficiency variance can cause variable
overhead efficiency variance.
Fixed Overhead Variances (FOV)
Where marginal costing systems are in place, only variable overheads are absorbed into
production costs and thus only variances relating to variable overheads arise. However,
where full costing system is used, fixed overhead variances may arise. Fixed overheads
are assumed to remain unchanged in the short term in response to changes in the level
of activity, but they may change in response to changes in other factors.
Fixed overhead variances fall into two categories; fixed overhead expenditure variance
and fixed overhead volume variance. Fixed overhead volume variance comprises of
fixed overhead efficiency variance and fixed overhead capacity variance.
A diagrammatical illustration of fixed overhead variances
Fixed overhead
Expenditure variance
Fixed overhead
volume variance
Fixed overhead
Capacity variance
Fixed overheads
efficiency variance
Total fixed
Overheads
389
S T U D Y T E X T
Let the budgeted fixed overheads be x
(36,000) = x – 1.1x
Since the actual overheads were more, then make the variance figure a negative. Alternatively,
it can be expressed as
Fixed overhead expenditure variance = Actual fixed overheads – budgeted fixed overheads
36000 = 1.1x – x
36,000 = 0.1 x
x = 36,000 = Shs.360,000
0.1
The budgeted fixed expenditure on fixed overheads was Shs. 360,000 and, therefore, the actual
was Shs.396,000
Fixed Overheads Volume Variance (FOVV)
This is the difference between the standard cost absorbed in the production achieved and the
budget cost allowed for the period. It arises due to the actual production volume differing from the
planned: this is in turn caused by volume differing form the planned, labour efficiency variance
and or capacity variance (hours of working being less or more than planned). The fixed overhead
volume variance has a portion of fixed overheads capacity variance and fixed overheads efficiency
variance:
Fixed overheads capacity variance
This is the portion of the fixed overhead volume variance, which is the difference between the
standard cost absorbed in the production achieved whether completed or not, and the actual
labour hours worked. (Valued at the standard hourly absorption rate).
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
3 9 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Fixed overheads efficiency variance
This partly explains why the actual production was greater than the budgeted production. It
accrues to labour efficiency or inefficiency. For instance, a team may be assigned a specific
task, which in ordinary circumstances can take 10 hours (standard). However, the team may
cooperate and finish the task in eight hours (being more efficient). The saving will be expressed
in monetary units by multiplying the difference with standard fixed overhead absorption rate to
reflect the amount of fixed overheads equivalent that was not absorbed at the standard rate.
It means that the part of overheads that could be absorbed in the 2 hours saved shall not be
absorbed in the cost of the job. However, fixed cost being fixed shall still be incurred.
Distinguish between efficiency ratio and capacity ratio
Efficiency ratio: This is the standard hours equivalent to the work produced, expressed as a
percentage of the actual hours spent in producing that work. It measures the efficiency in the
utilization of hours available. It compares the standard time and the actual time taken. Efficiency
ratio, therefore, represents the measure of fixed budgeted hours to match the actual level of
production achieved.
Capacity ratio: This is the relationship between the budgeted number of working hours and
the maximum possible number of hours in a budget period. Capacity measures whether there
is enough resources as was budgeted for. If the hours that were available are less than the
budgeted hours, then the firm operated below its capacity.
This is the portion of the fixed overhead volume variance, which is the difference
between the standard cost absorbed in the production achieved whether completed or
not, and the actual labour hours worked. (Valued at the standard hourly absorption rate).
Fixed overheads efficiency variance
This partly explains why the actual production was greater than the budgeted production.
It accrues to labour efficiency or inefficiency. For instance, a team may be assigned a
specific task, which in ordinary circumstances can take 10 hours (standard). However,
the team may cooperate and finish the task in eight hours (being more efficient). The
saving will be expressed in monetary units by multiplying the difference with standard
fixed overhead absorption rate to reflect the amount of fixed overheads equivalent that
was not absorbed at the standard rate.
It means that the part of overheads that could be absorbed in the 2 hours saved shall not
be absorbed in the cost of the job. However, fixed cost being fixed shall still be incurred.
Distinguish between efficiency ratio and capacity ratio
Efficiency ratio: This is the standard hours equivalent to the work produced, expressed
as a percentage of the actual hours spent in producing that work. It measures the
efficiency in the utilization of hours available. It compares the standard time and the
actual time taken. Efficiency ratio, therefore, represents the measure of fixed budgeted
hours to match the actual level of production achieved.
Capacity ratio: This is the relationship between the budgeted number of working hours
and the maximum possible number of hours in a budget period. Capacity measures
Actual Expenditure on
fixed overheads
Budgeted overheads
Actual Labour hrs x
F.O.A.R
Standard hrs of
production x F.O.A.R
(Volume)
Capacity
variance
(Volume)
Efficiency
variance
Fixed overheads
Expenditure Variance
Fixed overheads
volume variance
FIXED
OVERHEAD
VARIANCE
(TOTAL)
Summary of the fixed overhead variances and their
relationships
391
S T U D Y T E X T
Total fixed overhead variance
Total fixed overhead is given by the summation of fixed overhead expenditure variance and
fixed overhead volume variance. But fixed overhead variance has two portions; Fixed overhead
capacity variance and Fixed overhead efficiency variance.
Total fixed overheads can be expressed in a formula as follows;
>>> Illustration
JVM Company uses a standard absorption costing system. Last month budgeted production
was 8,000 units and the standard fixed production overhead cost was Shs15 per unit. Actual
production last month was 8,500 units and the actual fixed production overhead cost was Shs17
per unit.
What was the total adverse fixed production overhead variance for last month? Calculate the
fixed overheads volume variance
Total fixed overheads variance = Absorbed fixed overheads – actual fixed overheads
= (Shs.15 x 8,500 units) – (Shs.17 x 8,500)
= Shs. (127,500 – 144,500)
= Shs.17,000 (Adverse)
Fixed overhead expenditure variance = budgeted fixed overheads – Actual fixed overheads
= (Shs.15 x 8,000) – (Shs.17 x 8,500)
= Shs.120,000 – Shs.144,500
= Shs.24,500 (Adverse)
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
whether there is enough resources as was budgeted for. If the hours that were available
are less than the budgeted hours, then the firm operated below its capacity.
Total fixed overhead variance
Total fixed overhead is given by the summation of fixed overhead expenditure variance
and fixed overhead volume variance. But fixed overhead variance has two portions;
Fixed overhead capacity variance and Fixed overhead efficiency variance.
Total fixed overheads can be expressed in a formula as follows;
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Illustration
JVM Company uses a standard absorption costing system. Last month budgeted
production was 8,000 units and the standard fixed production overhead cost was Shs15
per unit. Actual production last month was 8,500 units and the actual fixed production
overhead cost was Shs17 per unit.
What was the total adverse fixed production overhead variance for last month? Calculate
the fixed overheads volume variance
Total fixed overheads variance = Absorbed fixed overheads – actual fixed overheads
= (Shs.15 x 8,500 units) – (Shs.17 x 8,500)
= Shs. (127,500 – 144,500)
= Shs.17,000 (Adverse)
!"
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' '
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,
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(
)
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+
,
=
Volume variance
Fixed overheads
Expenditure variance
fixed overheads
Total fixed overheads variance
Fixed overhead expenditure variance = budgeted fixed overheads – Actual fixed
overheads
= (Shs.15 x 8,000) – (Shs.17 x 8,500)
= Shs.120,000 – Shs.144,500
= Shs.24,500 (Adverse)
Fixed overhead Volume variance = Fixed overheads variance – fixed overheads
expenditure variance
= Shs.17,000 (A) – Shs.24,500 (A)
= Shs.7,500 (F)
whether there is enough resources as was budgeted for. If the hours that were available
are less than the budgeted hours, then the firm operated below its capacity.
Total fixed overhead variance
Total fixed overhead is given by the summation of fixed overhead expenditure variance
and fixed overhead volume variance. But fixed overhead variance has two portions;
Fixed overhead capacity variance and Fixed overhead efficiency variance.
Total fixed overheads can be expressed in a formula as follows;
! !
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Fixed overheads
capacity variance
Fixed overhead
Expenditure variance
fixed overheads
Total fixed overheads variance
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Fixed overheads
Expenditure variance
fixed overheads
Total fixed overheads variance
Illustration
JVM Company uses a standard absorption costing system. Last month budgeted
production was 8,000 units and the standard fixed production overhead cost was Shs15
per unit. Actual production last month was 8,500 units and the actual fixed production
overhead cost was Shs17 per unit.
What was the total adverse fixed production overhead variance for last month? Calculate
the fixed overheads volume variance
Total fixed overheads variance = Absorbed fixed overheads – actual fixed overheads
= (Shs.15 x 8,500 units) – (Shs.17 x 8,500)
= Shs. (127,500 – 144,500)
= Shs.17,000 (Adverse)
!"
#
$%
&
' '
(
)
* *
+
,
+ ' '
(
)
* *
+
,
=
Volume variance
Fixed overheads
Expenditure variance
fixed overheads
Total fixed overheads variance
Fixed overhead expenditure variance = budgeted fixed overheads – Actual fixed
overheads
= (Shs.15 x 8,000) – (Shs.17 x 8,500)
= Shs.120,000 – Shs.144,500
= Shs.24,500 (Adverse)
Fixed overhead Volume variance = Fixed overheads variance – fixed overheads
expenditure variance
= Shs.17,000 (A) – Shs.24,500 (A)
= Shs.7,500 (F)
3 9 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Fixed overhead Volume variance = Fixed overheads variance – fixed overheads expenditure
variance
= Shs.17,000 (A) – Shs.24,500 (A)
= Shs.7,500 (F)
SALES VARIANCES
These can be used to analyze the performance of the sales function or revenue centers.
N.B. Sales variance calculations are calculated in terms of profit or contribution margin rather
than sales values. If sales values are used (actual sales compared to budgeted) there is the risk
of ignoring the impact of the sales effort on profit. The term profit margin is used when absorption
costing approach of determining profit is applied, whereas the term Contribution Margin is used
when Marginal costing approach is applied.
Total sales margin variance
It is the total difference between the actual margin and the budgeted margin from sales when
cost of sales is valued at standard cost of production.
A.C – B.C
Sales margin price variance
It is that portion of total sales margin variance, which is the difference between the standard
margin per unit and actual margin per unit for the number of units sold in the period.
(A.M – S.M) * A.Q
Sales margin volume variance
It is the difference between the actual sales volume and the budgeted volume multiplied by the
standard margin per unit.
(A.V – B.V) * S.M
Ideally, the above variances are assuming that there’s only one product being sold. In reality,
organizations will have a portfolio of different products each with different prices and costs and
consequently profits or contributions.
393
S T U D Y T E X T
The sales margin volume variance could, therefore, be further analyzed into:
Sales mixture variance
This is the portion of sales margin volume variance that’s the difference between the total number
of units at the actual mix and the actual total number of units at standard mix valued at standard
margin per unit.
Sales margin volume variance
This is the portion of sales margin quantity variance, which is the difference between the actual
total quantities of units sold and the budgeted total number of units at standard mix valued at
standard margin per unit.
Total Sales Margin
Sales margin
Quantity
variance
Sales margin Price variance
(Actual units @actual mix
@actual margin)
Sales margin Variance Sales Margin Mix variance
STD units
@STD mix
@STD
margin
Actual units
@STD mix
@STD Margin
Actual units
@Actual Mix
@Standard Margin
>>> Illustration:
Provided below is data for three products A, B and C.
UNITS UNITS
Total
Sales
Volume Price Margin
Total
margin
Total
sales
Volume Price Margin
Total
margin
A 10000 500 20 5 2500 10560 480 22 8 3840
B 8000 200 40 20 4000 6120 170 36 15 2550
C 9000 300 30 15 4500 8500 250 34 20 5000
27000 1000 11000 25180 900 11390
Required:
Sales Margin volume variance
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
3 9 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
a) Sales margin volume variance
Actual usage STD units
@STD mix - @STD mix
@STD margin @STD margin
Total actual units is 900
Standard mix is 50%, 20% and 30%
(450*5) + (180*20) + (270*15) = 9900
Sales margin volume variance = 9900 – 11000 = 1100 (A)
b) Sales margin mix variance
Actual usage Actual usage
@Actual mix - @STD mix
@STD margin @STD margin (9900)
The actual units in the actual proportion and standard margin is calculated as:
(480*5) + (170*20) + (250*15) = 9550
Sales margin mix variance = 9900 – 9550 = 350 (A)
c) Sales margin price variance
Actual usage Actual usage
@Actual mix - @actual mix
@Actual margin @STD margin
= 11390 – 9550 = 1840 (F)
N.B. Sales margin quantity variance = sales margin mix variance + sales margin volume
variance.
= 1100 (A) + 350 (A) = 1450 (A)
Total variance could be confirmed by getting the difference between the budgeted margin and
the actual margin.
11390 – 11000 = 390 (F)
Criticisms of sales margin variances
The purpose of variance analysis is to see if there are any deviations for the budget. If there are
and it is within the control of the manager, he is to take steps to correct the situation to avoid
further deviations. The manager has very little control over the sales and thus some writers would
find the usefulness of the variances doubtful.
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S T U D Y T E X T
However, they could be useful in a situation where the organization has some control over the
sales price. It could also be useful where a manager is in charge of two substitute products where
he can use the mix variances.
Mix and quantity variances provide useful information only when there is an identifiable relationship
between the products sold. If there is no relationship, sales variance analysis should be done
on the separate products. Providing managers with mix and quantity variances for products that
have no relationship is misleading as it implies that the possible cause of sales volume variance
is change in the mix (Gibson, 1990).
He gave examples of where relationships might exist:
§ Similar products differentiated by single characteristics e.g. size where sales of individual
products are expected to vary proportionately with total sales.
§ From the sale of complementary products where sales of one product are expected to
result in increased sales in another
§ From the sale of substitute products where the increased sales of one product leads to
a decrease in sales of another
§ Sale of heterogeneous products quantities of which are limited by factors of production
e.g. sale of product with lower contribution margins per limiting factor is made only if
products with higher margins cannot be sold.
Mix Variances
In the previous section, we looked at variances where we assumed that we only had one product.
However, we have focused on mix variances to some extent while calculating the sales variances.
This section focuses on material variances assuming more than one type of material input.
N.B. Mix and yield analysis will only give meaningful results where there is some degree of
interchangeability between materials and products.
Variation from the standard input of materials may arise where one material may be over-utilized
while the other is under-utilized, evaporation of some input materials, breakages and machine
inefficiency.
Three variances will be observed in a scenario:
a) Material price variance: This would arise where the materials have been bought at
different prices for the standard.
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
3 9 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
b) Mix variance: This arises where the materials have been used in different proportions
from the standard.
c) Yield variance: This arises where a different total quantity of materials from standard
(for actual output) have been used.
The sum of the mix variance and yield variance make up the Total Usage Variance.
Formulae
Price variance Actual quantity Actual quantity
@actual mix - @actual mix
@actual prices @STD prices
Mix variances Actual quantity Actual quantity
@actual mix - @STD proportion
@STD prices @STD prices
Yield variances Actual quantity STD quantity
@STD mix - @STD mix
@STD prices @STD price
The above variances will be explained well using an example.
>>> Illustration
Standard material cost for 990 tons of production
Material Tons Price/ton Total
X 550 $6.00 3300
Y 330 $5.00 1650
Z _220 $4.50 _990
Total 1100 5940
Normal loss _110 _ -
(10%) _990 5940
The average material cost per ton Shs.5,940 = Shs.6.00
990
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S T U D Y T E X T
The actual production of 990 tons used materials at prices as follows.
Material Tons price/ton Total
X 444 $7.5 3330
Y 446 $6.0 2676
Z 240 $4.5 1080
1130 7086
140 -
990 7086
i. Material price variance
Actual Quantity X 444*6 = 2664
@actual mix Y 446*5 = 2330
@STD prices Z 240*4.5 = 1080
1130 5974
Actual quantity
@actual mix
@actual prices 7086
1112 (A)
ii. Material mix variance
Actual quantity
@actual mix 5974
@STD prices
Actual quantity X 565*6 = 3390
@STD mix Y 339*5 = 1695
@STD prices Z 226*4.5=1017 6102
128 (F)
iii. Material yield
Actual quantity
@STD mix 6102
@STD prices
STD quantity
@STD mix
@STD prices 5940
162 (A)
Usage variance = Yield variance + mix variances
128 (A) + 162 (A) = $34 (A)
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
3 9 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Causes of mix variances
a) Mix variances
Favorable Mix variance arises when less of more expensive material and more of the
cheaper materials are used. For instance, in the example above, 128 (F) arises because
less of more expensive material X has been used and more of the cheaper materials Y
and Z
b) Yield variance
Favorable yield variance arises when the output is less than expected: when the actual
loss exceeds the normal loss. Use of cheaper but low quality materials may result to a drop
in good production. For instance, the change to a cheaper mix of material has resulted in
the drop in yield of good production in relation to the standard.
The material mix variance could be further analyzed to splitting and getting the variances
for the individual products.
Actual Actual quantity Variance STD price Mix variance
In STD mix
X 444 565 121 (F) 6 726 (F)
Y 446 339 107 (A) 5 535 (A)
Z 240 226 14 (A) 4.5 63 (A)
128 (F)
The total mix variance is made up of a series of favorable and adverse variances. Using smaller
quantities of the more expensive material gave us a favorable variance whereas the more use of
the cheaper material gave an adverse variance.
Without further analysis, a manager might conclude that using more of material X is good and
increasing the levels of Y and Z is quite detrimental in terms of adverse variances. There is a
danger in simply looking at mix variances in isolation from yield variances.
Problems in using conventional mix and yield variances
Conventional mix and yield variances are based on assumptions some of which might be
considered absurd or impracticable. The reliance, however, on mix and yield variances should
be done together with a good understanding of principles and objectives of variance analysis and
not just the mechanical application of a few formulae.
The variances just show the effect of changes from the original standard but doesn’t show whether
the results were optimal given relative prices, qualities and availability of materials. Where
materials can be substituted, where characteristics of material are variable and where there
are relative price changes, the optimal mix may be continually changing and static conventional
variance calculation is unlikely to be appropriate. Getting the optimal mix requires one that gives
us the maximum contribution based on a limiting factor. Where limiting factors are many, linear
programming is usually applied on a continuous basis.
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S T U D Y T E X T
It also assumes a constant correlation between physical inputs and outputs regardless of the mix
of output i.e. if the mix of output changes, some relationship is assumed between the new mix
and output as between original standard mix and output.
Technical acceptability of the output is ignored as it is assumed that output is acceptable
regardless of the input mix of materials.
Linear substitutability of material is ignored. For example, if they reduce A by one unit, they should
increase B by one unit. Further substitution would result in a mix consisting of one material only;
the cheapest.
Assuming the technical acceptability of the output based on the premise that the standard
represents the optimum position, we should never get a favorable mix variance because the
lower standard cost of actual mix means that it should have been the original standard in the first
place.
In addition to the variances, technical and commercial factors affecting the process being
considered should be done. This could include:
§ Relative prices, availability and technical characteristics of input material at the time of
the mix.
§ The extent of technical substitutability of material
§ Planned yield format given actual mix of material not merely the yield form standard
mix.
§ Interdependencies between material variances and other process inputs e.g. what
effect does it have on labor costs?
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
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S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER SUMMARY
This chapter has covered the various types of variances. The formula used to calculate the
variances include.
Note:
SQ = Standard quantity
SP = Standard price
AQ = Actual quantity
AP = Actual Price
AR = Actual rate
AR = Standard rate
VOAR = Variable overhead absorption rate
AH = Actual hours
Material variance = SQ x SP – AQ x AP
Material price variance = SP x AQ – AP x AQ
Material usage variance = SQ x SP – AQ x SP
Labour rate variance = SR x AQ – AR x AQ
Labour efficiency variance = SQ x SR – AQ x SR
Variable overhead efficiency variance = SH x VOAR – AH x VOAR
Variable overhead expenditure variance = SRxAH – AR xAH
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S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. What is a variance?
2. Distinguish between capacity ratio and efficiency ratio.
3. Define total sales margin price variance.
4. Highlight the possible causes of labour rate variance
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
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S T U D Y T E X T
ANSWERS TO CHAPTER QUIZ
1. A variance is a deviation from the expected.
2. Efficiency ratio is the standard hours equivalent to the work produced, expressed as
a percentage of the actual hours spent in producing that work. The efficiency ratio
measures the efficiency in the utilization of hours available.
3. Capacity ratio is capacity ratio is the relationship between the budgeted number of
working hours and the maximum possible number of hours in a budget period. Capacity
measures whether there is enough resources as was budgeted for
4. Sales margin price variance = (Actual Margin – Standard Margin) * Actual Quantity
5. Possible causes of labour rate variance include; negotiation of wages, unexpected
overtime and misallocation of workforce.
PAST PAPER ANALYSIS
Questions from this chapter have been examined in the following examination sittings.
06/ 07 Q5; 05/ 06 Q1; 05/ 06/ Q6(b); 05/ 05 Q2; 06/ 04 Q3; 06/ 03 Q2; 12/01 Q1(b); 05/ 01 Q2;
12/00 Q5; 06/ 00 Q4
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S T U D Y T E X T
REVIEW QUESTIONS
Question One
Whitaker plc has obtained the following information regarding costs and revenue for the past
financial year:
Original budget:
Sales 10,000 units
Production 12,000 units
Standard cost per unit: Shs
Direct materials 5
Direct labour 9
Fixed production overheads _8
22
Selling price 30
Actual results:
Sales 9,750 units
Revenue Shs.325,000
Production 11,000 units
Material cost Shs.65,000
Labour cost Shs.100,000
Fixed production overheads Shs.95,000
There were no opening stocks.
Required:
a) Produce a statement showing the flexed budget and actual results. Calculate the variances
between the actual and flexed figures for the following:
§ Sales;
§ Materials;
§ Labour; and
§ Fixed production overhead (7 marks)
b) Explain briefly how the sales and materials variances calculated in (a) may have arisen.
Question Two
T-mo plc manufactures and sells product CD95. The company operates a standard marginal
costing system. The standard cost card for CD95 includes the following:
Shs. per unit
Direct material 20
Direct labour (6 hours at Shs.7·50 per hour) 45
Variable production overheads 27
–––
92
–––
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
4 0 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The budgeted and actual activity levels for the last quarter were as follows:
Budget Actual
Units Units
Sales 20,000 19,000
Production 20,000 21,000
The actual costs incurred in last quarter were:
Shs
Direct material 417,900
Direct labour (124,950 hours) 949,620
Variable production overheads 565,740
Required:
a) Calculate the total variances for direct material, direct labour and variable production
overheads (3 marks)
b) Provide an appropriate breakdown of the total variance for direct labour calculated in
(a) above (3 marks)
c) Suggest TWO possible causes for EACH variance calculated in (b) (4 marks)
Question Three
Mwaniki Ltd manufactures a single product which has a standard selling price of Shs22 per unit.
It operates a standard marginal costing system. The standard variable production cost is Shs9
per unit. Budgeted annual production is 360,000 units and budgeted non-production costs of
Shs1,152,000 per annum are all fixed. The following data relate to last month:
Budget Actual
Units units
Production 30,000 33,000
Sales 32,000 34,000
Last month, the budgeted profit was Shs200,000 and the actual total sales revenue was
Shs731,000.
Required:
(i) Calculate the sales price and sales volume contribution variances for last month showing
clearly whether each variance is favorable or adverse. (4 marks)
(ii) Explain how the two variances calculated in (a) could be interrelated. (3 marks)
(iii) Calculate the BUDGETED profit for last month assuming that the company was using
absorption costing. (3 marks)
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S T U D Y T E X T
Question four
Last month, Isaac’s Company’s budgeted sales were 5,000 units. The standard selling price
was Shs6 per unit with a standard contribution to sales ratio of 60%. Actual sales were 4,650
units with a total revenue of Shs.30,225 What were the favorable sales price and adverse sales
volume contribution variances?
Sales price Sales volume contribution
Shs Shs
A 2,325 1,260
B 2,500 1,260
C 2,325 2,100
D 2,500 2,100 (5 marks)
Question five
Woodeezer Ltd makes quality wooden benches for both indoor and outdoor use. Results have
been disappointing in recent years and a new managing director, Peter Beech, was appointed
to raise production volumes. After an initial assessment Peter Beech considered that budgets
had been set at levels which made it easy for employees to achieve. He argued that employees
would be better motivated by setting budgets which challenged them more in terms of higher
expected output. Other than changing the overall budgeted output, Mr Beech has not yet altered
any part of the standard cost card. Thus, the budgeted output and sales for November 2002 was
4,000 benches and the standard cost card below was calculated on this basis:
Shs.
Wood 25 kg at Shs3·20 per kg 80·00
Labour 4 hours at Shs8 per hour 32·00
Variable overheads 4 hours at Shs4 per hour 16·00
Fixed overhead 4 hours at Shs16 per hour 64·00
–––––––
192·00
Selling price 220·00
–––––––
Standard profit 28·00
–––––––
Overheads are absorbed on the basis of labour hours and the company uses an absorption
costing system. There were no stocks at the beginning of November 2002. Stocks are valued at
standard cost. Actual results for November 2002 were as follows:
Shs
Wood 80,000 kg at Shs.3·50 280,000
Labor 16,000 hours at Shs.7 112,000
Variable overhead 60,000
Fixed overhead 196,000
––––––––
Total production cost (3,600 benches) 648,000
Closing stock (400 benches at Shs192) 76,800
––––––––
Cost of sales 571,200
Sales (3,200 benches) 720,000
––––––––
Actual profit 148,800
––––––––
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
4 0 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The average monthly production and sales for some years prior to November 2002 had been
3,400 units and budgets had previously been set at this level. Very few operating variances had
historically been generated by the standard costs used.
Mr Beech has made some significant changes to the operations of the company. However, the
other directors are now concerned that Mr Beech has been too ambitious in raising production
targets. Mr Beech had also changed suppliers of raw materials to improve quality, increased
selling prices, begun to introduce less skilled labour, and significantly reduced fixed overheads.
The finance director suggested that an absorption costing system is misleading and that a
marginal costing system should be considered at some stage in the future to guide decisionmaking.
Required:
(a) Prepare an operating statement for November 2002. This should show all operating
variances and should reconcile budgeted and actual profit for the month for Woodeezer
Ltd. (14 marks)
(b) In so far as the information permits, examine the impact of the operational changes
made by Mr Beech on the profitability of the company. In your answer, consider each of
the following:
(i) Motivation and budget setting; and
(ii) Possible causes of variances. (6 marks)
(a) Re-assess the impact of your comments in part (b), using a marginal costing approach
to evaluating the impact of the operational changes made by Mr Beech.
Show any relevant additional calculations to support your arguments. (5 marks)
(25 marks)
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CASE STUDY 2
McDermott plc is a manufacturer of beds. It uses a system of standard absorption costing and
variances to monitor performance of managers and departments. A standard cost card for one of
its models, the Dreamer, is given below.
£ per unit £ per unit
Selling price 250.00
Direct material: Wood: 12m @ £1.50 per m 18.00
Fabric: 6m2 @ £2.00 per m2 12.00
Direct labour: 4 hours @ £6.00 per hour 24.00
Variable overhead: 4 hours @ £15.00 60.00
Fixed overhead: 4 hours @ £10.00 40.00
154.00
Profit 96.00
Budgeted production and sales are 1,000 Dreamers per month.
Actual results for the manufacture and sale of Dreamers for the most recent month are as
follows:
Sales: 1,200 units @ £240 each
Production: 1,300 units
Wood 16,000m @ £1.40 per m
Fabric 7,800m2 @ £2.10 per m2
Direct labour: 5,000 hours @ £7.00 per hour
Variable overhead: 5,000 hours @ £15.10 per hour
Fixed overhead: £54,600.
There was no opening stock.
Terminology
Throughout this article, the term ‘adverse variance’ (Adv) describes a situation where actual
results are worse than standard and have a detrimental effect on profit (costs are higher or
revenues lower). ‘Favorable’ (Fav) describes the opposite situation. Many candidates omit these
signs and thus lose half of the marks available for calculation. In practice, and in the exam,
variances are of little use without a sign. Some candidates use negative signs or brackets for
adverse variances, and no signs for favorable variances. This causes marking problems, because
it becomes difficult to tell the difference between a favorable variance and one without a sign.
Lesson 1
Always clearly label variances as either adverse or favorable. These labels will represent
50% of the marks available for variance calculations.
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
4 0 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Variable Cost Variances
The direct labour variance is usually the simplest variance to calculate. Actual direct labour cost
was £35,000 (5,000 hours x £7.00). This needs to be compared with the standard cost. A very
common error in candidates’ calculations is to make the following comparison:
Actual hours x actual rate
= 5,000 hours x £7.00 = £35,000
>£11,000 Adv labour variance
Budgeted hours x standard rate
= 1,000 units x 4 hours x £6.00 = £24,000
This is not a sensible comparison. Actual costs relate to producing 1,300 units. Budgeted figures
relate to producing 1,000 units. It is important to compare like with like. If labour is a variable cost,
then we would expect the extra 300 units to require extra labour hours.
A more sensible, and correct, calculation is to compare the actual labour cost with the flexed
budget labour cost of producing 1,300 units, as follows
Actual hours x actual rate
= 5,000 hours x £7.00 = £35,000
>£3,800 Adv labour variance
Standard hours for actual production x standard rate
= 1,300 units x 4 hours x £6.00 = £31,200
Lesson 2
It is important when calculating variable cost variances that figures are based on flexed budget
figures, not original budgeted figures.
The total labour variance of £3,800 adverse has two potential causes – either the firm has paid a
different hourly rate to standard, or it has used a different amount of hours per unit to standard, or
possibly both. If we insert a third line into the analysis, we can separate out these two causes.
Actual hours x actual rate
= 5,000 hours x £7.00 = £35,000
>£5,000 Adv rate variance
Actual hours x standard rate
= 5,000 hours x £6.00 = £30,000
>£1,200 Fav efficiency variance
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S T U D Y T E X T
Standard hours for actual production x standard rate
= 1,300 units x 4 hours x £6.00 = £31,200
We can now see that the total variance of £3,800 adverse has two causes. First, a rate (or more
generally expenditure) variance, caused by paying more per hour than standard. Second, an
efficiency variance, caused by making 1,300 units in 5,000 hours rather than the flexed budget
5,200 hours (1,300 units x 4 hours).
Tabular or formula approach?
Many textbooks present the above calculation in a ‘formula’ format rather than the tabular layout
adopted above. For example, the labour rate variance calculation is often presented as follows:
(Actual rate per hour - Standard rate per hour) x Actual hours = Labor rate variance = (£6.00 -
£7.00) x 5,000 hours = £5,000 Adv.
This layout is perfectly valid, probably quicker to use, and would attract full marks in an exam.
However, in my experience of marking, I find that candidates using the formula approach make
far more errors than those using a tabular approach.
VARIANCE ANALYSIS
This layout is perfectly valid, probably quicker to use, and would attract full marks in an
exam. However, in my experience of marking, I find that candidates using the formula
approach make far more errors than those using a tabular approach
Actual Fixed overheads
£54,600
Absorbed Fixed overheads
£52,000
Budgeted Fixed overheads
£40,000
Budgeted
Volume
1,000 units
Actual
Volume
1,300 units
Volume (units)
Volume
variance
Expenditure
variance
Overhead absorbed
at £40 per unit
Fixed costs
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S T U D Y T E X T
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CHAPTER THIRTEEN
COST MANAGEMENT
S TSUTDUYD YT ETXETX T
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S T U D Y T E X T
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CHAPTER THIRTEEN
COST MANAGEMENT
OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
• Define a value chain.
• Understand the value chain research methodology.
• Explain Just-In-Time (JIT) inventory management system.
• Explain the advanced Manufacturing technology and material resource planning.
• Understand the importance of computers in cost management.
INTRODUCTION
This section discusses the importance of cost management and emerging issues in costing.
It focuses on recent initiatives and developments in technology that have a positive impact on
cost management. Such initiatives include advanced material technology and material resource
planning.
DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS AND ACRONYMS
JIT – Just-in-time Inventory system
AMT – Advanced Materials Technology; an initiative should support research to develop new
classes of materials, material systems, material processing, characterization methods and
techniques.
Long run average incremental cost (LRAIC); constitutes cost of production of an additional unit
plus an allocated share of common costs.
EXAM CONTEXT
The nature of questions to be set may differ from time to time. Questions set from this topic will
primarily be based on current trends in technological developments and initiatives. Note that the
answers will not come directly from this book. Further reading is recommended. Let this topic be
a guide to what needs to be read further.
4 1 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
INDUSTRY CONTEXT
This chapter is applicable in almost every industry in today’s world. Technology is rapidly changing
and firms are forced to adopt the new technologies or they would collapse. They have no option.
This topic will also give you the basic knowledge you need to engage into a conversation and
understand the technological terms used, their relevance and applicability.
VALUE CHAIN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DESIGN
PRODUCTION, MARKETING – DISTRIBUTION AND
CUSTOMER CARE
Definition of value chain
A value chain is used to define the combination of all the activities and resources needed
for generating products and services. The value chain often consists of several operators
(manufacturing industry, wholesale trade, retail trade, customer, etc.) The value chain ends with
the customer.
There are various types of value chain:
i) Simple value chain: The value chain describes the full range of activities which are
required to bring a product or service from conception, through the different phases of
production (involving a combination of physical transformation and the input of various
producer services), delivery to final consumers, and final disposal after use.
ii) Extended value chain: In the real world, of course, value chains are much more
complex than this. For one thing, there tend to be many more links in the chain. Take,
for example, the case of the furniture industry. This involves the provision of seed inputs,
chemicals, equipment and water for the forestry sector. Cut logs pass to the sawmill
sector which gets its primary inputs from the machinery sector. From there, sawn timber
moves to the furniture manufacturers who, in turn, obtain inputs from the machinery,
adhesives and paint industries and also draw on design and branding skills from the
service sector. Depending on which market is served, the furniture then passes through
various intermediary stages until it reaches the final customer, who after use, consigns
the furniture for recycling.
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S T U D Y T E X T
iii) One or many value chains: In addition to the manifold links in a value chain, typically
intermediary producers in a particular value chain may feed into a number of different
value chains. In some cases, these alternative value chains may absorb only a small
share of their output; in other cases, there may be an equal spread of customers.
But the share of sales at a particular point in time may not capture the full story – the
dynamics of a particular market or technology may mean that a relatively small (or
large) customer/supplier may become a relatively large (small) customer/supplier in
the future. Furthermore the share of sales may obscure the crucial role that a particular
supplier controlling a key core technology or input (which may be a relatively small part
of its output) has on the rest of the value chain.
iv) One or many labels: There is a considerable overlap between the concept of a value
chain and similar concepts used in other contexts. One important source of confusion –
particularly in earlier years before the value chain as outlined above became increasingly
widespread in the research and policy domain – was one of nomenclature and arose
from the work of Michael Porter in the mid 1980s. Porter distinguished two important
elements of modern value chain analysis
• The various activities which were performed in particular links in the chain. Here
he drew the distinction between different stages of the process of supply (inbound
logistics, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and after sales
service), the transformation of these inputs into outputs (production, logistics,
quality and continuous improvement processes), and the support services the firm
marshals to accomplish this task.
• He complements this discussion of intra-link functions with the concept of the multilinked
value chain itself, which he refers to as the value system. The value system
basically extends his idea of the value chain to inter-link linkages,
There are six main business functions of a value chain:
• Research and Development
• Design of Products, Services, or Processes
• Productions
• Marketing and Sales
• Distribution
• Customer Service
COST MANAGEMENT
4 1 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Importance of value chain analysis
There are three main sets of reasons why value chain analysis is important in this era of rapid
globalization. They are:
• With the growing division of labour and the global dispersion of the production of
components, systemic competitiveness has become increasingly important
• Efficiency in production is only a necessary condition for successfully penetrating global
markets. Value chain analysis helps in understanding the advantages and disadvantages
of firms and countries specializing in production rather than services.
• Entry into global markets which allows for sustained income growth – that is, making
the best of globalization - requires an understanding of dynamic factors within the whole
value chain; value chain analysis helps to explain the distribution of benefits, particularly
income, to those participating in the global economy. This makes it easier to identify
the policies which can be implemented to enable individual producers and countries to
increase their share of these gains. This is an especially topical issue at the turn of the
millennium and has captured the attention of a wide variety of parties.
Value chain as a heuristic and analytical tool
There are three important components of value chains, which need to be recognized
and which transform an heuristic device into an analytical tool:
• Value chains are repositories for rent, and these rents are dynamic
The value chain is an important construct for understanding the distribution of returns
arising from design, production, marketing, coordination and recycling. Essentially,
the primary returns accrue to those parties who are able to protect themselves from
competition. This ability to insulate activities can be encapsulated by the concept of
rent, which arises from the possession of scarce attributes and involves barriers to entry.
There are a variety of forms of rent. The focus of much of the literature, entrepreneurial
energies and government policies is on what is called economic rents. The classical
economists (such as Ricardo) argued that economic rent accrues on the basis of unequal
ownership/access or control over an existing scarce resource (e.g. land). However, as
Schumpeter showed, scarcity can be constructed through purposive action, and hence
an entrepreneurial surplus can accrue to those who create this scarcity.
• Effectively functioning value chains involve some degree of ‘governance’
A second consideration which helps to transform the value chain from an heuristic
to an analytical concept is that the various activities in the chain – within firms and in
the division of labour between firms – are subject to what Gereffi has usefully termed
‘governance’ (Gereffi, 1994). Value chains imply repetitiveness of linkage interactions.
Governance ensures that interactions between firms along a value chain exhibit some
reflection of organisation rather than being simply random. Value chains are governed
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when parameters requiring product, process, and logistic qualification are set which
have consequences up or down the value chain encompassing bundles of activities,
actors, roles and functions.
In trying to understand the role of governance in global value chains, we can be informed by the
discussion of governance in civil society. Here four elements are relevant:
o There is an important distinction between the three functions of government (the
“separation of powers”) - the legislature (making the laws), the executive (implementing
the laws) and the judiciary (monitoring the conformance to laws).
o To be effective, the power to govern requires the capacity to sanction behavior; these
sanctions are generally negative and are directed against transgressions (the “stick”),
but they may also be positive and may reward conformance (the “carrot”).
o In the long run, sustained governance reflects the legitimacy of those in power.
o The remit of power may vary in intensity and in physical and economic space.
• There are different types of value chains
Building on this concept of governance, Gereffi has made the very useful distinction
between two types of value chains The first describes those chains where the critical
governing role is played by a buyer at the apex of the chain. Buyer-driven chains are
characteristic of labour intensive industries (and therefore highly relevant to developing
countries) such as footwear, clothing, furniture and toys. The second describes a world
where key producers in the chain, generally commanding vital technologies, play the
role of coordinating the various links – producer-driven chains
VALUE CHAINS, INNOVATION AND UPGRADING
There are two paths of insertion into the global economy; the low road, one of immisering growth,
a trajectory in which producers face intense competition and are engaged in a “race to the
bottom”. On the other hand, those who trod a high road, and exhibit the ability to enter a virtuous
circle of participation in the global economy, realising: sustained income growth. What explains
the difference between these two paths is the capacity to innovate, and to ensure continuous
improvement in product and process development. If this is the case, then the emphasis in
production needs to be placed on the ability to learn and this has implications not just for the
productive sector itself, but also for the whole National System of Innovation (Lundvall, 1992;
Nelson and Winter, 1993).
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But innovation in itself may not be adequate. If the rate of innovation is lower than that of
competitors, it may result in declining value added and market shares. In the extreme case, it
may also involve immiserising growth. Thus innovation has to be placed in a relative context
– how fast compared to competitors - and this is a process, which can be referred to as one of
upgrading. The concept of upgrading (as distinct from innovation) explicitly recognizes relative
endowments, and hence the existence of rent.
Different types of upgrading
• Process upgrading: increasing the efficiency of internal processes such that they are
significantly better than those of rivals, both within individual links in the chain, and
between the links in the chain.
• Product upgrading: introducing new products or improving old products faster than
rivals. This involves changing new product development processes both within individual
links in the value chain and in the relationship between different chain links.
• Functional upgrading: increasing value added by changing the mix of activities
conducted within the firm (for example, taking responsibility for, or outsourcing
accounting, logistics and quality functions) or moving the locus of activities to different
links in the value chain (for example from manufacturing to design).
• Chain upgrading: moving to a new value chain (for example, A firm moving from the
manufacture of transistor radios to calculators, to TVs, to computer monitors, to laptops
and now to WAP phones).
Firms need to examine their capabilities to determine those of its attributes which provide value
to the final customer, are relatively unique in the sense that few competitors possess them and
are difficult to copy, that is where there are barriers to entry.
Value chain research methodology
There is no mechanistic way of applying value chain methodology. Each chain will have particular
characteristics, whose distinctiveness and wider relevance can only be effectively captured and
analyzed through an understanding of the broader issues which are involved.
The methodology adopted should address the following issues:
• The point of entry for value chain analysis possible points of entry
Value chains are complex, and particularly in the middle tiers, individual firms may feed
into a variety of chains. Which chain – or chains – is/are the subject of enquiry, therefore,
very much depends on the point of entry for the research inquiry. Some of the possible
points of entry into the value chain research include the final consumer, supermarkets
or retail chains, independent buyers or wholesalers, home based workers, generally
large firms and small firms.
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The primary area of research interest based on the examples above would be; the
global distribution of income; the role of retailers, the role of independent buyers and
wholesalers, informal economy producers and buyers, second and third tier producers
and commodity producers respectively.
• Mapping value chains
Having identified the value chain in question, the task is then to put numbers and
values to the variables under investigation. Here, which variables are chosen will
reflect the primary questions being addressed in the research – for example, a gender
focus may suggest that a specific gender-lens be utilized to collect issue-specific data
which identify the role played by women throughout the chain. But, leaving aside these
specific interests, it is likely that all value chain analysis will gain from constructing a
“tree” of input-output relationships, which include most of the following primary general
accounting identities; gross output values, net output values, the physical flow of
commodities along the chain, the flow of services, consultants and skills along the
chain.
• Product segments and Critical Success Factors in final markets
One of the distinctive features about contemporary production systems is that they tend
to be “market-pulled”, as opposed to the “supplier-push” nature of protected and lowcompetition
value chains in previous decades. This puts a primacy on the characteristics
of final product markets in every chain, and generally represents a high-order priority in
all value chain studies
Contemporary global markets comprise a number of key characteristics which will need
to be analyzed to understand value chain dynamics. The critical components are that
- they are segmented
- they are referred to as critical success factors
- they are increasingly volatile
- they can either be ‘order qualifying’ or ‘order winning’
• How producers access final markets
One of the powers of value chain analysis is that it goes beyond firm-level analysis.
That is a narrow focus on the competitiveness of individual producers, or indeed even
a chain of producers, may not explain their success in global markets. This is because
each of these producers needs a point of entry into global markets, that is they need to
be connected. The point is that different forms of connecting intermediaries will affect the
terms of entry into global markets and the capacity of individual producers to upgrade.
In terms of orders of importance, therefore, knowledge of the ways in which disparate
producers are connected into different final markets is of particular importance to value
chain analysis; this links, as we shall see below, to the ability to characterize value
chains as being either “buyer-driven” or “producer driven”.
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• Benchmarking production efficiency
Having charted the dynamic nature of final markets, and the ways in which producers
are inserted into these markets, it is then necessary to analyze the productive efficiency
of different parties in the value chain. This is referred to as “benchmarking”.
• Governance of value chains
The power which any party may have in the chain may paradoxically be reflected in
two seemingly contradictory attributes. The first is obvious and arises from the power
to force other parties to take particular actions, for example to limit themselves to
assembly rather than to involve themselves in design. But, secondly, it may also reflect
the capacity to be deaf to the demands of others, that is to refuse the demand to
confine activities to assembly alone. These contradictory effects also arise from the fact
that parties are often involved in different value chains and these may result in crosscutting
power between value chains with the demands of one dominating the other with
detrimental effects down the chain.
The extent of chain power may be related in complicated ways to the relative size of a
particular firm in the chain. In general, the larger the firm, the more influential its role.
One of the distinctive features of value chain analysis is its focus on governance; both
power relations in the chain and the institutions which mould and wield this power. We
also argued that this function of governance was best understood through the lens of
civic governance, with its analysis of: Different functions associated with the “regime
of rule-making and rule-keeping”– that is, making the rules (“legislative governance”),
implementing the rules, (“executive governance”) and enforcing the rules (“judicial
governance”); the positive and negative sanctions which are used to enforce these
rules; the legitimacy of the power of the rule-makers; the extent of governance of the
rule-makers, that is, its reach. Associated with this is the issue of boundaries, that is
whether the rules are a product of relations between different parties in the chain, or
whether external parties are also involved.
• Upgrading in value chains
The process of upgrading in the value chain cannot be easily separated from those
of rent, barriers to entry and distribution which are covered in the next section of this
methodological discussion. This is because, by definition as we have seen, upgrading
has a comparative component, and in this sense it is distinctive from innovation.
However, for the moment, in this discussion of methodology we will treat upgrading in
isolation from the experience of other firms in the chain, and other chains.
There are four forms of upgrading. These are with regard to:
- Improvements in process, either within a firm, or as a result of a series of linked actions
in the relationships between firms.
- Improvements in product, either within a firm, or as a result of a series of linked actions
in the relationships between firms.
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- Changing functional positions, by adjusting activities undertaken within a particular link,
or moving to activities taking place in other links.
- Moving out of the value chain, into a new value chain.
There are various factors that block and others that enable upgrading activities in a firm. These
factors may be found within or without the firm.
Blockers inside the firm include resistance from middle management to new work practices,
failure of senior management to commit resources to new product development and lack of
adequate skills. The enablers inside the firm will include, top management commitment to
upgrading, effective research and development management and structured processes for
continuous improvement.
The blockers outside the firm will include buyers who block suppliers from using new designs,
intellectual property rights, lack of skills in the economy and poor IT infrastructure. The enablers
on the other hand will include chain governor which promotes and assists upgrading by chain
members, well established and proactive business service providers allied to facilitative
government programmes, new legislation forces firms to upgrade and rising process for inputs
and/or increased competition.
• Distributional issues
Distribution has both power and income components. The former concerns the balance
of leverage which different parties have in determining the distribution of who does
what in the chain and the returns which accrue to different parties. In pursuing this
distributional research agenda, it is necessary to work through the following components
of value chain analysis:
- what are the different forms of rents and barriers to entry which are the underlying
determinants of the distribution of the returns from global production chains?
- the unit of account, that is which currency is utilized to measure income?
- in what circumstances value added and turnover data illuminate the analysis?
- how is profitability to be measured, and are profits an appropriate measure of distributional
outcomes?
- the locational dimensions of global value chain distribution - global, national and local
- decomposing income streams - class, income groups, gender and ethnicity.
- how a knowledge focus can be incorporated into the analysis, opening up the distribution
between skills.
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JUST IN TIME INVENTORY SYSTEM
This concept advocates zero inventory and stockless production through just-in-time purchasing
and just-in-time production. Organizations create a closer relationship with the suppliers and
arrange for more frequent deliveries of small quantities. The objective of just-in-time purchasing
is to purchase goods so that delivery is made immediately before their use.
JIT is considered economical since it eliminates the cost of carrying inventory and reduces the
inefficiencies that the inventories create. JIT purchasing increases the number of orders as
the enterprises order more frequently and in smaller quantities. Holding cost is reduced by a
significant proportion as it only arises due to waste and inefficiency created by inventory. It calls
for 100 per cent quality. Some of the major features of JIT include:
a) Frequent and reliable deliveries to avoid inventory build up. Penalties are imposed on
those who do not meet the deadline.
b) Strategic location of firms. This may be closeness to suppliers and/or customers.
c) Improved communication between companies and suppliers through the use of
computerized purchasing systems that allows for online ordering.
d) Single sourcing and building long-term relations with a few trusted suppliers.
e) Increased supplier involvement in the design aspects of a product to ensure that they
meet the company’s quality requirements.
f) Maintenance of strict quality control by all parties. Suppliers guarantee the quality of
stock items.
Benefits of JIT inventory system
The benefits include lower inventory level, emphasis on strict quality control by all parties, faster
market response, smaller manufacturing facilities and lower set up costs.
1. Set up times are significantly reduced in the factory. Cutting down the set up time to
be more productive will allow the company to improve their bottom line to look more
efficient and focus time spent on other areas that may need improvement. This allows
the reduction or elimination of the inventory held to cover the “changeover” time.
2. The flows of goods from warehouse to shelves are improved. Having employees
focused on specific areas of the system will allow them to process goods faster instead
of having them vulnerable to fatigue from doing too many jobs at once and simplifies
the tasks at hand. Small or individual piece lot sizes reduce lot delay inventories which
simplifies inventory flow and its management.
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3. Employees who possess multiple skills are utilized more efficiently. Having employees
trained to work on different parts of the inventory cycle system will allow companies to
use workers in situations where they are needed when there is a shortage of workers
and a high demand for a particular product.
4. Better consistency of scheduling and consistency of employee work hours. If there is
no demand for a product at the time, workers don’t have to be working. This can save
the company money by not having to pay workers for a job not completed or could have
them focus on other jobs around the warehouse that would not necessarily be done on
a normal day.
5. Increased emphasis on supplier relationships. No company wants a break in their
inventory system that would create a shortage of supplies while not having inventory sit
on shelves. Having a trusting supplier relationship means that you can rely on goods
being there when you need them in order to satisfy the company and keep the company
name in good standing with the public.
6. Supplies continue around the clock keeping workers productive and businesses focused
on turnover. Having management focused on meeting deadlines will make employees
work hard to meet the company goals to see benefits in terms of job satisfaction,
promotion or even higher pay.
ADVANCED MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY (AMT)
Rapidly changing needs for materials and innovative manufacturing systems are creating new
opportunities for small business and industry in today’s global marketplace. For a country
to become competitive, grow existing and develop new industries, an initiative on advanced
manufacturing is of the utmost importance. This initiative should support research to develop
new classes of materials, material systems, material processing, characterization methods and
techniques as well as tools to help make the manufacturing base more competitive. History has
proved that in almost every case, the discovery of a new material has led to the establishment of
new industries and a resultant rapid economic growth.
Advanced manufacturing` technology results in new product development, material beneficiation
and improvement in the performance of production and manufacturing systems. The main aim is to
transform scientific discovery into social benefits and to realize private sector commercialization,
thereby opening up new opportunities.
The AMT hinge not just on policies and investments at a national level of a country but also on
capacity to foster clusters of innovation in the provinces across a country and to identify market
opportunities from the technological applications.
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Materials Technology is an enabling tool that must work in conjunction with the main industry
drivers to promote value addition. Besides this, Advanced manufacturing technology has the
following advantages:
- Development of new and advanced materials for product or process development
- The beneficiation of existing raw materials
- Coordinated effort in research and development concerning fundamental or applied
research in a laboratory, field, or research facility in order to create longer term
opportunities.
MATERIAL RESOURCE PLANNING
Proper management of materials makes production tasks go more quickly. When employees are
able to look up the status of all necessary materials at any given time, they can more accurately
plan and execute daily manufacturing activities. The use of accounting software with numerous
modules aid in the overall process of planning for and managing materials.
For instance, most accounting software enable management of the materials for any given job (via
bills of materials) and of the entire stock of materials owned by a company. While certain pieces
of information are more often used in one particular module, the information on the system can
be used and accessed by many different modules for comprehensive materials management.
The ways in which information about materials is stored on the system allows many tasks to be
connected and refined.
The Purchasing Module of an accounting system provides an excellent example of the benefits
of this computing structure. While purchasing is certainly an element of materials management,
many companies alert the purchasing department only when supplies are low. With an accounting
software’s Purchasing module, those creating POs can look at the Planned Materials Requirement
report in order to compare company inventory with estimated material needs, thus preventing
supply shortages.
This sort of integrated functionality is a big reason that accounting software has become so
popular in the manufacturing industry.
Material resource planning has three main uses;
• To control and plan the types and amounts of materials a manufacturer produces.
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• To ensure that all products meet the customer’s demands for the product, the customer’s
deadlines, and at an inexpensive cost.
• To plan an expedient and growth-driven accounting process.
To ensure effective material resource planning when using an accounting software, some of the
action steps that should be followed include:
i. Inputting information for output schedules; you input the master production schedule,
inventory status records, bills of materials, and planning data, then you receive the
output of recommended production and purchasing schedules.
ii. Double check your numbers; remember that the dependability of your outputs depends
on the accuracy of your input numbers and information. Take the extra time to train your
employees to ensure their attention to detail. If you input garbage, then you will get
garbage in return. (GIGO – Garbage-in-garbage-out).
iii. Combine the best material resource planning with the best employees; MRP is not
without its downside, because it's only as accurate as the people who input the data.
Ensuring accurate data entry is vital to its success.
iv. Use all of your resources for planning; make sure you have appropriate provisions
to accommodate your resource requirements, including sales goals that fit, vendor
relationships, ability to foresee inventory shortages, audits, accurate cash flow
estimations, and quality control enforcement and inspection.
USE OF COMPUTERS IN COSTING
As the world is turning electronic, companies have no option other than to adapt to the technology.
Such adoption enhances not only efficiencies but also controls.
Computers have been widely used in costing. Many manufacturers use accounting software
customized to fit their industries. For instance, a manufacturer in a cable manufacturing firm will
need different data input and categories from one manufacturing packaging materials.
Effective costing is attained when the correct data is input and the system processes it correctly. It
highly depends on the accuracy and effectiveness of the staff involved in the whole exercise. Use
of accounting software enables tracking of a specific job from initialization to completion. Cost
accounting software provides methods for saving you time and money by accurately estimating
and tracking project costs, including labor, materials, equipment, overhead, and more. A wide
variety of reports is available to help you budget, control, and manage jobs to achieve greater
profit potential. The tracking feature of the job cost module gives you pinpoint details regarding
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every job and project so that you can make informed decisions and more effectively manage
internal and external projects. The cost accountant is also able to compare actual costs with
estimated costs throughout all the stages of the projects. This ensures that expenses fall within
the budget and the organization generates profit from every job.
Since accounting for labour is the most cumbersome activity, computers make work easier by
providing modules with solutions that facilitate monitoring of labour and accounting for labour.
For instance, in case of labour distribution, employees may use their bar coded and/or magnetic
striped badge to activate the data capture terminals to track progress throughout the day, specific
operation changes and time spent on particular tasks. Supervisors can also track these changes
by using a hand-held portable unit to record their employee’s production.
The cost accountant can specify job, departments, operations, e.t.c. to capture information based
on your operational needs. All the information captured (either from the terminals or the portable
units) is transmitted to your PC via software created by American Standard Code.
The captured job and labor information is then easily and immediately accessible to supervisors
and management personnel so that informed decisions can be made on a timely basis. Meaningful
reports can be produced that will easily and clearly pinpoint areas for improvement in production,
efficiency, cost control, job costing, and labour.
In case of job order tracking, using electronic data collectors, any job order can be scanned in
or out at each work station -- from beginning to end. This allows any manufacturer or service
company to vastly improve customer service by calling up the customer’s order status on your
PC and viewing its status.
Data is then ready for editing and viewing. Completed, pending, and/or terminated job records
can be reviewed, edited and reports generated per used specifications. Job order status is quickly
obtained and reports can be generated that will assist all the departments that are involved.
The PC entries can be facilitated. Employees can enter time, attendance, job, labor and project
information right from their desktop PC and data is uploaded to the network for processing. The
PC entry can be used as a replacement for, or in conjunction with electronic time clocks, intranet
and internet for real cost savings, efficiency and convenience.
Automating time and attendance data collection has various advantages:
• Hours now spent on processing time and attendance reconciliation are reduced to
minutes.
• Start and stop times, breaks, and time off are automatically calculated minimizing the
chance of human error.
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• Employee productivity increases as a result of accurate and indisputable timekeeping.
• Time and job information are recalled for immediate reporting or gathered into meaningful
formats and used for long term planning.
• Measuring efficiency, down time, productivity and cost control is simplified. All the
attendance and job information you need is available at the touch of a key.
• Cost controls are in place when manpower is utilized more effectively.
• Projected labor costs can easily be formulated by using historical data that has been
captured. Excellent report formats are available.
• Budget information can be compiled from various reports and accurate planning is
simplified.
• Quotas for performance and production standards are established through reports
tracking labor management. Job standards and actual labor is compared.
Most of the software adapt to the manufacturer’s environment and process rather than the other
way round. This is because they can be customized to suit the data available for processing
given the unique manufacturing process of each organization.
Note that use of computers simplifies the costing process since only correct data input is required
in order to obtain the correct output. Each of the input is keyed in at the different terminals at
cost centers. All the cost accountant has to do is print the report of the compiled cost information
and verify whether the output corresponds to what is expected. However, the verification may to
a greater extent be a formality especially if the computer software has proper controls instituted
within it.
The benefits of using computers and computer software in job costing include:
• Improve visibility to increase profitability. The computer facilitates the analysis
information maintained for each job cost against estimated costs such as labour,
machine use, material, overhead and shipping, to help reveal unacceptable trends that
contribute to costs.
• Gain a detailed understanding of costs; the computer enables definition of types of
transactions that are tracked per job, giving the cost accountant a deeper insight into
the costs for the job.
• Identify job costs right then. Use of computers helps remove doubt about what a job
really costs. It links transactions from anywhere in the system to capture the true cost
of the job.
• Collect job costing data with greater flexibility, speed and accuracy. Computers
and computer software streamline data entry and make it easy for the employees to
assign transactions to jobs when entry is required, eliminating redundant and errorprone
duplicate entries.
Computer software used in manufacturing may have the following features which are relevant in
job costing. (An example of Microsoft Dynamics GP software)
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Feature Job costing
• Job link maintenance Aggregate all unlinked job cost data into a single job
basket by using the graphical linking tool with drag and
drop functionality.
• Automatic application of
costs
Link transactions from anywhere in the system to a job to
capture the true cost of the job.
• Variance analysis Automatically perform variance analysis per job.
• Revenue and expense
coding
Assign unlimited revenue and expense codes to jobs within
the system allowing for more detailed financial analysis of
each project.
• Comprehensive capture Enable the employees to identify where and when to
capture costs upfront, avoiding the possibility of doublebooking
costs.
CHAPTER SUMMARY
This chapter mainly focuses on the technological trends and impact of the change on cost
management. The main subtopics covered in here include:
Value chain research and development design production, marketing – distribution and customer
care. This focuses on the process of conducting research and coming up with a supply chain
that adds value to the various stakeholders. Critical issues to be observed when developing a
research methodology have been discussed.
Just in time inventory management system - this analyses the inventory system that operates
on a just in time basis. The whole concept focuses on minimizing costs of holding inventory and
improving efficiency in production.
Advanced manufacturing technology. This topic focuses on rapidly changing needs for materials
and innovative manufacturing systems that create new opportunities for business and industry in
today’s global marketplace
Material resource planning: This has focused on proper management of materials that makes
production tasks go more quickly.
Use of computers in costing: The topic focuses on the use of computers in costing with a bias in
job costing.
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CHAPTER QUIZ
1. What is a value chain?
2. List the six main business functions of a value chain.
3. State eight issues that should be addressed by a value chain research methodology.
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ANSWERS TO CHAPTER QUIZ
1. A value chain is a chain of activities
2. There are six main business functions of a value chain:
• Research and Development
• Design of Products, Services, or Processes
• Productions
• Marketing and Sales
• Distribution
• Customer service
3. State eight issues that should be addressed by a value chain research methodology
• The point of entry for value chain analysis possible points of entry
• Mapping value chains
• Product segments and critical success factors in final markets
• How producers access final markets
• Benchmarking production efficiency
• Governance of value chains
• Upgrading value chains
• Distributional issues
PAST PAPER ANALYSIS
This chapter has not been tested in past sittings. It has been newly introduced in the syllabus.
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REVIEW QUESTIONS
Question one
Discuss the benefits of JIT inventory system (10 marks)
Question two
Highlight the advantages of advanced manufacturing technology (10 marks)
Question three
Discuss the advantages of automating time and attendance data collection (10 marks)
Question four
List the conditions that must be met for advanced manufacturing technology to be applied.
(10 marks)
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ANSWERS TO EXAM &
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER ONE
Question 1
Cost accounting is utilized for a number of purposes, some of which are briefly described in the
following points:
a) Accounting for costs
This may be seen as a record keeping or score keeping role. Information must be
gathered and analyzed in a manner which will help in planning, control and decision
making.
b) Planning and Budgeting
This involves the quantification of plans for the future operations of the enterprise; such
plans may be for the long or short term, for the enterprise as a whole or for the individual
aspects of the enterprise.
c) Control of the operations of the enterprise
Control may be assisted by the comparison of actual cost information with that included
in the plan. Any differences between planned and actual events can be investigated
and corrective action implemented as appropriate.
d) Decision Making
Cost accounting information assists in the making of decisions about the future
operations of the enterprise; such decisions making may be assisted by the information
from cost techniques and cost-volume - profit analysis.
e) Resource allocation decisions
For example, product pricing in determining whether to accept or reject jobs: This is
based on cost and revenue implications of the relevant decisions
f) Performance evaluation
Cost accounting information is used to measure and evaluate actual performance so as
to make a decision of the degree of optimality or efficiency of resource utilization.
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Question 2
A responsibility centre is part of an organization for whose activities a manager is deemed to
be responsible. The type of responsibility centre depends on the type of activities for which
responsibility is carried.
Cost Centre
A cost centre or expense centre can be defined as a responsibility centre where a manager is
accountable only for costs which are under his control. It is a production or service location for
which costs can be identified or accumulated prior to allocation to cost units. Cost centers may
be either standard cost centers, where output can be measured and the input needed for a
given output can be specified, or discretionary cost centers, where output cannot be measured
easily and the relationship between inputs and outputs cannot be specified. An example of a
standard cost centre is a production unit within a factory, while an example of a discretionary cost
centre is a health and safety department within a university. A cost centre manager is responsible
for the cost of inputs to the organization. The performance of the manager of a cost centre
can be assessed by comparing actual performance with budgeted targets for price, usage and
efficiency.
Revenue Centre
A revenue centre is a responsibility centre where a manager is accountable solely for the revenue
generation that is under his control. An example would be a sales team with a target geographical
area which is under the control of a sales manager. The manager would have no responsibility
for the production cost of the items his team is selling, but has responsibility for meeting sales
targets in terms of sales volume, sales revenue or market share. A revenue centre manager
has responsibility for the revenue generated by outputs from the organization. The performance
of the manager of a revenue centre can be assessed by comparing actual performance with
budgeted targets for price, mix and volume.
Profit Centre
A profit centre is a combination of a cost centre and a revenue centre where a manager has
responsibility for both production costs and revenue generation. The degree of responsibility
carried by a manager can be higher with a profit centre than with a cost centre or a revenue
centre, and the manager may be responsible for purchasing, production planning, product mix
and pricing decisions. The performance of the manager of a profit centre is unlikely to be assessed
on the fine detail of cost and revenue data but by the extent to which agreed targets for overall
cost, revenue and profit have been achieved.
Investment Centre
With an investment centre, the manager of a profit centre is given additional responsibility for
investment decisions regarding working capital and the purchase and replacement of fixed
assets. The manager of an investment centre is likely to be assessed with an aggregate measure
that links periodic profit to the assets employed in the period to generate that profit. An example
of such an aggregate measure is return on capital employed.
437
S T U D Y T E X T
Question 3
Controllable and Non-controllable Factors
It is a cardinal principle of responsibility accounting that managers can only be assessed on the
cash flows that are under their control. If a manager has no control over a cash flow, he cannot
influence its size or timing and so cannot be held responsible if either of these values change.
The performance of the manager of a cost centre can thus only be assessed on the controllable
costs over which he exercises control. In the case of a production cost centre, the manager may
be able to control material usage but could have no influence over the price at which materials
are bought by the purchasing department. For the production cost centre manager, material
usage is a controllable factor whereas material purchase price is not.
With a revenue centre, a sales manager can be held responsible for generating revenue against
agreed sales volume targets but may have no control over the selling price of his products as this
is determined by market conditions. In this case, sales volume is a controllable factor whereas
selling price is not.
The manager of a profit centre will have control of operating costs but will not be able to influence
the financing costs rising from investment decisions. The manager may thus have responsibility
for operating profit but his performance should not be assessed on profit before tax since interest
charges are outside of his control.
The manager of an investment centre could have his performance assessed on profit before
tax, but the profit on which he is assessed should exclude non-controllable elements such as
overhead costs that he cannot influence, for example allocated head office charges.
Chapter two
Question one
• Material costs: for instance, when manufacturing a motor car, the direct materials are
metal sheets and tyres.
• Direct labour cost: these are expenses directly identifiable (traceable) to a specific
product. In the manufacture of the motor vehicle, the assemblers constitute the direct
labour
• Manufacturing overheads: these are the costs that cannot be traced to the product with
ease or would cause a lot of inconvenience. In the manufacture of the motor vehicle
above, supervisors salary would be a good example.
Question two and three are effectively discussed in the chapter
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 3 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Chapter Three (Cost Estimation)
Question one
c. Sh165,000
The relevant net machine cost for the contract is the cost incurred to acquire and install the
machine net the recoverable cost (salvage value).
This is calculated as
Shs.(150,000 + 25,000 – 10,000) = Shs.165,000
Question two
1. High - Low method
Here, cost estimation is based on the relationship between past cost and past level of
activity. Variable cost is based on the relationship between costs at the highest level
of activity and the lowest level of activity. The difference in cost between high and low
activity level is taken to be the total variable cost from which the unit variable cost can
be computed by dividing it by the change in output level. This is indicated below:
Total Variable Cost = Cost at high activity level - Constant low activity level
Therefore,
Unit Variable cost = Variable cost = Cost at high level activity - Cost at low level activiity
Output units Units at high level acivity - Units at low level activity
The variable cost per unit so calculated forms the ‘b’ of the straight line equation
mentioned earlier. By substituting for ‘ b’ into the equation, we can obtain ‘a’, the fixed
cost.
Advantages
(i) This method is easy to use
(ii) Assumes that costs can be classified as either fixed or variable.
(iii) It is easily understood
Disadvantages
(i) Prone to give estimations with a high variance since it does not consider all the points
in the data provided.
2. Account Analysis (Inspection of Accounts)
Using account analysis, the accountant examines and classifies each ledger account
as variable, fixed or mixed. Mixed accounts are broken down into their variable and
fixed components. They base these classifications on experience, inspection of cost
439
S T U D Y T E X T
behavior for several past periods or intuitive feelings of the manager.
Advantage
(i) It considers all the points in the data spectrum
(ii) It is more reliable than high low method
Disadvantage
(i) It has some technicality since it can only be done by people with basic knowledge in
accounting
3. Engineering method
This method is based on a detailed study of each operation where careful specification
is made for materials, labour and equipment necessary to produce a product. It involves
identifying the level of input required of an activity in form of raw material and labour
while total cost is based on the cost of each input. This approach is applicable where
no past data exist.
Disadvantage: The main setback of the approach is that it requires a complex analysis
of all the constituents of an activity and the requirements of an activity in terms of costs
detailed into materials, labour, overheads and time.
4. Visual fit (scatter graph method)
Cost estimation is based on past data regarding the dependent variable and the cost
driver. The past data on cost levels and the output levels) is plotted on a graph (called
a scatter graph) and a line of best fit is drawn. A line of best fit is a line drawn so as to
cover the most points possible on a scatter graph. It can also be defined as ‘a straight
line used as a best approximation of a summary of all the points in a scatter-plot’. Its
intersection with the vertical axis indicates the fixed cost while the gradient indicates the
variable cost per unit.
This method takes into account all observations and is easy to apply. However, it cannot
be used with two or more independent variables and is subjective to some extent as
different lines of best fit may be drawn by different analysts
Question three
Any variable overhead costs associated with the contract would be relevant because they would
represent additional or incremental costs caused directly by the contract.
Fixed overhead costs would only be relevant if the total fixed overhead costs of the company
increased as a direct consequence of the contract being undertaken. In that case, the relevant
amount would be the specific increase in the total fixed overhead costs caused by the acceptance
of the contract.
Arbitrary apportionments of existing fixed overhead costs would not be relevant. Similarly, sunk
and committed costs would not be relevant
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 4 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Question four
a) Using the high-low method:
Units Total cost (£)
120,000 (W1) 700,000
102,000 619,000
–––––––– ––––––––
18,000 8 1,000
––––––– ––––––––
Working (W1)
Full capacity = 102,000 ÷ 0·85 = 120,000
(i) Variable cost per unit = 81,000 ÷ 18,000 = £4·50
(ii) Total fixed costs = 700,000 – (120,000 × 4·50) = £160,000
(iii) Selling price per unit = Variable cost per unit ÷ (1·00 – 0·40)
= 4·50 ÷ 0·6 = £7·50
(iv) Contribution per unit = (7·50 – 4·50) = £3·00
b) New business: £ per unit
Selling price (0·80 × 7·50) 6·00
Less variable cost (4·50)
–––––
Contribution 1·50
–––––
£
Contribution from 15,000 units (15,000 × 1·50) 22,500
Less opportunity cost (15,000 ÷ 6) × £3·00 (7,500)
–––––
Net increase in contribution (and profit) 15,000
–––––
(c) An opportunity cost is the cost of the best alternative forgone in a situation of choice.
Opportunity costs are relevant costs. In the situation of Jamline Ltd, if it goes ahead with
the new business (that is the decision) then it will lose (forgo) the contribution from some
existing sales. This lost contribution is an opportunity cost relevant to the decision.
Question five
A stockout occurs when a company runs out of stock. There are costs associated with this – lost
contribution from lost sales, for example. In order to avoid a stockout, the company could set a
buffer stock – in effect a safety level of stock to cover emergency situations such as demand
and/or lead times exceeding their average levels. The holding of a buffer stock involves an
additional cost.
441
S T U D Y T E X T
Jackie plc should consider having a buffer stock if either the usage of component RB starts to
fluctuate from period to period (at present it is constant) and/or the lead time starts to fluctuate
from its present constant level of 21 days.
chapter four
QUESTION ONE
(i) Material requisition: the material requisition form that details the materials required for
production must be authorized by appropriate personnel before the material(s) requisitioned
are issued
(ii) Stores records cards: these cards are prepared and updated promptly to show the full
identification of the material and its location in the store, quantities on order received and
issued together with a running balance of the quantity in the store, prices and values of all
receipt and issues in the store and all material control quantities.
(iii) Stocktaking: frequent stocktaking must be done to ensure that the stock balances as per
the records and physical count agree. Any differences found must be investigated and
appropriate action taken.
(iv) Stores control: quantities must be established to ensure that over and under stoking are
avoided. This involves the setting of maximum stock level, minimum stock level, reorder
level, reorder quantity and estimating the lead-time.
(v) Costs of storage: the storage costs must be established and be controlled to a minimum
level. Control of holding or carrying costs is one of the ways of minimizing total inventory
costs since holding cost accounts for a significant proportion of the inventory costs.
(vi) Cost of purchasing: purchases must be made competitively from the cheapest supplier.
Suppliers’ prices must be reviewed before purchases are made. The aim should be to get
the best quality materials and highest quantity at the lowest price.
QUESTION TWO
Mwaura
Given data:
Ordering cost =Shs55; annual demand = 4,000 units, Holding costs = Shs1.70 per unit p.a
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER FOUR (Material costs)
requisition: the material requisition form that details the materials
production must be authorized by appropriate personnel before the
requisitioned are issued
records cards: these cards are prepared and updated promptly to show
identification of the material and its location in the store, quantities on
received and issued together with a running balance of the quantity in the
prices and values of all receipt and issues in the store and all material
quantities.
Stocktaking: frequent stocktaking must be done to ensure that the stock
as per the records and physical count agree. Any differences found
investigated and appropriate action taken.
control: quantities must be established to ensure that over and under
avoided. This involves the setting of maximum stock level, minimum
reorder level, reorder quantity and estimating the lead-time.
storage: the storage costs must be established and be controlled to a
level. Control of holding or carrying costs is one of the ways of
total inventory costs since holding cost accounts for a significant
of the inventory costs.
purchasing: purchases must be made competitively from the cheapest
Suppliers’ prices must be reviewed before purchases are made. The
be to get the best quality materials and highest quantity at the lowest
Shs55; annual demand = 4,000 units, Holding costs = Shs1.70 per unit
Ch
2DCo
EOQ =
8000 x 55
(1.55 0.20)
2 x4,000 x 55
=
+
=
CHAPTER FOUR (Material costs)
QUESTION ONE
(i) Material requisition: the material requisition form that details the materials
required for production must be authorized by appropriate personnel before the
material(s) requisitioned are issued
(ii) Stores records cards: these cards are prepared and updated promptly to show
the full identification of the material and its location in the store, quantities on
order received and issued together with a running balance of the quantity in the
store, prices and values of all receipt and issues in the store and all material
control quantities.
(iii) Stocktaking: frequent stocktaking must be done to ensure that the stock
balances as per the records and physical count agree. Any differences found
must be investigated and appropriate action taken.
(iv) Stores control: quantities must be established to ensure that over and under
stoking are avoided. This involves the setting of maximum stock level, minimum
stock level, reorder level, reorder quantity and estimating the lead-time.
(v) Costs of storage: the storage costs must be established and be controlled to a
minimum level. Control of holding or carrying costs is one of the ways of
minimizing total inventory costs since holding cost accounts for a significant
proportion of the inventory costs.
(vi) Cost of purchasing: purchases must be made competitively from the cheapest
supplier. Suppliers’ prices must be reviewed before purchases are made. The
aim should be to get the best quality materials and highest quantity at the lowest
price.
QUESTION TWO
MWAURA
Given data:
Ordering cost =Shs55; annual demand = 4,000 units, Holding costs Shs1.70 per unit
p.a
Ch
o 2DC
EOQ =
1.70
8000 x 55
(1.55 0.20)
2 x4,000 x 55
=
+
=
= Shs508.74
=Shs.509 units
QUESTION THREE
CHAPTER FOUR (Material costs)
QUESTION ONE
(i) Material requisition: the material requisition form that details the materials
required for production must be authorized by appropriate personnel before the
material(s) requisitioned are issued
(ii) Stores records cards: these cards are prepared and updated promptly to show
the full identification of the material and its location in the store, quantities on
order received and issued together with a running balance of the quantity in the
store, prices and values of all receipt and issues in the store and all material
control quantities.
(iii) Stocktaking: frequent stocktaking must be done to ensure that the stock
balances as per the records and physical count agree. Any differences found
must be investigated and appropriate action taken.
(iv) Stores control: quantities must be established to ensure that over and under
stoking are avoided. This involves the setting of maximum stock level, minimum
stock level, reorder level, reorder quantity and estimating the lead-time.
(v) Costs of storage: the storage costs must be established and be controlled to a
minimum level. Control of holding or carrying costs is one of the ways of
minimizing total inventory costs since holding cost accounts for a significant
proportion of the inventory costs.
(vi) Cost of purchasing: purchases must be made competitively from the cheapest
supplier. Suppliers’ prices must be reviewed before purchases are made. The
aim should be to get the best quality materials and highest quantity at the lowest
price.
QUESTION TWO
MWAURA
Given data:
Ordering cost =Shs55; annual demand = 4,000 units, Holding costs = Shs1.70 per unit
p.a
Ch
o 2DC
EOQ =
1.70
8000 x 55
(1.55 0.20)
2 x4,000 x 55
=
+
=
= Shs508.74
=Shs.509 units
QUESTION THREE
CHAPTER FOUR (Material costs)
QUESTION ONE
(i) Material requisition: the material requisition form that details required for production must be authorized by appropriate personnel material(s) requisitioned are issued
(ii) Stores records cards: these cards are prepared and updated promptly the full identification of the material and its location in the store, order received and issued together with a running balance of the store, prices and values of all receipt and issues in the store control quantities.
(iii) Stocktaking: frequent stocktaking must be done to ensure balances as per the records and physical count agree. Any differences must be investigated and appropriate action taken.
(iv) Stores control: quantities must be established to ensure that stoking are avoided. This involves the setting of maximum stock stock level, reorder level, reorder quantity and estimating the lead-(v) Costs of storage: the storage costs must be established and be minimum level. Control of holding or carrying costs is one minimizing total inventory costs since holding cost accounts proportion of the inventory costs.
(vi) Cost of purchasing: purchases must be made competitively from supplier. Suppliers’ prices must be reviewed before purchases aim should be to get the best quality materials and highest quantity price.
QUESTION TWO
MWAURA
Given data:
Ordering cost =Shs55; annual demand = 4,000 units, Holding costs = Shs1.70 p.a
Ch
o 2DC
EOQ =
1.70
8000 x 55
(1.55 0.20)
2 x4,000 x 55
=
+
=
= Shs508.74
=Shs.509 units
QUESTION THREE
4 4 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Question three
Using the tabulation method, you must carry out a trial and error with different units until the moment
you obtain equal annual and holding costs. This approach, however, might be cumbersome and
time wasting.
units(Q)
Average
stock (Q/2)
Annual
holding cost
Q/2 x Ch
Number
of orders
(D/Q)
Annual
ordering costs
D/Q x C0
Total cost
0 0 0 ∞ ∞ ∞
1000 500 1000 50 5000 6000
2000 1000 2000 25 2500 4500
3000 1500 3000 16.67 1667 4667
4000 2000 4000 12.50 1250 5250
(II) Using the graphical method
This approach uses the data obtained in the tabulation process. The results are plotted
on a graph and the EOQ determined by reading the corresponding value on the X axis
at the intersection point between the annual holding costs and annual ordering costs.
Units(Q) Average
stock (Q/2)
Annual
holding
cost
Q/2 x Ch
Number of
orders
(D/Q)
Annual
ordering
costs
D/Q x C0
Total cost
0 0 0 ∞ ∞ ∞
1000 500 1000 50 5000 6000
2000 1000 2000 25 2500 4500
3000 1500 3000 16.67 1667 4667
4000 2000 4000 12.50 1250 5250
(II) Using the graphical method
This approach uses the data obtained in the tabulation process. The results are plotted
on a graph and the EOQ determined by reading the corresponding value on the X axis
at the intersection point between the annual holding costs and annual ordering costs.
QUESTION FOUR
Data given: demand for the year = 144,000, ordering cost per order = Shs.12,500 and
holding cost per unit Shs.100 p.a
(i)
Ch
o 2DC
EOQ =
Level of activity (units)
Costs
(Shs)
EOQ
Annual ordering cost
Annual
holding cost
Total cost
443
S T U D Y T E X T
Question Four
Data given: demand for the year = 144,000, ordering cost per order = Shs.12,500 and holding
cost per unit Shs.100 p.a
Question five
Advantages of centralized systems of maintaining stores:
• Lower stocks on average which lowers the holding costs.
• Less risk of duplication of costs and efforts.
• Closer control of stocks and costs is possible at the central site.
• Higher quality staff may be efficiently employed to specialize in various aspects of store
keeping.
• Reduced paperwork
• Bulk purchasing reduces the purchase cost due to quantity discounts
• Stock taking is facilitated
• It is cost effective to employ expensive and advanced technology.
• Standardization of procedures is possible and easily enforced.
a) Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) refers to the quantity of purchase of stocks or materials
that minimizes the holding costs and the ordering costs. It is, therefore, the optimal
ordering amount. It is computed as:
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
(i)
Ch
2DCo
EOQ =
100
2 x144,000 x12,500
=
=6000 units
(ii) Number of orders= 24 orders
6,000
144,000
EOQ
Annual demand
= =
(iii) Total cost of ordering and holding material B42000 per year
Total annual cost =Annual holding cost + Annual ordering cost
= h o x C
Q
D
x C
2
Q
+
Shs600,000
300,000 300,000
x 12,500
6,000
144,000
x 100
2
6,000
=
= +
= +
QUESTION FIVE
Advantages of centralized systems of maintaining stores:
• Lower stocks on average which lowers the holding costs.
• Less risk of duplication of costs and efforts.
• Closer control of stocks and costs is possible at the central site.
• Higher quality staff may be efficiently employed to specialize in various aspects of
store keeping.
• Reduced paperwork
• Bulk purchasing reduces the purchase cost due to quantity discounts
• Stock taking is facilitated
• It is cost effective to employ expensive and advanced technology.
• Standardization of procedures is possible and easily enforced.
a) Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) refers to the quantity of purchase of stocks or
materials that minimizes the holding costs and the ordering costs. It is, therefore, the
optimal ordering amount. It is computed as:
Ch
o 2DC
EOQ =
Where: D = Annual demand
Co = Cost of Ordering per unit
Ch = Cost of holding one unit of stock per annum.
Assumptions behind EOQ:
− Constant and known holding costs.
− Constant and known ordering costs.
4 4 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Where: D = Annual demand
Co = Cost of Ordering per unit
Ch = Cost of holding one unit of stock per annum.
b) Assumptions behind EOQ:
− Constant and known holding costs.
− Constant and known ordering costs.
− Annual demand and the rate of demand per given period of time is known.
− Know and constant purchase price per unit.
− Instantaneous replenishment of stocks i.e. a whole batch is delivered to stores at
once.
c) Material Y-20
Re-order level = Maximum consumption x Maximum Re-order period
=1,200 X 24 = 28,800 units
Minimum Stock Level = Re-order level – [Normal consumption x Normal R-order period.]
= 28,800 – [ 900 x (12 + 24)] = 12,600 units
2
Maximum stock level = Re-order Level – [ Minimum x minimum ] + Re-order
Consumption Re-order period Quantity
= 28,800 – [800 x 12] + 32,000 = 51,200 units.
supplier. Suppliers’ prices must be reviewed before purchases are made. The
aim should be to get the best quality materials and highest quantity at the lowest
price.
QUESTION TWO
MWAURA
data:
cost =Shs55; annual demand = 4,000 units, Holding costs = Shs1.70 per unit
Ch
o 2DC
EOQ =
1.70
8000 x 55
(1.55 0.20)
2 x4,000 x 55
=
+
=
= Shs508.74
=Shs.509 units
QUESTION THREE
445
S T U D Y T E X T
chapter five
Question one
Question two
60 direct workers
Bonus = the excess of time allowed 75%
Percentage of hours saved to hours taken
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER FIVE (Labour Costs)
QUESTION ONE
Bonus payable to each
employee
Employee A Employee B
Units 35 units 60 units
Standard hours 2 hours 1.5 hours
70 hours 90 hours
Actual time 49 hours 46 hours
Time saved 21 hours 44 hours
Bonus payable 21 200
100
50 ! !
=Shs.2,100
44 200
100
50 ! !
=Shs.4,400
Total Gross wages
Total overtime pay (49-40) 3
4 x
200=2,400
(46-40) 3
4 x 200=
1600
Gross pay 40 x 200 = 8,000 40 x 200 = 8,000
Total pay =(2,100 + 2,400 +
8,000)
=12,500
=(4,400
+1,600+8,000)
=Shs14,000
Wage cost per unit
units
total wage
Good units
32 units
Shs12,500
= Shs.390.625
32
57 Units
Shs14,000
=Shs.245.614
57
QUESTION TWO
60 direct workers
Bonus = the excess of time allowed 75%
Percentage of hours saved to hours taken
Total hours Time allowed (total)
1 = 20 x 30 = 600 hours
= 336 hours
60
320 x 63
=
2 =8 x 64 =512 hours
= 1,280 hours
60
640 x 120
=
3 =32 x 50 = 1600 hours
= 2,000 hours
60
1200 x 100
=
2,712 hours 3,616 hours
Hours saved = 3616 – 2712
=904 hours
x 100% 33.33%
2712
904
=
4 4 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Question three
a) Ardhi Company
i) Basic guaranteed hourly rates used to calculate earnings
Mambo Saidi Mbogo Zainabu
Actual hours worked 38 36 40 34
Basic hourly rate of pay 30 20 25 36
Earnings (Basic x actual hours worked) 1140 720 1000 1224
ii) Piecework rates used to calculate earnings for employees
Mambo Saidi Mbogo Zainabu
Number of minutes worked 2280 2160 2400 2040
Rate per minute 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Earnings (rate x number of minutes) 1140 1080 1200 1020
= 60
=
2 =8 x 64 =512 hours
= 1,280 hours
60
640 x 120
=
3 =32 x 50 = 1600 hours
= 2,000 hours
60
1200 x 100
=
2,712 hours 3,616 hours
Hours saved = 3616 – 2712
=904 hours
x 100% 33.33%
2712
904
=
Bonus due to the group
Time allowed (total)
Grade 1
= x 600 x 0.75 x 30 4499.55
100
33.33
=
Grade 2
= x 512 x 0.75 x 27 3455.6544
100
33.33
=
Grade 3
= x 1600 x 0.75 x 24 9599.24
100
33.33
=
Total
Bonus
Shs.17,556
Gross earnings due to the group
Basic Pay Bonus
Grade 1 =600 hr x 30 = 18,000 + 4499.55 = 22499.55
Grade 2 =512 hrs x 27=13824 + 3455.65 = 17279.65
Grade 3 =1600 hrs x 24 = 38,400 + 9599.04 = 47999.24
70,224 17554.24
Total earnings= 87,778.24
QUESTION THREE
a) Ardhi Company
i) Basic guaranteed hourly rates used to calculate earnings
Mambo Saidi Mbogo Zainabu
Actual hours worked 38 36 40 34
Basic hourly rate of pay 30 20 25 36
Earnings (Basic x actual hours
worked)
1140 720 1000 1224
ii) Piecework rates used to calculate earnings for employees
Mambo Saidi Mbogo Zainabu
Number of minutes worked 2280 2160 2400 2040
Rate per minute 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
447
S T U D Y T E X T
iii) Premium bonus, given that an employee earns the premium bonus at a rate of 2/3 of
the time saved.
Mambo Saidi Mbogo Zainabu
Hours allowed 38 23.4 12.5 52.5
Hours taken 38 36 40 34
Hours saved - - - 18.5
Bonus hours (2/3 x hours saved) 12.33
Bonus wage (bonus hours x hourly rate) 444
a) Ushindi company
i) Calculate amount of bonus payable
ii) The total gross wage payable
iii) The wage cost per unit
Mbotela Juma
Wage rate (Shs) 18 18
Units produced 186 210
Hours allowed (hrs) (186 x 0.5) = 93 (210 X 25/60) = 87.5
Hours worked (hrs) 44 39
Hours saved (hrs) 49 48.5
Bonus (hours saved x 20% x basic wage) – Shs 176.4* 174.6*
Basic wage rate (wage rate x hours worked upto
max)
720* 702*
Overtime hours worked (hrs) 4 -
Overtime rate (18 x 1.67) 30 -
Overtime pay (Shs) 120* ____
Total gross wage payable (*) Shs. 1016.4 876.6
Wage cost per unit
For; Mbotela Juma
Total wages
Units produced
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
1,016 = Shs.5.465 per unit 876.6 = Shs.4.174 per unit
186 210
4 4 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
chapter six
Question one
(a) A service centre is a department that does not directly produce units but is required to
support the other departments.
Examples include maintenance departments, stores or a canteen.
A production centre is a centre where units are actually made, examples being a
machining department or a welding department.
Although a service will have overheads allocated and apportioned to it, these will be
reapportioned to the production centers so that, at the end of a period, all overheads
are included in the production centers only. Once all the overheads are included in the
production centers, they can be absorbed into production.
(b) Activity based costing uses a number of different cost drivers to absorb different
overheads, whereas traditional absorption costing only uses one, for example labour
hours, machine hours or per unit.
In activity based costing, fixed overhead costs may include machine set-up costs. These
costs will not be incurred on a per unit basis but will be incurred each time the machine
has to be set-up. It would not, therefore, be sensible to allocate costs per unit since that
is not how the cost is incurred. It is, however, better to use the number of set-ups for this
particular cost to allocate costs to units.
Question two
Shs
Overheads directly incurred in department G 40,000
Overheads apportioned: department J (30% x (31800)) 9,540
Overheads apportioned department K (50% x 18,000) _9,000
58,540
Alternatively,
The method that recognizes the reciprocal nature of the service cost centers is the repeated
distribution method.
G H J K
Cost prior to allocation Shs.40,000 Shs.50,000 Shs.30,000 Shs.18,000
Reallocation of service cost
centers overhead costs
Service cost center K (5:4:1) Shs.9,000 Shs.7,200 Shs.1,800 (Shs.18,000)
Total so far Shs.49,000 Shs.57,200 Shs31,800 -
Service cost center J (3:7) Shs9,540 Shs.22,270 (Shs.1,800) -
Shs.58,540 Shs.79,470 -
449
S T U D Y T E X T
Question three
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
QUESTION THREE
Absorption rate based
on
Product A Product B
Unit method Shs8 per unit 20,000
240,000
30000
20000 ! = Shs8 per unit 20,000
240,000
30000
20000 ! =
% on material cost 240,000 90,000 40
Shs15 ! =
i.e. Shs.4.5 per unit or
100% 600% 15,000
Shs90,000 ! = of material
cost
240,000 150,000 40
Shs25 ! =
i.e. Shs.15 per unit or
100% 600% 25,000
Shs150,000 ! = of
material cost
% on labour cost 240,000 Shs150,000 40
Shs17.5 ! =
i.e. Shs5.25 per unit or
100 600% 17,500
Shs105,000 ! = on labour
cost
240,000 Shs135,000 40
SShs22.5 ! =
i.e. Shs13.5 per unit or
100 600% 22,500
Shs135,000 ! = on
labour cost
% on prime cost 240,000 97,500 80,000
32500 ! = shs
i.e. Shs4.875 per unit or
100 300% 32,500
Shs97,500 ! = on prime
cost
240,000 Shs142,000 80,000
47,500 ! =
i.e. Shs14.25 per unit or
100 300% 47,500
Shs142,500 ! = on
prime cost
Labour hour rate 240,000 Shs120,000 40
Shs20 ! =
i.e. Shs6 per labour hr/Shs6 per
unit
240,000 Shs120,000 30000
20000 ! =
i.e. Shs6 per labour hr/Shs12
per unit
Machine hour rate 240,000 Shs180,000 60
Shs45 ! =
i.e. Shs.4 per machine hr/Shs9 per
unit
2.25 20,000
45,000 = machine hours
required to make one unit
240,000 Shs60,000 60
15 ! =
i.e. Shs4 per labour hr/Shs6
per unit
1.5 10,000
15,000 = machine hours
required to make one unit
4 5 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Question four
ABC Company
Overhead absorption rate
a. Department A
Factory overhead = Shs.600,000 = Shs.5 per machine hour
Machine hours 120,000 machine hours
Department B
Factory overhead = Shs.400,000 x 100% = 80%
Direct labour cost 500,000 machine hours
Absorption rate therefore = 80% of the direct labour cost
b.
Department A Department B
Materials 5,000 15,000
Labour 4,800 4,000
Factory overheads 7,500 3,200
17,300 22,200
Total cost = 17,300 +22,200 = 39,500
c. Cost per unit 39,500 = Shs.790
50
d. Over absorbed
Department A 110,000 hours @shs5 550,000
Department B Shs540,000 labour cost x 80% 432,000
982,000
Overhead incurred 975,000
Over absorption favorable __7,000
451
S T U D Y T E X T
Question five
Equator garments
a. Absorption rate of the cutting department = Shs.1,500,000 = Shs.25 per hour
60,000 hours
Absorption rate for stitching department = Shs.1,620,000 = Shs.40.5 per hour
40,000 hours
b. Cost statement for job at A4
Direct materials 1250
Direct labour Cutting 30 hrs x Shs20/hr 600
Stitching 10 labour hrs x Shs25 250
Factory overhead Cutting 30 hrs x Shs25 750
Stitching 40.5 hrs x Shs20 _810
Total production cost 3,660
Administration cost @ 25% _915
Total cost 4575
Profit markup 33.5% 1,525
Price to customer 6,100
c. Absorption obtained
Cutting 68,000 x Shs25 1,700,000
Overhead incurred 1,600,000
Overheads over absorbed 100,000
Stitching 17,000 x Shs40.5 688,500
Overheads incurred 760,000
Overheads under absorbed (71,500)
Factory total over absorbed 28,500
chapter seven
Question One
(a) f inancial accounting: this is the analysis, classification and recording of financial
transactions and the ascertainment of how such information will be reported to various
users. It involves the development of reporting. These statements are developed in
accordance with standards imposed by the public (through professional accounting bodies
such as the Institute of Certifies Public Accountants of Kenya (ICPAK) and the International
Accounting Standards Board (IASB) as well as the requirements of the Companies Act.
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 5 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Management accounting: This is the part of accounting that provides special purpose
statements and reports to management, and other persons inside the organization. The
information generated by a management accounting system is therefore for internal
requirements. Management accounting, unlike financial accounting is proactive i.e. it is
future oriented. It is required in making decisions that affect the organization.
Cost accounting: it is that part of management accounting which establishes budgets,
standard costs and actual costs of operations, processes, departments and products. It
also involves the analysis of variances from standards and profitability. In a nutshell, cost
accounting enables a business to not only find out what various jobs or processes have
cost, but also what they should have cost. It indicates where losses are occurring before
the work is finished and therefore corrective action can be undertaken.
(b)
General ledger adjustment account: it is sometimes called the cost ledger control
account. All the items extracted from the financial account are recorded in this account.
The balance in this account represents the total of all the balances of the impersonal
accounts extracted from the financial books. It completes the double entry in the cost
accounts.
Stores ledger control account: this account shows all the transactions of materials e.g.
purchases, issuance of materials, returns to suppliers, e.t.c. The balance of this account
represents the total of the detailed balance of the stores account.
Work in progress ledger account: it shows the total work in progress at any particular
time
Finished goods ledger control account: receipts from production and transfer to
distribution department are entered in this account and the balance of this account shows
the total value of finished goods in stock.
Question two
The following factors cause the profit shown by the cost accounting books and that shown
by the financial accounting books to be different.
(i) Items shown only by one set of accounts i.e. Items appearing in the financial accounts
and not in the cost books and vice versa.
Item shown only in the financial books include:
• Losses on disposal of assets
• Stamp duty and other expenses on issues and transfers of capital stock (shares,
bonds, debentures, e.t.c.).
• Losses on investment
• Interest on bank loans
• Discounts on bonds and debentures
• Dividends received
• Profits arising from sale of fixed assets
• Dividends paid
• Rent receivable but excluding that portion receivable from sub-letting part of
the business premises if it has been included in the cost accounts.
453
S T U D Y T E X T
Items shown only in the cost books: These are normally notional charges therefore not
real. They include:
• Interest on capital employed in production
• Notional rental charges of premises owned
The above two notional costs represent the opportunity cost of employing the capital in the
business rather than investing it outside the business.
(ii) Different bases of Stock Valuation
Stocks are valued differently, in cost accounts and financial accounts; the financial stock
is valued at the lower cost and net realizable value (mark value). The valuation of stocks
in cost accounts is either based on LIFO, FIFO or weighted average. This use of different
bases in valuing stocks will affect the profit/losses shown in the financial or cost accounts
hence the need for reconciliation of the two.
(iii) Different Treatment of Overheads
In cost accounts, indirect expenses are recovered as overheads based on estimated
expenditure and aligned with the estimated level of production. This results in under or
over-absorption of overheads and this must be taken into account when reconciling the
profits of the two sets of accounts. In the financial accounts, however, indirect expenses
are recorded at the actual cost and charged to the production account.
Question three
Reconciliation of financial and cost accounting profits as at 31 March 2004
Reconciliation statement
Shs’000 Shs’000
Profits as per financial accounts 11,287
Add: Depreciation difference 694
Less: Items not included in the Costing Books
Difference in stock valuation of opening stock (2,010)
Difference in stock valuation of Closing stock (532)
Dividends received (2,635)
Profit on sale of assets (850)
Imputed rent charge (3,250) (9,277)
Profit as per the Cost Accounts 2,704
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 5 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Question four
Reconciliation of the costing and financial accounting profits
Reconciliation Statement
Shs’000 Shs’000
Profits as per financial accounts 18,592
Add: Loss on sale of milling machine 1,750
Difference in stock valuation of Closing stock (Finished goods) 299
Difference in stock valuation of opening stock (Raw materials) 438
Difference in stock valuation of Closing stock (raw materials) 355
2,842
Less: Items not Credited in the Costing Books
Difference in stock valuation of opening stock (finished goods) 386
Dividends and interest received 552
(938)
20,496
CHAPTER EIGHT
Question one
Oathall
Absorption costing Shs.000 Shs.000
Sales (Shs.50 × 100,000) 5,000
Cost of sales:
Opening stock –
Production costs
Variable (Shs.19 × 120,000) 2,280
Fixed (Shs3(w) × 120,000) 360
––––––
2,640
Closing stock (Shs22 × 20,000) (440)
Under/over absorption (60)
(2,140)
––––––
Gross profit 2,860
Selling costs
Fixed (150)
Variable (Shs2 × 100,000) (200)
––––––
Net profit 2,510
-–––––
455
S T U D Y T E X T
Working
Overhead absorption rate =Shs.300,000/100,000 =Shs.3 per unit
(b)
Marginal costing Shs.000 Shs.000
Sales (Shs.50 × 100,000) 5,000
Cost of sales:
Opening stock –
Production costs
Variable (Shs.19 × 120,000) 2,280
––––––
2,280
Closing stock (Shs.19 × 20,000) (380)
Variable selling costs 200
(2,100)
––––––
Contribution 2,900
Fixed costs
Production (300)
Selling (150)
––––––
Net profit 2,450
––––––
Question two
KNL
Firing Finishing
Total overheads incurred Shs.120,000 Shs.103,125
Total time taken
K (0.75 x 7500: 0.52 x 7500) 5625 3900
L (1 x 9375; 0.73 x 9375) 9375 6836
15,000 10745
Absorption rate 15,000
120 ,000
10,745
103,125
= Shs.8 per hr Shs.9.60 per hr
Fixed overhead cost per unit
K L
Overheads absorbed in firing dept. Shs.6.00 Shs.8.00
Overheads absorbed in Finishing Shs.4.99 Shs.7.00
Shs.10.99 Shs.15.00
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 5 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Question three
langdale
(a) Fixed production overhead costs (finishing section) 241,320
+
Reapportionment of general service centre costs
Shs.82,800 x (32 ÷ 46) 57,600
––––––––
298,920
––––––––
Direct labour hours in finishing section: hours
Lang 7,200 units x (42 ÷ 6 ) 50,400
Dale 10,400 units x (36 ÷ 6) 62,400
––––––––
112,800
––––––––
Direct labour hour absorption rate for the finishing section:
Shs.298,920 ÷ 112,800 =Shs.2·65
(b) Cost per unit for a Dale:
Shs. per unit Shs. per unit
Direct material 44·00
Direct labour
– machining department 40·00
– finishing section 36·00
76·00
–––––––
Prime cost 120·00
Production overhead costs:
– machining department (3 xShs.3·10) 9·30
– finishing section (6 xShs.2·65) 15·90
––––––––
Total cost per unit for Dale Shs.145·20
––––––––
(c) For both products – Lang and Dale – production is greater than sales for the coming
year. In other words, stocks of finished products will be increasing. In this situation, profits
calculated using marginal costing principles will be lower than the profits calculated using
absorption costing principles.
Fixed production costs are written off as they arise under marginal costing whereas under
absorption costing, they form part of the product cost and the inventory valuation. Therefore,
in the coming year with stocks increasing and using absorption costing, a higher amount
of fixed production cost will be carried forward at the year end than was brought forward in
any opening stocks. The effect is that some of the costs that would have been written off
and would have reduced the profit under marginal costing are being carried forward under
absorption costing to be written off against profits in later years.
457
S T U D Y T E X T
Question four
(a) Overhead Absorption Rates Using:
P r e p a r a t i o n
Department
Finishing Department
Direct labour hours: OAR = Shs. 240,000
120,000 hours
= Shs. 2/hr 180,000 = Shs. 4/hr
45,000
Machine hours: OAR = Shs. 240,000
60,000 hours
= Shs 4/hr 180,000 = Shs. 6/hr
30,000
Cost of Job 31:
(i) Using Direct Labour Hours:
Preparation Department Finishing Department Total
Material 60,000 120,000 180,000
Labour 24,000 18,000 42,000
Factory overheads 50,000 6,400 56,400
Total cost 134,000 144,400 278,400
(ii) Using Machine hours
Material 60,000 120,000 180,000
Labour 24,000 18,000 42,000
Factory overheads 80,000 12,000 92,000
Total cost 164,000 150,000 314,000
Comment: The cost increases by Shs.35,600 when the machine hours are used as the basis of
absorbing overheads.
(b) The overhead absorption basis that should be selected is the one that closely represents
the rate at which overhead costs are incurred. There should be at least some close
relationship between the occurrence of overhead costs and the basis used.
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 5 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Question five
Overhead Absorption Rates:
Blanking: Shs. 8,000
1,500
= Shs. 5.33/hr
Machining: Shs. 23,000
2,500
= Shs. 9.2/hr
Welding: Shs. 10,000
1,800
= Shs. 5.55/hr
Assembly: Shs. 5,000
1,000
= Shs. 5/hr
Costing of Batch B3RR
Shs
Direct Material: 3,107
Direct expense: hire charges: 525
Direct labour:
Blanking: 128 x 2.25
Machining: 452 x 2.50
Welding: 90 x 2.25
Assembly: 175 x 1.80 1,935.50
PRIME COST 5,567.50
Add: Production Overheads
Blanking: 128 x 5.33
Machining: 643 x 9.2
Welding: 90 x 5.55
Assembly: 175 x 5 7,972.34
PRODUCTION/FACTORY COST 13,539.84
Add: Selling and administrative cost @ 20% of factory cost
2,707.97
Total cost 16,247.81
Unit cost = 16,247.81 = Shs 64.99
250
459
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER NINE
Question one
Mutha
Process II account
Kg Shs Kg Shs
Opening WIP 2,000 24,600 Output (W4):
Ex opening WIP 2,000
Costs arising:
Started and finished
in month
8,000
Direct materials 12,500 99,600
––––––
Conversion 155,250 10,000 221,520
Normal loss
(0·08 x 12,500) 1,000 3,000
Abnormal loss (W2) 500 11,100
Closing WIP (W3) 3,000 43,830
–––––– ––––––– –––––– –––––––
14,500 279,450 14,500 279,450
Workings Cost per equivalent Kg (Eq. Kg)
Direct materials Conversion
Eq. Kg Eq. Kg
Completion of opening: WIP – 1,400
Units started and finished in month 8,000 8,000
Abnormal loss 500 500
Closing WIP 3,000 1,350
––––––– –––––––
Work done last month 11,500 11,250
––––––– –––––––
Shs Shs
Costs arising last month 99,600 155,250
Less: Scrap value of normal loss (3,000) –
––––––– –––––––
96,600 155,250
––––––– –––––––
Cost per Eq. Kg Shs8·40 Shs13·80
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 6 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
W2 Valuation of abnormal loss:
500 x (8·40 + 13·80) = Shs11,100
W3 Valuation of closing WIP:
(3,000 x Shs.8·40) + (1,350 x Shs.13·80) = Shs.43,830
W4 Valuation of output:
Shs
Opening WIP value 24,600
Completion of opening WIP
(1,400 x Shs13·80) 19,320
Units started and finished in month
[8,000 x Shs (8·40 + 13·80)] 177,600
–––––––
221,520
Question two
Production Statement: June 2000
Inputs
Total output
Units
Material
Units
Labour
Units
Overhead
Units
Baa b/f 5,000 21,000 21,000 21,000 21,000
Mixing Process 20,000 4,000 4,000 1,600 2,400
25,000 25,000 25,000 22,600 23,400
Total Cost Equivalent Units of Production
(Shs) (Shs) (Shs) (Shs)
Balance b/f (W.I.P) 185,000 100,000 25,000 60,000
Costs Added 278,400 45,300 125,000 108,100
Total Costs to account for: 463,400 145,300 150,000 168,100
Cost per Equivalent Unit: 19.633 5.812 6.637 7.184
Costs Accounted for as follows:
Transfer to finished goods:
21,000 x 19.633
412,291 122,050 139,380 150,859
Closing work in Process: 51,109 23,248 10,619 17,242
Total Costs Accounted for: 463,400 145,300 149,999 168,101
461
S T U D Y T E X T
Refining Process A/C
Units
Unit
Cost
Value Units
Unit
cost
Value
Bal b/f (W.I.P) 5,000 185,000 Finished goods 21,000 19.633 412,291
Units added 20,000 Closing W.I.P
Costs added Bal c/f 4,000 12.777 51,109
Raw material - 45,300
Labour 125,000
overheads 108,100
25,000 463,400 25,000 463,400
Question three
Activity based costing is a method of costing products in which an attempt is made to reflect more
accurately the product costs of those activities which influence the level of overheads. An activity
is defined as an event, task, or unit of work with a specified purpose, for example, operating
machines, designing products, setting up machines e.t.c.. An activity can also be defined as a
process or procedure that causes work.
Activity based costing (also called transaction based costing) emphasizes the need to obtain a
better understanding of the behavior of overhead costs, i.e. what causes overhead costs and
how do they relate to products. It recognizes that in the long run, most costs are not fixed, and it
therefore seeks to understand the forces that cause overheads to change over time.
ABC appreciates the fact that overhead costs do not necessarily vary with the level of output
(as is the belief in traditional costing systems), but most overheads vary with the range of items
produced or the complexity of the production process. In ABC, therefore, non-unit related (nonvolume)
bases are used to absorb overheads into products because they capture the complexity
and the diversity of the manufacturing process, such as the relationships between volume, batch
size and order size.
The need for ABC may not be clear in labour-paced high volume environments, because the
costing errors may not be significant. However, the costing errors will be significant in automated
manufacturing processes and in companies that manufacture products in highly varied lot/batch
sizes because they have a high percentage of non-volume related costs.
ABC recognizes that performance of activities triggers the consumption of resources that are
recorded as costs. It assigns costs to the transaction and activities performed in the organization
and allocates them appropriately to the products, according to each products’ use of the activities.
ABC, therefore, traces costs to the activities identified, then assigns the costs to products using
both volume and non-volume related bases.
A common way of applying costs to products in ABC is on the basis of the time the inventory
takes to move through a given work cell. A work cell is a product-oriented center including the
machines and tools necessary to produce a family of products. Other common basis used in
ABC include the number of purchase orders, the number of material handling hours and the
number of set up hours.
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 6 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The ABC System can, therefore, be described as constituting the following stages:
1. Identifying the main activities in the organization: The main organizational activities
such as machine related activities, direct labour related activities as well as auxiliary
activities (such as ordering, receiving, material handling costs e.t.c.) are identified.
2. Cost Pooling: Involves the assigning of costs to cost centers or cost pools. A cost
center is created for each activity e.g. the total costs of all set-ups might constitute one
cost center for all set-up related costs.
3. Identifying the cost drivers: Cost drivers are the factors that cause an activity to occur.
They, therefore, influence the cost of a particular activity. Cost drivers capture the
demand placed on an activity by a product; for example, purchasing department costs
may be driven by the number of purchase orders processed.
4. Absorption of overheads to products: Using the selected cost drivers, the overhead
costs are applied to or absorbed by the products depending on the level of activities that
the product has consumed.
The use of ABC, therefore, requires a change in the way overheads are classified by an
organization. In a traditional costing system, overheads would be changed to products using,
at the most, two absorption bases usually labour hours and machine hours. ABC System, on
the other hand, utilizes many cost drivers to absorb overheads into products. It is, therefore,
claimed, and justly so, that the use of ABC produces a more realistic service or product cost,
especially for service organizations and organizations with high overhead costs.
Question four
a) Reasons why construction companies find it prudent to declare profits of uncompleted
contracts:
• Contract jobs take long duration before they are finished. It would only be just and
fair to report the profit that has accrued on the work done. Investors also need to be
rewarded periodically on their invest, which necessitates the periodic recognition of
accrued profits.
• International Accounting Standards 11 recommends that contracts profits can be
recognized using the percentage of completion method if contract has been substantially
completed.
• It would be an over-extension of prudence to wait until the contract work e.g. for 15
years, is complete to recognize any profit.
463
S T U D Y T E X T
b) Mugoya Construction Company:
i) Contract Account (Shs. ‘000)
Balance b/f: Cost of work done: 158,200
Material on site: 4,500
Plant: 150,000
Material issued from stores: 14,600
Plant hiring charges 250
Material from suppliers: 128,400
Plant purchased: 120,000
Sub-contract fees: 18,450
Consultancy fees: 49,130
Inspection fees: 500
Salaries and wages: 161,550
Head Office expenses: 1,200
Direct Expenses: 2,600
809380
Cost of work done b/d: 485,980.20
Contract profit: 375,019.80
862,000
Balance b/d:
Plant: 236,250
Material: 51,000
Cost of work not certified: 42,000
Material Transferred out: 15,000
Material sold:
19,800
Plant c/d @ 88% of:
(150,000+120,000) 237,600
Material c/d: 51,000
Cost of work done c/d: 485,980
_______
809380
Value of work certified: 820,000
Cost of work not certified c/d: 42,000
862,000
NB: Work certified value = 660,000 + 160,000 = 820,000
ii)
Valuation of work in progress: Shs. ‘000
Costs incurred to 31st December 2000: 485,980.20
Add: Contract profit realized: 376,019.80
862,000
Less: Value of Work certified paid for: (580,000)
282,000
OR:
Cost of work not certified: 42,000
Add: Money Retained: (820,000-580,000): 240,000
282,000
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 6 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
iii) Mara Paradise Limited (Contractee) Shs. ‘000’
Contract a/c: 820,000
______
820,000
Bal b/d: 158,000
Retention a/c: 82,000
(10% × 820,000)
Cash a/c: 580,000
Bal c/d: 158,000
820,000
Question five
(i) Reasons for allocation of joint costs
• Inventory cost and cost of goods sold computation for external financial
statement.
• Inventory cost and cost of goods sold computation for internal financial reporting
such as divisional profitability analysis.
• Cost reimbursement (under contracts) used only when a portion of the separate
products/services is sold or delivered to a single customer.
(4 marks)
(ii) Methods of joint cost allocation
• Physical measure method – allocation on the basis of relative proportions in
physical measure i.e. output in kg/liters, e.t.c. at the split off point.
• Allocation using market selling price data. Methods in this category include:
1. Sales value of split-off point, i.e. on the basis of the relative sales
value (in shillings, dollars, e.t.c.) at the split-off point.
2. Estimated net realizable value (NRV) method – allocates costs on
the basis of the relative estimated net realizable value (expected
final sales value in the ordinary course of business minus expected
separate cost of production and marketing).
3. Constant gross-margin percentage net realizable value – allocates
joint costs so that the overall gross margin, percentage is identical for
each individual product.
(iii) Factors to be considered in selecting an appropriate method:
• Simplicity – the method should be simple to work out especially in the phase of
multiple products and multiple split-offs.
• Availability of meaningful common denominator to compute the weighting
factors for allocation.
• Subsequent management decisions – the method chosen should take into
account any anticipation of subsequent decisions intended by management
for further processing of the joint products.
465
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER TEN
Question one
Production budget
ABC limited
Product A Product B Product C
Units
Sales (see working) 140,000 190,000 420,000
Closing stock ___600 ___570 __1,000
Required units 140,600 190,570 421,000
Less available units (opening stock) 720 540 1,800
Good Units produced (90,80,95% of total) 139,880 190,030 419,200
Total production =
% of good units
Good units
=155422.2 =237537.5 =441263.2
Units produced =155423 =237538 =441263
Working for sales and explanations
To obtain the sales (units), we calculate the price first from the information given. We add the
margin element to the cost per unit to get the price per unit.
The profit is calculated as a % of the selling price. Therefore, it means that the cost constitutes
the difference between the selling price and the profit, which is, given as a percentage, (100
– Margin).
To calculate price, you divide the cost per unit by the difference calculated
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER TEN
(Budgetary Planning and Control)
QUESTION ONE
Production budget
ABC limited
Product A Product B Product C
Units
Sales (see working) 140,000 190,000 420,000
Closing stock ___600 ___570 __1,000
Required units 140,600 190,570 421,000
Less available units (opening stock) 720 540 1,800
Good Units produced (90,80,95% of
total) 139,880 190,030 419,200
Total production=
% of good units
Good units
=155422.2 =237537.5 =441263.2
Units produced =155423 =237538 =441263
Working for sales and explanations
To obtain the sales (units), we calculate the price first from the information given. We
add the margin element to the cost per unit to get the price per unit.
The profit is calculated as a % of the selling price. Therefore, it means that the cost
constitutes the difference between the selling price and the profit, which is, given as a
percentage, (100 – Margin).
To calculate price, you divide the cost per unit by the difference calculated
Product A Product B Product C
Units
Sales revenue 4,200,000 3,800,000 10,080,000
Margin 20% 25% 16 3
2
Difference 80% 75% 83 3
1
Selling price of products
(1 - Margin)
Cost per unit
80%
24
75%
15
83 %
20
3
1
=Shs30 =Shs20 =Shs24
Units sold out=
Selling price
Sales
Shs30
4200,000
Shs20
3800,000
Shs24
10,080,000
= 140,000 = 190,000 = 420,000
4 6 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Question two
Thorne Co
(a) Cash budget
January February March April
Receipts Shs Shs Shs Shs
Cash fees 18,000 27,000 45,000 54,000
Credit fees 36,000 36,000 54,000 90,000
Sale of assets 20,000
––––––– ––––––– ––––––– ––––––––
Total receipts 54,000 63,000 99,000 164,000
––––––– ––––––– ––––––– ––––––––
Payments
Salaries 26,250 26,250 26,250 26,250
Bonus 6,300 12,600
Expenses 9,000 13,500 22,500 27,000
Fixed overheads 4,300 4,300 4,300 4,300
Taxation 95,800
Interest 3,000
––––––– ––––––– ––––––– ––––––––
Total payments 39,550 44,050 62,350 165,950
––––––– ––––––– ––––––– ––––––––
Net cash flow 14,450 18,950 36,650 (1,950)
Opening balance (40,000) (25,550) (6,600) 30,050
––––––– ––––––– ––––––– ––––––––
Closing balance (25,550) (6,600) 30,050 28,100
––––––– ––––––– ––––––– ––––––––
Workings
Month December January February March April
Units sold 10 10 15 25 30
Sales value (Shs000) 1,800 1,800 2,700 4,500 5,400
Cash fees at 1% (Shs) 18,000 18,000 27,000 45,000 54,000
Credit fees at 2% (Shs) 36,000 36,000 54,000 90,000 108,000
Variable costs at 0·5% (Shs) 9,000 13,500 22,500 27,000
Monthly salary cost = (35,000 x 9)/12 = Shs26,250
Bonus for March = (25 – 20) x 140 x 9 = Shs6,300
Bonus for April = (30 – 20) x 140 x 9 = Shs12,600
(b) The number of properties sold each month indicates that Thorne Co experiences
seasonal trends in its business. There is an indication that property sales are at a low
level in winter and increase as spring approaches. A proportion of any cash surplus
is, therefore, likely to be short-term in nature, since some cash will be required when
sales are at a low level. Even though net cash flow is forecast to be positive in January,
the month with the lowest level of property sales, the negative opening cash balance
indicates that there may be months prior to December when sales are even lower.
Short-term cash surpluses should be invested with no risk of capital loss. This limitation
means that appropriate investments include treasury bills, short-dated gilts, public
authority bonds, certificates of deposit and bank deposits. When choosing between these
instruments Thorne Co will consider the length of time the surplus is available for, the
467
S T U D Y T E X T
size of the surplus (some instruments have minimum investment levels), the yield offered,
the risk associated with each instrument, and any penalties for early withdrawal. A small
company like Thorne Co, with an annual turnover slightly in excess of Shs.1m per year,
is likely to find bank deposits the most convenient method for investing short-term cash
surpluses.
Since the company appears to generate a cash surplus of approximately Shs250,000 per
year, the company must also consider how to invest this longer-term surplus. As a new
company Thorne Co is likely to want to invest surplus funds in expanding its business,
but as a small company, it is likely to find few sources of funds other than bank debt
and retained earnings. There is, therefore, a need to guard against capital loss when
investing cash that is intended to fund expansion at a later date. As the retail property
market is highly competitive, investment opportunities must be selected with care and
retained earnings must be invested on a short-to medium-term basis until an appropriate
investment opportunity can be found.
(c) In two of the four months of the cash budget, Thorne Co has a cash deficit, with
the highest cash deficit being the opening balance of Shs.40,000. This cash deficit,
which has occurred even though the company has a loan of Shs.200,000, is likely
to be financed by an overdraft. An advantage of an overdraft is that it is a flexible
source of finance, since it can be used as and when required, provided that the
overdraft limit is not exceeded. In addition, Thorne Co will only have to pay interest
on the amount of the overdraft facility used, with the interest being charged at
a variable rate linked to bank base rate. In contrast, interest is paid on the full
Shs.200,000 of the company’s bank loan whether the money is used or not. The
interest rate on the overdraft is likely to be lower than that on long-term debt.
A disadvantage of an overdraft is that it is repayable on demand, although in practice
notice is given of the intention to withdraw the facility. The interest payment may also
increase, since the company is exposed to the risk of an interest rates increase. Banks
usually ask for some form of security, such as a floating charge on the company’s
assets or a personal guarantee from a company’s owners, in order to reduce the risk
associated with their lending.
Question three
Acred Ltd: Production budget for 6 months to end of December 2004
July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Sales (units) 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000
Stock increase (units) 200 200 ,200 200 200 nil
––––– ––––– –––––– ––––– ––––– –––––
Production (units) 10,200 11,200 12,200 13,200 14,200 15,000
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 6 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Acred Ltd: Cash Budget for 6 months to end of December 2004
Receipts July August September October November December
Cash sales (£) 30,000 33,000 36,000 39,000 42,000 45,000
Credit sales (£) 90,000 90,000 99,000 108,000 117,000 126,000
–––––– –––––– –––––– –––––– –––––– ––––––
Total receipts 120,000 123,000 135,000 147,000 159,000 171,000
Payments
Materials 48,480 51,360 56,160 60,960 65,760 70,080
Labour 18,360 20,160 21,960 23,760 25,560 27,000
Direct expenses 12,240 13,440 14,640 15,840 17,040 18,000
Fixed overheads 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000 22,000
Advertising 1 95,000
Interest – – 1 30,000 – – –
–––––– –––––– –––––– –––––– ––––– –––––––
Total payments 101,080 201,960 144,760 122,560 130,360 137,080
Opening balance 50,000 168,920 (10,040) (19,800) 4,640 33,280
Net cash in/out 18,920 (78,960) (9,760) 24,440 28,640 33,920
–––––– –––––– –––––– –––––– –––––– ––––––
Closing balance 68,920 (10,040) (19,800) 4,640 33,280 67,200
–––––– ––––– –––––––– ––––– –––––– ––––––
Workings:
Sales budget for 6 months to end of December 2004
July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Sales (units) 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000
Sales price (£) 12 12 12 12 12 12
Sales revenue 120,000 132,000 144,000 156,000 168,000 180,000
Calculation of sales receipts
July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Sales revenue 120,000 132,000 144,000 156,000 168,000 180,000
Cash sales (25%) (£) 30,000 33,000 36,000 39,000 42,000 45,000
Credit sales (75%) (£) 90,000 99,000 108,000 117,000 126,000 135,000
Calculation of material purchases:
June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
Production of stock (units) 10,000 10,200 11,200 12,200 13,200 14,200 15,000
Materials required for production (kg) 20,000 20,400 22,400 24,400 26,400 28,400 30,000
Materials required for production (£) 48,000 48,960 53,760 58,560 63,360 68,160 72,000
Materials received (previous month) (£) 2 4,000 24,480 26,880 29,280 31,680 34,080
**Closing stock of materials (£) 24,480 26,880 29,280 31,680 34,080 36,000
––––– ––––––– ––––– –––––– ––––– ––––––
Total purchases in month (£) 48,480 51,360 56,160 60,960 65,760 70,080
––––– –––––– ––––– ––––– ––––– –––––
Payable in: July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec
**Stocks of materials at the end of each month are required to be 50% of the materials required
for the following month’s production.
Calculation of labour cost: production units x £1·80 per unit
Calculation of direct expenses: production units x £1·20 per unit
Calculation of cash fixed overheads: 34,000 – 12,000 = £22,000 per month
Depreciation is excluded as a non-cash item.
469
S T U D Y T E X T
(B)
A periodic budget is one that is drawn up for a full budget period such as one year. A new budget
will not be introduced until the start of the next budget period, although the existing budget may
be revised if circumstances deviate markedly from those assumed during the budget preparation
period.
A continuous or rolling budget is one that is revised at regular intervals by adding a new budget
period to the full budget as each budget period expires. A budget for one year, for example, could
have a new quarter added to it as each quarter expires.
In this way, the budget will continue to look one year forward. Cash budgets are often prepared
on a continuous basis. The advantages of periodic budgeting are that it involves less time, money
and effort than continuous budgeting. For example, frequent revisions of standards could be
avoided and the budget-setting process would require managerial attention only on an annual
basis.
A major advantage of continuous budgeting is that the budget remains both relevant and up to
date. As it takes account of significant changes in economic activity and other key elements of the
organization’s environment, it will be a realistic budget and hence is likely to be more motivating
to responsible staff. Another major advantage is that there will always be a budget available that
shows the expected financial performance for several future budget periods.
It has been suggested that if a periodic budget is updated whenever significant change is
expected, a continuous budget would not be necessary. Continuous budgeting could be used
where regular change is expected, or where forward planning and control are essential, such as
in a cash budget.
Question four
(a)
CASH BUDGET FOR 3 MONTHS TO 31 MARCH 2006
January February March
Shs. Shs. Shs.
Cash balance b/f 8,400 -492,500 -555,500
Receipts:
Sales: Cash 100,000 150,000 145,000
Debtors 375,000 255,000 300,000
Loan 2,500,000
Sale of machinery 250,000
Total cash available 483,400 162,500 2,389,500
Payments:
Purchases 480,000 464,000 464,000
Accrued expenses 20,000
Staff wages
4
3
45,000 60,000 55,500
15,000 15,000 20,000
Sales commission 3,400 4,000 6,000
Overhead expenses
165,000 175,000 175,000
Machinery 1,200,000
Rent 240,000
Taxes 3,500
Proposed dividends 4,000
Total payments 975,900 718,000 1,920,500
Cash balance c/f -492,500 -555,500 469,000
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4
1
4 7 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(b) BUDGETED PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT FOR THE PERIOD TO 31 MARCH 2006
Shs. Shs.
Sales 1,580,000
Less cost of goods sold
Opening stock 320,000
Purchases 1,408,000
1,728,000
Less: closing stock 464,000 1,264,000
Gross profit 316,000
Expenses:
Rent 240,000
Overheads (including depreciation) 590,000
Staff wages 214,000
Sales commission 15,800 1,059,800
Net loss (743,800)
Retained profits b/d 452,900
Loss c/f (290,900)
(c) BUDGETED BALANCE SHEET AS AT 31 MARCH 2006
Cost Depreciation Net Book Value
Shs. Shs. Shs.
Fixed assets 2,950,000 275,000 2,675,000
Current assets:
Inventory 464,000
Trade Debtors 885,000
Cash and bank balances 469,000
1,818,000
Current liabilities
Trade creditors 28,000
Accrued expenses 5,900 33900 1,784,100
4,459,100
Financed by:
Ordinary share capital 1,000,000
Share premium 500,000
Retained profits (290,900)
Long term liabilities
Loans 3,250,000
4,459,100
471
S T U D Y T E X T
Workings:
Accrued expenses =15,000 – 3,400 + 5,800 + 18,500 = 5,900 (8 marks)
(20,000 prepayments were made in January)
Question five
PRODUCTS
A
Sh.
B
Sh.
Material 1
Material 2
Direct labour L1
L2
Production overheads @ 1.60
Selling and distribution 20%
Profit margin 25%
Selling price per unit
100.0
80.0
180.0
240.0
240.0
660.0
32.0
692.0
138.4
830.4
207.6
1,038.0
40.0
120.0
160.0
300.0
100.0
560.0
24.0
584.0
116.8
700.8
175.2
876.0
Units to be sold:
A B
13,494,000
1,038
13,000
18,816,000
876
21,479
Opening stock finished goods in units:
A B
1,730,000
692
2,500
1,176,000
584
2,014
Closing stock finished goods in units:
A B
1,038,000
692
1,500
1,568,000
584
2,685
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 7 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Ideal Products Ltd.
Production budget in units
A B TOTAL
Sales in units
Closing stock
Less: Opening stock
Production in units
13,000
1,500
14,500
(2,500)
12,000
21,479
2,685
24,164
(2,014)
22,150
34,479
4,185
38,664
(4,514)
34,150
(b) Direct materials cost budget:
M1
Sh.
M2
Sh.
Totals
Sh.
Product A
Product B
Total
1,200,000
886,000
2,086,000
960,000
2,658,000
3,618,000
2,160,000
3,544,000
5,704,000
(c) Purchases budget:
M1
Shs.
M2
Shs.
Totals
Shs.
Material cost
Closing stock
Opening stock
Material purchases in Shs.
Material purchases in Kg.
2,086,000
360,000
2,446,000
(640,000)
1,806,000
180,600
3,618,000
800,000
4,418,000
(600,000)
3,818,000
190,900
5,704,000
1,160,000
6,864,000
(1,240,000)
5,624,000
381,800
(d) Direct labour cost budget:
LI
Shs.
L2
Shs.
Totals
Shs.
Product A
Product B
2,880,000
6,645,000
9,525,000
2,880,00
2,215,000
5,095,000
5,760,000
8,860,000
14,620,000
(b)
Material usage budget
Prodn. A:12000 units
B: 22151 units
Cost per unit
MI
X10kg = 120,000kg
X4kg = 88,604kg
208,604kg
X Sh.10
Shs. 2,086,040
M2
X4kg = 48,000kg
X6kg = 132,906kg
180,906kg
X Sh. 20
Shs.3,618,120
473
S T U D Y T E X T
CHAPTER ELEVEN
Solutions to part (a) – (d) are clearly discussed in the book.
b) State advantages of using standards costs in the manufacturing industry
c) It is an effective cost control tool as it compares expected performance with actual
performance and it takes action on the basis of the variances for controlling costs.
d) It aids in planning i.e. it instills in management a habit of thinking in advance
e) It helps in fixing of selling prices and formulating of policies since standard costs are
used
f) It facilitates delegation of authority i.e. responsibilities are assigned and performance
evaluation will be based on the set responsibilities.
g) Valuations of stocks is simplified i.e. stocks are valued at a standard cost irrespective
of their actual production cost.
h) It helps in motivation as after performance evaluation, employees with favorable
variances will be rewarded.
i) It helps eliminate waste as only enough will be provided in the standards.
j) It helps instill an attitude in employees of cost control since they have a guide.
k) It is economical and simple as it results in cost savings through cost control, reduction
in paper work.
Suggested solution to (f)
(a) Standard costing is a method that uses predetermined measurements of assessing the
value of cost elements. It is used in providing bases for performance measurement, control
and exception reporting.
Budgetary control is the planning and controlling of the budget process to ensure that the
budgetary objectives are met. This involves setting up the various budgets for the period
and comparing the actual results with the plans.
Budgetary control is the planning and controlling of the budget process to ensure that the
budgetary objections are met. This involves setting up the various budgets for the period
and comparing the actual results with the plans.
Standard costing and budgetary control differ in the following ways:
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 7 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(i) Standard costing considers the value of individual components of costs while budgetary
control looks at the total revenue and costs.
(ii) Standard costs are normally incorporated in the ledger account whereas budgets are
memorandum records.
(iii) Standard costs can be used as regular or routine production process but budgetary
costs is used in all the costs of the organization.
(CPA 05/06)
Revision Questions Xii
(Variances)
Question one
Whitaker plc
Flexed Actual Variance
Budget Budget
Sales 292,500 325,000 32,500(F)
Cost of sales
Direct Materials 55,000 65,000 10,000 (A)
Direct labour 99,000 100,000 1,000(A)
Prime cost 154,000 165,000
Fixed Overheads 88,000 95,000 7,000(A)
Total production cost 242,000 260,000
Less closing stock (27,500) (29,545)
Cost of sales 214,500 230,455
Net profit _78,000 _94,545
Actual prices may change following a change in the market conditions that cause a general price
increase or decrease for the type of materials used. Thus the company may end up paying more
or less than the standard price
§ Inferior quality materials, which are less expensive, may be bought thus translating to a
favorable material price variance. Buying of substitute materials due to unavailability of
the planned ones may translate to favorable or unfavorable material price variance
§ A shortage in materials which calls for an urgent purchase at short notice may increase
the purchase costs where the company may be required to airlift the materials or pay for
other costs associated with that order. This will translate to unfavorable material price
variance.
§ Quantity discounts lost or gained by buying in smaller or larger quantities than planned
also translate to a material price variance.
§ Careless handling of materials by production personnel or working with untrained
workers who are poorly supervised OR extremely high quality labour than expected.
§ Inferior quality materials thus requiring more input than budgeted OR higher quality
materials than budgeted that reduces the quantity of material input below the
budgeted.
§ Faulty or inefficient machinery OR efficient machinery.
§ Theft and pilferage.
Changes in methods of production and quality control, greater or lower rate of scrap than
anticipated.
475
S T U D Y T E X T
Question two
T-mo plc manufacturers
Variance
(a) Direct material Shs. Shs.
Actual quantity at actual price 417,900
2,100 F
Standard quantity for actual production at standard price 420,000
Direct labour
Actual hours at actual rate 949,620
4,620 A
Standard hours for actual production at standard rate 945,000
Variable production overheads
Actual expenditure 565,740
1,260 F
Standard cost of actual production 567,000
Variance
(b) Actual hours at actual rate 949,620
Rate 12,495 A
Actual hours at standard rate 937,125
Efficiency 7,875 F
Standard hours for actual production at standard rate 945,000
(c) Rate:
– Higher graded workers paid at a higher rate.
– Higher than expected wage settlement for the company
Efficiency:
– The higher graded workers being more skilled took less than the standard time.
– Highly motivated workers
Question three
Mwaniki limited
(a) Sales price variance: Shs.
Actual sales at standard selling price (34,000 x Shs..22) 748,000
Actual sales at actual selling price 731,000
––––––––
Sales price variance 17,000 A
––––––––
Sales volume contribution variance
Budgeted sales (units) 32,000
Actual sales (units) 34,000
––––––––
Volume variance (units) 2,000 F
At standard contribution per unit Shs(22 – 9) x Shs13
Sales volume contribution variance Shs26,000 F
–––––––
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 7 6 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
(b) The actual selling price (Shs21·50) was lower than the standard selling price (Shs22·00)
– hence the adverse sales price variance. This reduction in price may have directly
encouraged customers to buy more units. The company sold 2,000 more units than
planned giving the favorable sales volume contribution variance of Shs26,000. Thus the
two variances may be interrelated and if so the variances should be considered together
– one partially offsetting the other.
(c) Shs.
Budgeted contribution (32,000 x Shs.13) 416,000
Less: Budgeted profit (marginal costing) (200,000)
–––––––––
Budgeted fixed costs 216,000
Less: Budgeted non-production fixed costs (1,152,000 ÷ 12) (96,000)
–––––––––
Budgeted fixed production costs 120,000
–––––––––
Standard fixed production cost per unit (Shs120,000 ÷ 30,000) Shs4
Calculation of absorption costing profit: Shs
Marginal costing profit 200,000
Less: Decrease in stocks at standard fixed production
cost per unit [(32,000 – 30,000) x Shs.4] (8,000)
–––––––––
Absorption costing profit 192,000
–––––––––
Alternatively: Shs
Budgeted absorption costing manufacturing profit
32,000 x (13 – 4) 288,000
Less: budgeted non-production fixed costs (96,000)
–––––––––
Absorption costing profit 192,000
–––––––––
Question four
Wakuthiis’ company
477
S T U D Y T E X T
Question five
Woodeezer
(a) Operating statement
Shs
Budgeted profit (4,000 x Shs.28) 112,000
Sales Volume Profit Variance (3,200 – 4,000) Shs.28 (22,400) A
––––––––
Standard profit on actual sales 89,600
Selling Price Variance (220 – 225) 3,200 16,000 F
––––––––
105,600
Cost variances
Fav Adv
Material Usage [(3,600 x 25) ÷ 80,000] Shs.3·2 32,000
Material Price (3·2 – 3.5) 80,000 24,000
Labour efficiency [(4 x 3,600) ÷ 16,000)] Shs.8 12,800
Labor rate (8 – 7) 16,000 16,000
Var O/H eff [(4 x 3,600) – 16,000)] Shs.4 6,400
Var O/H exp (Shs.4 x 16,000) – 60,000 4,000
Fixed O/H exp (256,000 – 196,000) 60,000
Fixed O/H eff [(4 x 3,600) – 16,000)] Shs.16 25,600
Fixed O/H capacity [16,000 – (4 x 4,000)] Shs.16 nil
–––––– ––––––
112,000 68,800 43,200
–––––– ––––– –––––
Actual profit 148,800
––––––
(B)
Motivation and budget setting
Absorption costing profit has increased by Shs.53,600 from Shs.95,200 (28 × 3,400) to
Shs.148,800.
It would appear that in the past, an expectations budget has been set whereby the target output
was set at the level that employees were expected to achieve.
Mr Beech appears to have considered the evidence that suggests that the best budget for
motivating employees to maximize achievement (in this case output) is one which is difficult
but credible (an aspirations budget). In maximizing actual performance, however, it is normally
expected that production will fall short of the budget target. This means that there is an expectation
of adverse planning variances.
Explanations of Variances
The sales volume variance and the sales price variance may be inter-related as an increase in
price is likely to reduce demand, thus an adverse SVV is consistent with a favorable SPV given
the price increase. Better quality materials are being purchased by Mr Beech and, given this was
not foreseen at the time of the budget, then it may explain a higher price resulting in an adverse
MPV. Conversely, however, with better materials, there may be less waste and thus it may have
contributed to the favorable MUV.
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
4 7 8 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
The lower skilled labour may account for the favorable LRV but may also account for the adverse
LEV as less skilled labour may take longer to complete a given task. Also, if new labour is introduced
there may be an initial learning effect. The impact of the LEV is magnified by the variable and
fixed overhead efficiency variances as they are merely linear functions of the LEV. Their meaning
is questionable, however, as variable overheads seldom vary proportionately to labour hours. By
definition fixed overheads do not vary with labour hours and this variance merely ‘balances the
books’ in an absorption costing system.
The fixed overhead expenditure variance is significant and requires further consideration. This
is particularly the case if it involves discretionary expenditure which has been reduced but which
may have a long-term impact on the business.
(C)
Marginal cost statement (this could be in summarized form by candidates)
£
Budgeted contribution (4,000 x £92) 368,000
SVV (3,200 – 4,000) £92 (73,600) A
––––––––
Standard contribution on actual sales 294,400
SPV (220 – 225) 3,200 16,000 F
––––––––
310,400
Cost variances
Fav Adv
MUV [(3,600 x 25) ÷ 80,000] £3·2 32,000
MPV (3·2 – 3·5) 80,000 24,000
LEV [(4 x 3,600) – 16,000)] £8 12,800
LRV (8 – 7) 16,000 16,000
Var O/H eff [(4 x 3,600) – 16,000)] £4 6,400
Var O/H exp (£4 x 16,000) – 60,000 4,000
–––––––– ––––––––
52,000 43,200 8,800
––––––––
Actual contribution 319,200
Fixed overheads
Budgeted 256,000
Expenditure variance 60,000
––––––––
(196,000)
––––––––
Actual profit 123,200
––––––––
Reconciliation
Absorption costing profit 148,800
Fixed costs in stock [400 x £64]
(stock is now restated to variable cost) (25,600)
––––––––
Variable costing profit 123,200
––––––––
Thus some of the ‘success’ of Mr Beech in increasing profit arises from the fact that fixed
overheads of £25,600 are not being written off in the current month but are being carried forward
479
S T U D Y T E X T
as part of closing stock, notwithstanding that they are period costs and are thus sunk. Unless
sales can be increased this position is unsustainable.
Nevertheless, some improvement has been made as the previous contribution was, taking the
budget as the historic norm, £312,800 [3,400 x (£220 – 128)], which is lower than the £319,200
achieved by Mr Beech. The difference is, however, much lower than would be implied by the
absorption costing statement.
CHAPTER THIRTEEN
Question one
Benefits of JIT inventory system
The benefits include lower inventory level, emphasis on strict quality control by all parties, faster
market response, smaller manufacturing facilities and lower set up costs.
1. Set up times are significantly reduced in the factory. Cutting down the set up time to
be more productive will allow the company to improve their bottom line to look more
efficient and focus time spent on other areas that may need improvement. This allows
the reduction or elimination of the inventory held to cover the “changeover” time.
2. The flows of goods from warehouse to shelves are improved. Having employees
focused on specific areas of the system will allow them to process goods faster instead
of having them vulnerable to fatigue from doing too many jobs at once and simplifies
the tasks at hand. Small or individual piece lot sizes reduce lot delay inventories which
simplifies inventory flow and its management.
3. Employees who possess multiple skills are utilized more efficiently. Having employees
trained to work on different parts of the inventory cycle system will allow companies to
use workers in situations where they are needed when there is a shortage of workers
and a high demand for a particular product.
4. Better consistency of scheduling and consistency of employee work hours. If there is
no demand for a product at the time, workers don’t have to be working. This can save
the company money by not having to pay workers for a job not completed or could have
them focus on other jobs around the warehouse that would not necessarily be done on
a normal day.
5. Increased emphasis on supplier relationships. No company wants a break in their
inventory system that would create a shortage of supplies while not having inventory sit
on shelves. Having a trusting supplier relationship means that you can rely on goods
being there when you need them in order to satisfy the company and keep the company
name in good standing with the public.
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
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6. Supplies continue around the clock keeping workers productive and businesses focused
on turnover. Having management focused on meeting deadlines will make employees
work hard to meet the company goals to see benefits in terms of job satisfaction,
promotion or even higher pay.
Question two
a) Advantages of advanced manufacturing technology
- Development of new and advanced materials for product or process development
- The beneficiation of existing raw materials
- Coordinated effort in research and development concerning fundamental or applied
research in a laboratory, field, or research facility in order to create longer term
opportunities.
Question three
Advantages of automating time and attendance data collection
• Hours spent on processing time and attendance reconciliation are reduced to minutes.
• Start and stop times, breaks, and time off are automatically calculated minimizing the
chance of human error.
• Employee productivity increases as a result of accurate and indisputable timekeeping.
• Time and job information are recalled for immediate reporting or gathered into meaningful
formats and used for long term planning.
• Measuring efficiency, down time, productivity and cost control is simplified. All the
attendance and job information you need is available at the touch of a key.
• Cost controls are in place when manpower is utilized more effectively.
• Projected labor costs can easily be formulated by using historical data that has been
captured. Excellent report formats are available.
• Budget information can be compiled from various reports and accurate planning is
simplified.
Quotas for performance and production standards are established through reports tracking labor
management. Job standards and actual labor is compared
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S T U D Y T E X T
Question four
Conditions to be met for advanced manufacturing to be applied.
One or more of the following conditions must be met.
1. Make-To-Order (as distinct from make-to-stock) manufacturing
2. capital-intensive production processes, where plant capacity is constrained
3. products ‘competing’ for plant capacity: where many different products are produced in
each facility
4. products that require a large number of components or manufacturing tasks
5. production necessitates frequent schedule changes which cannot be predicted before
the event
ANSWERS TO EXAM & REVIEW QUESTIONS
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REFERENCES
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REFERENCES
(a) Cost and management accounting by Colin Drury
(b) ACCA study materials
(c) Internet resources
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GLOSSARY
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GLOSSARY
Absorption costing: process by which overheads are absorbed into production. It is also known
as full costing.
Activity base: a measure of effort, such as production and sales, that operates as a causal
factor in the incurrence of variable cost. Also called cost driver.
Administrative costs: Is the sum of costs associated with the overall management of the
enterprise which cannot be readily identified with one of the major functional areas.
Break-even point: this is the level of activity at which the firms incurs neither a profit nor a
loss.
Budget committee: a group of key management persons who are responsible for the overall
policy matters relating to the budget program and for coordinating the preparation of the budget
itself.
Budget variance: The difference between the actual amount and the budgeted amount
Budget: is a detailed plan outlining the acquisition and use of financial and other resources
over some period of time in the future. Budgets may be prepared for departments, functions or
financial and resource items.
Budgeting: refers to the process of quantifying the plans of an organization so as to enable it
achieve its objectives in the defined period. The result of the process is budgets
Byproduct: A product that emerges with other products in a common process. However, this
product does not have a significant value. (If it had significant value, it would be a joint product.)
Cash budget: a detailed plan showing how cash resources will be acquired and used over some
specific period of time
Coefficient of determination: In regression analysis this is a statistic (designated as r-squared)
indicating the percentage of the change occurring in the dependent variable that is explained by
the change in the independent variable(s). The percent change does not necessarily mean there
is a cause-and-effect relationship
Contribution margin: the amount remaining from sales revenues after variable expenses
4 9 0 COST ACCOUNTING
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Control: those steps taken by management to ensure that the objectives set down at the planning
stage are attained and to ensure that all parts of the organization function in a manner consistent
with organizational policies.
Conversion cost: constitute direct labour cost combined with manufacturing overhead cost.
Cost of goods manufactured: the materials labour and overheads that have gone into the
products manufactured during the period.
Cost volume profit analysis: an analysis useful to managers in profit projection and decision
making. Analyses how costs, and profit change with change in output (level of activity
Cost-volume-profit graph: the relationship between revenues, costs and level of activity in an
organization, presented in form of a graph.
Curvilinear costs: the economists’ expression of the relationship between cost and activity of
an organization.
Distribution costs: these are costs associated with warehousing the products and their delivery
to customers.
Equivalent unit of production: the number of units that would have been produced during the
period if all of a department’s efforts had resorted into completed units of a product.
FIFO method: a method of accounting for cost flows in a process costing system in which
equivalent units and unit cost relate only to work done during the current period.
Finance costs: These are costs incurred to secure funds to finance the organization’s
activities.
Finished goods: goods that are completed as to manufacturing but not yet sold to customers
Fixed cost: a cost that remains constant, in total regardless of the changes in levels of output
or activity.
High-low method: a method of separating a mixed cost into fixed and variable elements in
analyzing the change in activity and cost between the high and the low points of a group of
observed data.
491
S T U D Y T E X T
Incremental cost: this is also called the differential cost. It is the increase in cost between two
alternatives.
Independent variable: a variable that acts as the controlling factor in a situation
Indirect cost: this cost is not directly traceable to a specific product. It must be allocated in order
to be assigned to a unit of product.
Indirect labour: the factory labour cost that cannot be traced directly to the creation of the
products in a ‘hands on’ sense.
Indirect materials: these are materials that may become an integral part of a finished product
and can only be traced into the product only at great expense or inconvenience.
Least squares method: a method of separating mixed costs into its fixed and variable
components.
Manufacturing overhead: these are all costs associated with the manufacturing process except
direct costs and direct labor.
Margin of safety: This is the excess of sales over the break-even volume in sales. It states the
extent to which sales can drop before losses begin top be incurred in a firm.
Marginal cost: cost of a unit of a product or service which would be avoided if that unit or service
was not produced or provided. It represents the additional cost of producing an extra unit of
output.
Multiple regression analysis: an analytical method required in those situations where more
than one causal factor is involved in the behavior of a variable cost.
Opportunity cost: can be defined as the cost of the next best foregone alternative or the potential
benefit that is lost by taking one course of action and giving up the other.
Participative budget: budget prepared using the bottom up approach; where the managers set
the standards themselves.
Period costs: these are costs mainly incurred in the ordinary running of the business enterprise.
They are expensed in the period they are incurred.
GLOSSARY
4 9 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
Planning: the development of objectives in an organization and the preparation of various
budgets to achieve those objectives
Prime Cost: a term used to describe direct material cost combined with direct labour cost.
Process costing: a costing method used in those industries that produce homogenous products
on a continuous basis.
Production report: a report that summarizes all activities in a department’s work in progress
account during a period and that contains three sections: a quantity schedule, a computation of
equivalent units and unit cost and a cost reconciliation.
Regression line: a line fitted to an array of plotted points; may also be referred to as line of best
fit
Relevant range: the range of activity within which assumptions relative to variable and fixed
costs behavior are valid
Research and development Costs: These are costs that are incurred to invent new products
or to modify the existing ones, as well as costs incurred to acquire more information on such
products.
Selling Costs: this is the sum of costs associated with the securing of orders from customers.
Standard cost: yardstick that measures how well the organization has achieved its set
objectives.
Sunk costs: these are costs which have already been incurred. They cannot be changed by any
decision made after incurrence.
Transferred in cost: the amount of cost attached to units of a product that have been received
from a prior processing department.
Variable cost: A cost that varies, in total, in direct proportion to changes in the level of activity. A
variable cost is constant per unit.
Variance: this is the difference between the expected (standard) output or level of performance
and the actual output or level of performance
493
S T U D Y T E X T
Weighted average method: a method of accounting for cost flows in a process costing system
in which units in the beginning work in progress inventory are treated as if they were started and
completed during the current period.
Work in progress (process): goods that are partially completed as to manufacturing at the
beginning or end of a period and that will need further work before being ready for sale to a
customer.
Zero base budget; a method of budgeting in which managers are required to start at zero
budget levels every year and to justify all costs as if the programs involved were being initiated
for the first time.
GLOSSARY
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INDEX
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INDEX
A
ABC System. See Pareto analysis
Abnormal gains: 296
Abnormal loss: 287
Abnormal Spoilage. See Abnomal loss
Absorption Costing: 135, 196
Account Analysis. See Inspection
Activity based budgeting: 341
Activity Based Costing: 151
Administration Costs Budget: 329
algebraic approach: 137
Allocation: 136
Annual budgets: 333
Anticipation inventory: 69
Apportionment: 136
Appreciation inventory: 69
Architects certificate: 273, 308
Attainable standards: 364
B
Basic salary or wages: 105
Basic Standards: 364
Batch Costing: 269
Bonus payments: 111
Break Even: 227, 229
Budgetary control: 323
Budgeting: 7, 318, 322, 323, 326, 344, 435
Budgeting process: 321
Budget committee: 323
Budget manual: 324
Buffer inventories: 69
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By-product: 303
C
Capacity ratio: 390
Capital expenditure Budget: 329
Carrying cost.: 74
Cash budget: 329
Class A: 86
Class B: 86
Class C: 86
Co-ownership incentive schemes: 117
Coefficient of determination: 56
compromise method: 137
Constant Gross Margin Rate: 299
Continuous budgets: 333
Contract Costing: 272
Contribution: 197
Contribution Margin Ratio (CMR): 219
Correlation: 55
Cost: 5
Cost-Volume-Profit (CVP) Analysis: 212
Cost Accountant: 3, 6
Cost Accounting: 4
Cost accumulation: 62
Cost allocation: 154
Cost Analysis: 4, 6
Cost benefit approach: 6
Cost center: 7
Cost Center Framework: 16
cost comparison Approach: 83
Cost driver: 151
Cost estimation: 44, 56
Cost object. See Cost unit,See Cost unit
Cost of Work certified: 273, 308
499
S T U D Y T E X T
Cost pool: 151
Cost unit: 3, 6
Current Standards: 365
CVP analysis. See Cost Volume Profit Analysis
D
Decision Making: 150, 232
Differential piece rate: 107
Direct Materials budget: 327
Direct Method: 137
E
EBQ: 80
Economic batch quantity. See EBQ
Economic Order Quantity. See EOQ
Efficiency ratio: 390
Engineering method: 50
EOQ: 75
Equivalent units: 278
F
Financial Accounting: 11
First in First out (FIFO): 88
Fixed budgets: 338
Fixed overheads capacity variance. See Fixed overheads volume variance
Fixed overheads Efficiency variance. See Fixed overheads volume variance
Fixed overheads volume variance. See Fixed overheads variances
Fixed overhead expenditure variance. See Fixed overhead variances
Fixed overhead variances: 388
Fixed rate. See fixed salary
Fixed salary: 105
Flexible budgets: 338
INDEX
5 0 0 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
G
Gearing ratio. See debt ratio
Gearing ratios. See Liquidity ratios
Graduated time rate: 108
Group Bonus plan: 116
H
High - Low method: 46
Holding cost. See Carrying cost
I
Ideal Standards: 364
Idle time: 111
Incremental Budgeting. See Traditional budgeting
Inspection of accounts: 49
Investment ratios. See equity ratios
J
Job Costing: 257
Joint costs: 298
Joint products: 298
Just In Time Inventory System: 422
L
Labour budget: 119, 328
Labour cost: 124
Labour costs: 104
Labour costs Control: 119
Labour Efficiency variance (LEV). See Labour variances
Labour rate variance (LRV). See Labour variances
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S T U D Y T E X T
Labour turnover: 111
Labour variances: 382
Last in first out (LIFO): 89
Location and layout: 87
Loss: 287
M
Management accounting: 10
Marginal Cost: 197
Margin of safety: 222, 223, 225
Master budget: 325
Materials Purchases Budget. See Direct materials budget
Materials Usage Budget. See Direct materials budgetr
Material costs: 67
Material cost control: 70
Material Handling: 87
Material price variance: 395, 400
Material price variance (MPV). See Material variances
Material purchase budget: 336
Material Usage variance (MUV). See Material variances
Material variances: 377
Maximum stock level: 68, 72
Measured day rate: 108
Minimum stock level: 72
Mix variance: 396
Mix Variances: 395
Mix variances: 398
Multiple Price Break Model: 84
N
Net Realizable Value: 301
Normal Loss: 287
Notional Profit: 273, 308
INDEX
5 0 2 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
O
Omission Approach: 288
Opportunity costs: 240
Ordering cost. See procurement cost
Overhead Allocation. See Allocation
Overhead Apportionment. See Apportionment
Overhead variances: 386
Overtime premium: 110
Over Absorption: 146
P
Pareto analysis: 86
Periodic order system: 86
Physical flow of units: 283
Physical Measure/Unit: 299
Physical Units: 283
Piece rate. See piece work
Piece work: 105
Priority based budgeting. See Zero based budgeting
Process Costing: 277
Process Cost Report: 283
Process Losses: 286
procurement costs: 75
Production budget: 160, 326, 335
Product pricing: 150
Profit not taken: 273, 308
Profit Sharing Schemes. See Co-ownership incentive
Program planning budget: 343
Progress payments: 273, 308
Purchase cost: 68, 74
503
S T U D Y T E X T
R
Re-order level: 68, 73
Re-Order quantity: 73
Regression analysis: 52
Relevant costs: 233
Repeated distribution: 137
Replacement costing: 92
Research and Development Cost Budget: 329
Responsibility center: 6, 7
Retention money: 273, 308
Rework: 286
Rolling budgeting: 343
S
Sales budget: 326, 335
Sales margin price variance: 392
Sales margin variance: 392
Sales mixture variance: 393
Scatter Graph: 50
Scrap: 286
Selling and Distribution Cost Budget: 329
Separable cost: 298
Service Cost Centers: 136
Shift premium: 110
Specific Order Costing: 257
Standards Setting: 359
Standard Cost: 92
Standard Costing: 358
Standard Costing: 359, 366
Standard Cost Card: 367
Stock Valuation: 150
Storage of Material. See location and layout
Straight piece rate: 106
INDEX
5 0 4 COST ACCOUNTING
S T U D Y T E X T
T
Time analysis: 109
Time Keeping: 108
Time rate. See time work
Time work: 107
Tinuous Review System: 87
Total Usage Variance: 396
Traditional budgeting: 343
U
Under absorption: 146
Uniform Costing: 304
V
Variable overhead Efficiency variance. See Variable Overheads variances
Variable overhead Expenditure Variance. See Variable overhead variances
Variable overhead variances: 386
Visual fit. See Scatter graph
W
Waste: 286
Weighted average method (WAM): 89
Y
Yield variance: 396, 398
Z
Zero based Budgeting: 342